Learn more about Lancaster, Pennsylvania
|Nickname: "The Red Rose City"|
|Incorporated||March 10, 1818|
|Mayor||Rick Gray (D)|
|- City||19.2 km² (7.4 sq mi)|
|- City (2003)||55,381|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|- Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
Lancaster, the Red Rose City, is a city in the south-central part of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania and is the county seat of Lancaster County. With a population of 55,351,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> it is ranked as the 515th-largest city in the United States. (Lancaster County, with its suburbs, boroughs, and townships, is the 99th largest<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> metropolitan statistical area in the United States, with an estimated population (in 2005) of 490,562.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>)
Locals quickly recognize visitors to Lancaster by the way they pronounce Lancaster. Natives typically pronounce it as LANK-i-stir, rather than LAN-CAS-ter (with the first two syllables more or less equally stressed), as is the common pronunciation for other Lancasters in the US.
- Land was part of the 1681 Penn's Woods Charter of William Penn.
- Lancaster was a planned city, first laid out by James Hamilton in 1734, and chartered as a borough in 1742, but not incorporated as a city until 1818.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
- Named after the English city of Lancaster by native John Wright. Its symbol, the red rose, is from the House of Lancaster. The Lancaster County Prison was built in the 1850s to resemble Lancaster Castle in Lancashire.
- The oldest church in the city is the Trinity Lutheran Church, founded in 1729.
- The Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, built in 1795 was the first long-distance, paved road in the United States. It linked Philadelphia to Lancaster.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
- Lancaster was capital of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1812, when the capital was moved to the more central location of Harrisburg.
- Before the famous Lewis and Clark Expedition began, Meriwether Lewis traveled to Lancaster to work with astronomer Andrew Ellicott and to learn to plot latitude and longitude as part of his training so that he could lead the expedition to the Pacific Ocean.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
- Lancaster was capital of the American colonies on September 27, 1777 when the Continental Congress fled Philadelphia, which had been captured by the British. After meeting one day, they moved still further away, to York.
- On June 28, 1863, a local militia unit set the Columbia-Wrightsville bridge on fire to prevent quickly advancing Confederate troops from entering Lancaster County. This tactic not only forced Robert E. Lee’s Confederates to retreat but to change course, indirectly leading them to the watershed battle at Gettysburg.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The Columbia-Wrightsville bridge used to link Lancaster County to York County
- The Fulton Opera House, finished in October 1852, claims to be the oldest theater to give continuous performances in the United States, although after the owner was arrested for offering burlesque - "exhibiting immoral shows" - in 1920, it was operated as a second-rate movie house, rather than a theatre, for half a century. <ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
- In 1886, Milton S. Hershey founded the Lancaster Caramel Company. In 1900, he sold the Mount Joy, Pennsylvania business for $1 million to American Caramel Company (incorporated in 1898 as a merger of York and Philadelphia confectioners, and used the funds to build the Hershey Chocolate factory by 1905 in nearby Derry Church, his birthplace.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
- Frank W. Woolworth, opened his first "Woolworth 5¢ Store" store on Queen Street on June 21, 1879;<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> an earlier nickel store, called "Great 5c Store" in Utica, New York closed after 3 months. It wasn't until November 6, 1880, that the store became "Woolworth's 5 and 10". The original Lancaster store was replaced by a multistory building with a garden on the roof. Although the last Woolworth dimestore closed in 1998, the company lives on as Foot Locker.
- Lancaster was one of the winning communities for the All-America City award in 2000.
- In 1821, The Germanic custom of having a specially decorated Christmas tree at Christmas time was introduced to America by Pennsylvania Dutch in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. <ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Lancaster is located at 40°2'23" North, 76°18'16" West (40.039860, -76.304366)GR1, and is 368 feet above sea level.
The nearest towns and boroughs are Millersville (4.0 miles), Willow Street (4.8 miles), East Petersburg (5.3 miles), Lititz (7.9 miles), Landisville (8.6 miles), Mountville (8.8 miles), Rothsville (8.9 miles), and Leola (8.9 miles).
Here are the main types of architecture that still dominate the city of Lancaster, with a local example of each.
- Germanic or Colonial, 1710-1770, the house at 125 Howard Avenue .
- Georgian, 1730-1790, Rock Ford Plantation.
- Federal,1790-1835, Jacob Eichholtz House.
- Classical Revival,1840-1860, John Black Mansion.
- Italianate,1850-1895, Reuben Baer Mansion.
