List of capitals in the United States

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This is a list of current and former national and subnational capital cities in the United States, which includes the legislature or seat of government of all states, territories, colonies, or kingdoms that are or were located in the United States, organized by current U.S. state location.


[edit] National capitals

[edit] United States of America Image:Flag of the United States.svg

Washington, D.C. has been the national capital of the United States since 1800.

From 1774 to 1800, Congress met in numerous locations; as such, the following cities can be said to have once been the United States capital<ref>The Nine Capitals of the United States. United States Senate Historical Office. Accessed June 9, 2005. Based on Fortenbaugh, Robert, The Nine Capitals of the United States, York, PA: Maple Press, 1948.</ref>:

[edit] First Continental Congress

[edit] Second Continental Congress

[edit] Articles of Confederation

[edit] Constitution

[edit] Confederate States of America Image:Conf Navy Jack (light blue).svg

The Confederate States of America had three capitals during its existence.

[edit] Republic of Texas Image:Flag of Texas.svg

Before joining the United States in 1845, Texas was an independent nation known as the Republic of Texas. Seven cities served as its capital:

[edit] Kingdom and Republic of Hawaii Image:Flag of Hawaii.svg

Prior to becoming a territory of the United States in 1898, Hawaii was an independent nation. Two cities served as its capital:

[edit] State capitals and capital cities by state

  • Each of the current state capitals is marked in bold.
  • Territorial capitals (prior to statehood) are marked in italics.
  • The year listed for each city is the starting date; the ending date is the starting date for the successor unless otherwise indicated.
  • Most of the original Thirteen Colonies had their capitals occupied or attacked by the British during the American Revolution, the longest instance being New York City; state governments operated where and as they could. To some extent, this also applies to Southern states in the American Civil War. Neither of these is listed explicitly.
State Capital Date Notes
Alabama<ref>Capitals of Alabama. Alabama Department of Archives and History. Updated October 29, 2001. Accessed June 9, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1819
St. Stephens 1817 Alabama Territory capital
Huntsville 1819 State capital
Cahawba 1820
Tuscaloosa 1826
Montgomery 1846 State capital; Confederate national capital briefly during 1861
Alaska<ref>Frequently Asked Questions About Alaska. Statewide Library Electronic Doorway. Updated September 21, 2004. Accessed June 9, 2005; based on Alaska Blue Book 1993-94, 11th ed., Juneau, Department of Education, Division of State Libraries, Archives & Museums. ExploreNorth: The History of Sitka. Department of Community and Economic Development, Alaska Community Database Online. Accessed June 9, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1959
Sitka 1808 Russian Alaska capital (as New Archangel)
1867 Department of Alaska capital
1900 District of Alaska capitals
Juneau 1906
1959 State capital
Arizona<ref>Capitals before the Capitol. Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records. Accessed June 9, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1912
Prescott 1864 Arizona Territory capitals
Tucson 1867
Prescott 1877
Phoenix 1889
1912 State capital
Arkansas<ref>Educational Materials: Facts. Arkansas Secretary of State. Accessed June 9, 2005. Washington State Park 19th century village in SW Arkansas. Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism, Confederate Capital Old Division of State Parks. 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1836
Arkansas Post 1819 Arkansas Territory capitals
Little Rock 1821
1836 State capital; during 1861-1863, Washington was the Confederate state government capital
California<ref>Ebbert (Chief Editor), Brian S., E. Dotson Wilson, Chief Clerk of the Assembly (2006). California's Legislature. Sacramento, California: Sate of California, pp. 157-165. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.</ref>
Statehood in 1850
Monterey 1777 Alta and Baja California capital under Spanish and Mexican rule
San José 1850 State capitals
Vallejo 1851
Benicia 1853
Sacramento 1854
Colorado<ref>Early Capitol and Legislative Assembly Locations Colorado State Archives, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour. Updated June 20, 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1876
Auraria 1859 Territory of Jefferson capital
Colorado City 1861 Colorado Territory capital, federally unrecognized
Golden 1862 Colorado Territory capitals
Denver 1867
1876 State capital
Statehood in 1776
Hartford 1639 Capitol of Connecticut Colony.
New Haven 1640 Capital of New Haven Colony until that colony's merger into Connecticut Colony in 1662.
Joint Capitals 1701 From 1701 to 1874, New Haven and Hartford were "co-capitals," with the Legislature holding its May session in Hartford and its October session in New Haven.
Hartford 1875 Hartford has been the sole capital since 1875.
Statehood in 1776
New Castle 1704 Delaware colony capital
Dover 1777 State capital
Florida<ref>Florida State History. Florida Division of Historical Resources.</ref>
Statehood in 1845
St. Augustine 1565 Spanish Florida colonial capital
1821 Florida Territory capital; British East Florida capital
Pensacola Florida Territory capital; British West Florida capital
Tallahassee 1824 Florida Territory capital
1845 State capital
Georgia<ref>Jackson, Edwin L. Story of Georgia's Capitols and Capital Cities. Carl Vinson Institute of Government. University of Georgia. 1988</ref>
Statehood in 1776
Savannah 1733 Georgia colony capital
1777 State capitals
Augusta 1779
Heard's Fort 1780
Augusta 1781
Savannah 1782
Ebenezer 1782
Savannah 1784
Augusta 1786
Louisville 1796
Milledgeville 1807
Macon 1864
Milledgeville 1865
Atlanta 1868
Statehood in 1959
Lahaina 1820 Kingdom of Hawaii capital
Honolulu 1845
1894 Republic of Hawaii capital
1898 Hawaii Territory capital
1959 State capital
Idaho<ref>Chronological History of Idaho. Idaho Office of the Governor. Created 2000. Accessed June 9, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1890
Lewiston 1863 Idaho Territory capitals
Boise 1864
1890 State capital
Illinois<ref>Past Capitols; based on Illinois Bluebook, 1975-1976. Created March 5, 2005. Accessed June 10, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1818
Kaskaskia 1809 Illinois Territory capital
Vandalia 1819 State capitals
Springfield 1839
Statehood in 1816
Vincennes 1800 Indiana Territory capitals
Corydon 1813
1816 State capitals
Indianapolis 1825