- Second Empire,1860-1895, John Ives Hartman Mansion.
- Queen Anne Style architecture,1876-1910, William Zahm Sener Mansion.
- Romanesque Revival architecture,1860-1900, Central Market in Penn Square.
- Beaux-Arts,1880-1930, Hager Building.
- Colonial Revival,1880-1955, the house at 43 North Shippen Street.
- Art Deco,1925-1945, McNinch Building.
The city has a higher percentage of non-whites than the rest of the county. It is a popular home for many Puerto Ricans and other Latinos. In 2000, 24.34% of Lancaster residents were of Puerto Rican ancestry. This was the highest percentage Puerto Rican of any place in Pennsylvania. The city of Lancaster celebrates its Hispanic heritage once every year with the Puerto Rican Festival, which is in its 27th year.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> There is a concentration of Amish farms east of the city and in that area horse-drawn buggies are commonly seen. In addition, the town is stereotypically associated with the Amish, as Lancaster as the highest concentration of Amish, than anywhere in the U.S.
As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 56,348 people, 20,933 households, and 12,162 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,940.0/km² (7,616.5/mi²). There were 23,024 housing units at an average density of 1,201.3/km² (3,112.1/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 61.55% White, 14.09% African American, 0.44% Native American, 2.46% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 17.44% from other races, and 3.94% from two or more races. 30.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 20,933 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.4% were married couples living together, 19.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.9% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.23.
In the city the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 13.9% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 17.7% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,770, and the median income for a family was $34,623. Males had a median income of $27,833 versus $21,862 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,955. 21.2% of the population and 17.9% of families were below the poverty line. 29.2% of those under the age of 18 and 12.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
Lancaster suffers from high unemployment, especially in the southeastern quadrant, in part of Amish residents as many are unlicensed farmers.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>This area, which includes census tracts 8, 9, 15, and 16, had unemployment rates of 10.9%, 10.1%, 3.5%, and 9.0% , respectively, in 1999, when the rest of the county was 4.9%. The Lancaster County Workforce Investment Board sees a persistent problem in underemployment: "People are working but surviving just on the edge of poverty." Outside the city, however, employment has increased 18% by adding 34,900 jobs between the years 1999 and 2002.
Lancaster City has been in the process of recreating itself recently with an explosion of specialty shops, boutiques, bars, clubs, and reinvestment in downtown institutions and locations making it a more desirable place to live.
Since 1999, the Lancaster County Convention Center Authority, Penn Square Partners and the City's Redevelopment Authority have pursued a controversial plan to build a 300-room Marriott Hotel and a 220,000-square-foot taxpayer funded convention venue in and near the space formerly occupied by the Watt & Shand department store, preserving only the building's facade. The project's supporters believe it would promote the revitalization of the city's center. Its opponents, however, feel it poses a significant risk to taxpayers.  This plan also includes the demolition of significant portions of other historic sites, including Thaddeus Stevens' home. 
There are also plans to convert an area of unused polluted industrial grounds, which were once occupied by Armstrong World Industries, into playing fields for Franklin & Marshall College. This action is expected to take up most of the former industrial site. The northeastern corner will be developed with funds from Lancaster General Hospital. The hospital plans to create a mixed-use development which will add several city blocks to Lancaster’s grid. F&M's president, John Fry, has also orchestrated the construction of new dormitories and apartments for Franklin & Marshall students along Harrisburg Pike. The land on which the dorms are currently being constructed has been unused for a number of years and is expected to have both commercial and residential space.
 Public Transportation
The Red Rose Transit Authority (RRTA) provides bus transit to Lancaster City as well as surrounding areas in Lancaster County. RRTA is headquartered in downtown Lancaster.
 Notable residents
- James Buchanan, former President of the United States.
- Charles Demuth, painter.
- Tristan Egolf, author.
- Andrew Ellicott, surveyor, completed layout of Washington, D.C., established surveying baseline for Northwest Territory, and taught surveying to Captain Meriwether Lewis in preparation for the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
- Robert Fulton, statesman, painter, and the creator of the Clermont steamboat.
- Gene Garber, professional baseball player.
- Major General Edward Hand – early patriot
- Tom Herr, former professional baseball player and current manager of the Lancaster Barnstormers.
- Milton Hershey, founder of the The Hershey Company.
- Robert Lutz, former tennis player, was born in Lancaster
- Thomas Mifflin, politician and a signer of the United States Constitution.
- John Parrish, professional baseball player, Baltimore Orioles.