Iowa<ref>Sabin, Henry. Making of Iowa, chapter 24: Locating a Capital. Originally published 1900 by A. Flanagan Co. of Chicago and New York; published online by Iowa History Project, posted August 25, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1846
Burlington 1837 Wisconsin Territory capital
1838 Iowa Territory capitals
Iowa City 1841
1846 State capitals
Des Moines 1857
Kansas<ref>Harding, Eldon. Stories from the Kansas State Capital: Choosing a Capital City--Why Topeka?. Kansas State Historical Society. April 2001. Accessed June 10, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1861
Pawnee 1855 Kansas Territory capital (July 2-6)
Shawnee Mission 1855 Kansas Territory capital
Lecompton 1856 De jure (pro-slavery) Kansas Territory capital
Topeka De facto capital
Topeka 1861 State capital
Kentucky<ref>Kentucky's State Capitols. Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. Accessed July 24, 2006.</ref>
Statehood in 1792
Danville 1780 Virginia's Kentucky District capital
Bowling Green 1861 Confederate state government capital, November, 1861 to February, 1862
Frankfort 1792 State capital
Statehood in 1812<ref>Note: The Louisiana Capitals information may be incorrect or incomplete. See and elsewhere.</ref>
Mobile Bay 1702 French colonial capitals
Biloxi 1720
New Orleans 1722 French and Spanish colonial capital
1803 Orleans Territory capital
1812 State capitals
Donaldsonville 1830
New Orleans 1831
Baton Rouge 1849
Opelousas 1862
Shreveport 1863
New Orleans 1865
Baton Rouge 1880
Maine<ref>Students Questions Frequently Ask. Maine State Senate. Accessed June 10, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1820
Portland 1820 State capitals de jure
Augusta 1827
Portland 1832 State capital de facto
Augusta 1832 State capital
Maryland<ref>Historical Chronology. Maryland State Archives. Accessed July 24, 2006.</ref>
Statehood in 1776
St. Mary's City 1634 Province of Maryland capital
Annapolis 1694 Province of Maryland capital; previously named Anne Arundel Town
1777 State capital; U.S. national capital (1783 - 1784)
Statehood in 1776
Plymouth 1620 Plymouth was the capital of Plymouth Colony from 1620 to 1691. After 1691, Plymouth Colony was absorbed into Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Boston 1630 Massachusetts Bay Colony capital
1776 State capital
Michigan<ref>Michigan in Brief State of Michigan. Updated March 7, 2005. Accessed June 10, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1837
Detroit 1805 Michigan Territory capital; occupied by British forces 1812 - 1813
1837 State capitals
Lansing 1847
Minnesota<ref>Saint Paul's 150th birthday. City of Saint Paul, Minnesota. Accessed June 9, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1858
Saint Paul 1849 Minnesota Territory capital
1858 State capital
Mississippi<ref>Bunn, Mike and Clay Williams, Capitals and Capitols: The Places and Spaces of Mississippi's Seat of Government. Mississippi History Now. Mississippi Historical Society Online. Posted September 2003. Accessed June 10, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1817
Natchez 1798 Mississippi Territory capitals
Washington 1802
Natchez 1817 State capitals
Jackson 1821
Statehood in 1821
St. Louis 1765 French colonial capital
1804 Missouri Territory capital
Saint Charles 1821 State capital until 1825
Marshall, Texas   Exiled pro-Confederate Missouri government capital
Jefferson City 1826 State capital
Montana<ref>Lambert, Kirby. Montana's crown jewel of architecture: The Montana state capitol Montana: The Magazine of Western History, Montana Historical Society. Summer 2002. Accessed June 10, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1889
Bannack 1864 Montana Territory capital
Virginia City 1865
Helena 1875
1889 State capital
Statehood in 1867
Omaha 1854 Nebraska Territory capital
Lincoln 1867 State capital
Nevada<ref>Rocha, Guy Nevada State Archives Historical Myth a Month: Myth #28, Las Vegas: Nevada's Next State Capital. Updated July 14, 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005; originally published as Sierra Sage, Carson City/Carson Valley, Nevada. May 1998 edition.</ref>
Statehood in 1864
Carson City 1861 Territorial capital
1864 State capital
New Hampshire<ref>New Hampshire Senate Page For Kids. New Hampshire General Court. Accessed June 9, 2005. New Hampshire History in Brief. New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources. Created 1989. Accessed June 9, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1776
Portsmouth 1679 Province of New Hampshire capital
Exeter 1775 Revolutionary War capital
1776 State capitals
Concord 1808
New Jersey
Statehood in 1776
Elizabethtown 1665 Province of New Jersey; now named Elizabeth
Perth Amboy 1673 Capital of the Colony of East Jersey after the colony was split in two.
Burlington 1673 Capital of the Colony of West Jersey after the colony was split in two.
Joint Capitals 1702 East Jersey and West Jersey were re-united as a single colony in 1702. Both towns functioned as the colonial capital during the remainder of the colonial period.
Trenton 1784 State capital; U.S. national capital
New Mexico
Statehood in 1912
San Juan 1598 Provincial capital of New Spain
Santa Fe 1609
1821 Mexican territorial capital
1850 New Mexico Territory capital
1912 State capital
New York
Statehood in 1776
New York 1664 Province of New York under British rule
Kingston 1777 State capitals
Hurley 1777
Poughkeepsie 1777
New York 1788 State capital; U.S. national capital 1785 – 1788, 1789 – 1790
Albany 1797 State capital
North Carolina
Statehood in 1776
New Bern 1712 Colonial capital. (Carolina Colony divided into North and South Carolina in 1712. See South Carolina for period before division.)
1776 State capitals
Raleigh 1794
North Dakota
Statehood in 1889
Yankton 1861 Dakota Territory capital; now part of South Dakota
Bismarck 1883 Dakota Territory capital
1889 State capital
Statehood in 1803
Marietta 1788 Northwest Territory capitals
Chillicothe 1800
1803 State capitals
Zanesville 1810
Chillicothe 1812
Columbus 1816
Statehood in 1907
Tahlequah 1838 Cherokee capital
Tuskahoma 1838 Choctaw capital
Tishomingo 1855 Chickasaw capital
Wewoka 1866 Seminole capital
Okmulgee 1867 Creek capital
Guthrie 1889 Oklahoma Territory capital
Guthrie 1907 State capitals
Oklahoma City 1910
Oregon<ref>Oregon Legislative Assembly History. Oregon State Archives. Accessed July 24, 2006.</ref>
Statehood in 1859
Fort Vancouver 1825 Oregon Country capital de facto
Oregon City 1848 Oregon Territory capitals
Salem 1851
Corvallis 1855
Salem 1855
Salem 1859 State capital
Pennsylvania<ref>The History of Pennsylvania's Capital. Pennsylvania Department of Education. Accessed July 24, 2006.</ref>
Statehood in 1776
Philadelphia 1682 Province of Pennsylvania capital
1776 State capital; U.S. national capital 1776, 1777, 1778-1783, 1790-1800
Lancaster 1799 State capital; U.S. national capital 1777
Harrisburg 1812 State capital
Rhode Island
Statehood in 1776
Five Capitals 1776 From 1776 to 1854, Rhode Island had five capitals: Providence, Newport, East Greenwich, South Kingstown, and Bristol. The state legislature would rotate, meeting in each county seat.
Joint Capitals 1854 The state legislature alternated sessions between Providence and Newport.
Providence 1900 Single state capital
South Carolina
Statehood in 1776
Charlestown 1670 Colonial capital. Capital of Carolina Colony before 1712. After Carolina Colony is divided into North and South Carolina in 1712, Charleston became the capital of the colony of South Carolina.
1776 State capitals
Columbia 1786
South Dakota
Statehood in 1889
Yankton 1861 Dakota Territory capital
Bismarck 1883 Dakota Territory capital; now capital of North Dakota
Pierre 1889 State capital
Tennessee<ref>Capital Cities. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. 2002. Accessed March 12, 2006.</ref>
Statehood in 1796
Rocky Mount 1790 Southwest Territory capital
Knoxville 1791 Southwest Territory capital; formerly White's Fort
1796 State capital
Kingston   State capital for one day in 1807 to fulfill treaty obligations with the Cherokee
Nashville 1812 State capitals
Murfreesboro 1818
Nashville 1826
Statehood in 1845
Los Adaes 1721 Colonial capital; now part of Louisiana
San Antonio de Bexar 1772 Colonial capital; now San Antonio
Saltillo 1824 Coahuila y Tejas capitals
Monclova 1833
Washington 1836 Republic of Texas capital; now Washington-on-the-Brazos
Galveston 1836 Temporary Republic of Texas capitals
Harrisburg 1836
Velasco 1836
Columbia 1836
Houston 1837 Republic of Texas capital
Austin 1839 Republic of Texas capital; named Waterloo until 1839
1845 State capital
Statehood in 1896
Fillmore 1850 Utah Territory capitals
Salt Lake City 1858
1896 State capital
Vermont<ref>Early History of Montpelier, Vermont. Vermont Historical Society. Accessed June 9, 2005; adapted from Esther Munroe Swift, Vermont Place-Names: Footprints of History, 1977, 1996, and Montpelier Heritage Group, Three Walking Tours of Montpelier, Vt., 1991.</ref>
Statehood in 1791
Windsor 1777 Vermont Republic capital
1791 State capitals
Montpelier 1805
Virginia<ref>About Our Capital. Virginia General Assembly. Accessed July 20, 2006.</ref>
Statehood in 1776
Jamestown 1619 Virginia Colony capital
Williamsburg 1699 Virginia Colony capital; originally Middle Plantation
1776 State capital
Richmond 1780 State capital; Confederate capital 1861-5

Washington<ref>The History of Olympia. City of Olympia. Accessed June 9, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1889
Fort Vancouver 1825 Oregon Country capital de facto
Oregon City 1848 Oregon Territory capitals
Salem 1851
Olympia 1853 Washington Territory capital
1889 State capital
West Virginia
Statehood in 1863
Wheeling 1863 State capitals
Charleston 1870
Wheeling 1875
Charleston 1885
Wisconsin<ref>Cravens, Stanley H."Capitals and Capitols in Early Wisconsin". Wisconsin Blue Book, 1983-1984 edition. </ref>
Statehood in 1848
Belmont 1836 Wisconsin Territory capital
Burlington 1837 Wisconsin Territory capital, now part of Iowa
Madison 1838 Wisconsin Territory capital
1848 State capital
Wyoming<ref>Saban, Mary Thompson, Wyoming Sage: Brief History of Wyoming. Updated January 172004. Accessed June 10, 2005.</ref>
Statehood in 1890
Cheyenne 1869 Wyoming Territory capital
1890 State capital

[edit] Footnotes


[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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List of capitals in the United States

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