- Major General John F. Reynolds, American Civil War commander.
- Thaddeus Stevens, a Radical Republican congressman and abolitionist.
- Lieutenant General Daniel B. Strickler, veteran of both World Wars and the Korean War; Lieutenant Governor of PA, 1947-1951.
- Bruce Sutter, former professional baseball pitcher, inducted to Baseball's Hall of Fame, 2006.
- Junior Vasquez, famous New York City club DJ and remixer/producer.
- Marianne Wiggins, author, and ex-wife of author Salman Rushdie.
- Kris Wilson, professional football player, Kansas City Chiefs
 Historical Landmarks
|Lancaster Barnstormers||Baseball||Atlantic League of Professional Baseball; South Division||1 (2006)||Clipper Magazine Stadium|
|Roses Rugby Football Club||Rugby union||Mid Atlantic Rugby Football Union; Eastern Pennsylvania Rugby Union||1 (2005)||Lancaster County Racquetball & Health Club|
The city of Lancaster has two professional sports teams, the Lancaster Barnstormers and the Roses Rugby Football Club.
After 44 years without professional baseball, the Barnstormers arrived to fill the void left by the departed Lancaster Red Roses. The Lancaster Barnstormers are named after the "barnstorming" baseball players who played exhibition games in the surrounding county, as well as a reference to the county's many farms. The Barnstormers continue a couple of traditions of the old Red Roses, as their official colors are navy blue, red, and khaki, the same colors used by the Red Roses. More importantly, the Barnstormers will continue the old baseball rivalry between Lancaster and the nearby city of York, when the York Revolution starts their inaugural season in 2007.
The Roses Rugby Football Club is the 2005 champion of the Mid Atlantic Rugby Football Union.
- The first battery-powered watch, the Hamilton Electric 500, was released in 1957 by the Hamilton Watch Company.
- Peeps, those marshmallow chicks covered with yellow sugar sold as an Easter confection, were invented by the Rodda Candy Company of Lancaster in the 1920s. In 1953, Rodda was purchased by Sam Born, the Russian immigrant who invented ice cream "jimmies", and production was moved to Nazareth, Pennsylvania.
 Colleges and universities
- Consolidated School of Business
- Franklin & Marshall College
- Lancaster General Hospital - Lancaster Institute for Health Education
- Lancaster Theological Seminary
- Lancaster Bible College
- Pennsylvania College of Art and Design
- Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology
- La Voz Hispana, the city's Spanish-language edition
- Lancaster Intelligencer Journal, the county's morning edition
- Lancaster New Era, the county's afternoon edition
- Lancaster Voice
- WGAL, the local NBC affiliate serving the Lancaster, York, and Harrisburg area.
- WLYH, the local CW affiliate serving the Lancaster, York, and Harrisburg area.
- WHP, the local CBS affiliate serving the Lancaster, York, and Harrisburg area.
- WHTM, the local ABC affiliate serving the Lancaster, York, and Harrisburg area.
- WITF, the local PBS affiliate serving the Lancaster, York, and Harrisburg area.
- WPMT, the local FOX affiliate serving the Lancaster, York, and Harrisburg area.
 Sites of interest
- Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, a station of the Underground Railroad
- Central Market, a historical farmers' market in Penn Square
- Clipper Magazine Stadium, home of the Lancaster Barnstormers baseball team
- Demuth Museum
- Fulton Opera House
- James Buchanan's Wheatland
- Lancaster Cultural History Museum
- Lancaster Museum of Art
- Leonard & Mildred Rothman Gallery
- Louise Arnold Tanger Arboretum
- North Museum of Natural History and Science
- Park City Center, mall
 Local Businesses
- Armstrong World Industries
- Auntie Anne's
- Herley Industries
- Isaac's Restaurant & Deli
- Kunzler & Company, Inc.
- Lancaster Brewing Company
- Lancaster Laboratories
- R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company
- Y&S Candies
|Capital of the United States of America|
 Additional References
- "Battle over city project moves to courtroom" by Dave Pidgeon, Intelligencer Journal, July 13, 2006, retrieved July 14, 2006
- Amtrak's Web page
 External links
- Maps and aerial photos
bg:Ланкастър (Пенсилвания) es:Lancaster (Pensilvania) fr:Lancaster (Pennsylvanie) pdc:Lengeschder, Pennsilfaani pl:Lancaster (Pensylwania) pt:Lancaster (Pensilvânia) ru:Ланкастер, графский и герцогский титул tr:Lancaster