Kingdom of the Netherlands

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Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
Kingdom of the Netherlands
Image:Flag of the Netherlands.svg Image:Nl-arms.gif
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe (national and royal anthem)
Capital The Hague is the seat of the government (not the capital) 1
Largest city Amsterdam
Official languages Dutch 2
Government Parliamentary democracy
Constitutional monarchy
 - Queen Beatrix
 - Prime Minister of the Netherlands Jan Peter Balkenende
 - Prime Minister of Aruba Nelson O. Oduber
 - Prime Minister of the Netherlands Antilles Emily de Jongh-Elhage
 - present Kingdom established October 4, 1830 
 - Statute for the Kingdom (federacy) October 28, 1954 
 - Total 42,679 km² (134th)
16,478 sq mi 
 - Water (%) 18.41%
 - July 2006 estimate 16,785,088 (58th)
 - Density 393/km² (23rd)
1,019/sq mi
Currency Euro 3 (Netherlands), Aruban florin (Aruba) and Netherlands Antillean gulden (Netherlands Antilles) (€ EUR, AWG and ANG)
Time zone CET and AST (UTC+1 and -4)
 - Summer (DST) CEST and AST (UTC+2 and -4)
Internet TLD .nl, .aw, .an
Calling code +31, +297, +599
1 Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands, Oranjestad is the capital of Aruba and Willemstad is the capital of the Netherlands Antilles
2 Papiamento is an official language in Aruba. In Fryslân the Frisian language is also an official language, and Low Saxon and Limburgish are officially recognised as regional languages
3 Prior to 2001: Dutch guilder (ƒ NLG)

The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) is a federacy established in 1954, currently consisting of three constituent parts: the Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland), Netherlands Antilles (Dutch: Nederlandse Antillen), and Aruba. It is a monarchy with the Queen of the Netherlands as head of state. The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a federal monarchy is constituted in the Statute for the Kingdom of the Netherlands of October 28 1954. From 1830 to 1954, the "Kingdom of the Netherlands" referred to the Netherlands and its colonial possessions.


[edit] History

See also history of the Netherlands.

Before the Statute for the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1954, Surinam, and the Colony of Curaçao and Dependencies were mere colonies of the Netherlands.

In 1954, the colonial relation between the Netherlands, Surinam and the Colony of Curaçao and Dependencies (since then the Netherlands Antilles) came to an end. Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles both obtained the status of a "country" (land) which meant autonomy in internal affairs. The Netherlands surrendered a portion of its sovereignty to the Kingdom of the Netherlands (on matters such as foreign affairs and citizenship). A new (federal) Kingdom of the Netherlands was set up by the statute.

In 1975, Surinam left the Kingdom of the Netherlands and became an independent republic. In 1986, Aruba (until then part of the Netherlands Antilles) obtained the status aparte or status of country and became independent (from the Netherlands Antilles) within the kingdom. Since then The Kingdom of the Netherlands has consisted of three constituent parts; The Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba.

[edit] Constitution

The Kingdom of the Netherlands is constituted by the Statute for the Kingdom of the Netherlands. This document is applicable in every part of the Kingdom.

Each of the three constituent parts has its own constitution: the Constitution of the Netherlands (Grondwet van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), the Constitution of the Netherlands Antilles (Staatsregeling van de Nederlandse Antillen), and the Constitution of Aruba (Staatsregeling van Aruba). Each of the three constituent parts also has its own administration and parliament. Together, they form a federation under a monarch as a single head of state. The institutions on the federal level are mostly institutions of the Netherlands, with or without overseas representation.

[edit] States

  • Aruba is a centralised unitary state with as administration the Monarch (represented by the governor) and the (Aruban) council of ministers together. The people are represented by the Staten of Aruba.

[edit] Future status

The Netherlands States in History

Seventeen Provinces (1477-1555)
United Provinces (1581-1795)
Southern Netherlands (1581-1815)
United States of Belgium (1790)
Batavian Republic (1795-1806)
Kingdom of Holland (1806-1810)
United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815-1830)
Kingdom of the Netherlands (1830-present)
Kingdom of Belgium (1830-present)
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (1815-present)

A joint commission has proposed major reforms for the Netherlands Antilles. On November 28, 2005, an agreement was signed between the Dutch government and the governments of each island that would put into effect the commission's findings by 1 July 2007 <ref name="bzk">Template:Cite web</ref>. Under these reforms, Curaçao and Sint Maarten will form a status aparte (therefore becoming two new countries inside the Kingdom of the Netherlands) <ref name="bzk">Template:Cite web</ref>. Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius will become directly part of the Netherlands as a public body (openbaar lichaam) <ref name="carib">Template:Cite web</ref>, the same thing as special municipalities (bijzondere gemeente) <ref name="rnw">Template:Cite web</ref>. These municipalities will resemble ordinary Dutch municipalities in most ways (they will have a mayor <ref name="rnw">Template:Cite web</ref> , aldermen and a municipal council for example), and will have to introduce most law of the Netherlands; as Dutch law is introduced, current laws of the Netherlands Antilles will still be in force. <ref name="carib">Template:Cite web</ref> There are, however, some derogations for these islands, due to their distance. Social security, for example, will not be on the same level as it is in the Netherlands and the islands are not obliged to introduce the euro. <ref name="rnw">Template:Cite web</ref>

Additionally, the Kingdom government would consist of the government of the Netherlands and one mandated minister per Caribbean country. The special municipalities would be represented in the Kingdom Government by the Netherlands, as they can vote for the Dutch parliament; however at first, citizens in the special municipalities will be able to vote in elections to the Second Chamber of the Dutch Parliament. <ref name="carib">Template:Cite web</ref> New laws will extend voting rights to the First Chamber. <ref name="carib">Template:Cite web</ref> They will also elect MEP's as well. <ref name="rnw">Template:Cite web</ref>

For Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius, The Netherlands has proposed that a study be conducted <ref name="carib">Template:Cite web</ref> on acquiring the status of Outermost Region (OMR), also called Ultra Peripheral Region (UPR). The study would also look into how the islands would fare under UPR. <ref name="carib">Template:Cite web</ref>

[edit] European Union

The Kingdom of the Netherlands is a member of the European Union. However Antilles and Aruba are not considered part of the EU, but rather have the status of OCTs (overseas countries and territories; in Dutch LGO's, landen en gebiedsdelen overzee). Since citizenship is handled by the kingdom, and not distinguished for the three countries, citizens from all three countries are also EU citizens.

[edit] Government

The Netherlands
Image:Coat of arms of the Netherlands.png

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the Netherlands

Other countries • Politics Portal
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The Statute for the Kingdom of the Netherlands decides what is considered to be a kingdom-affair and constitutes organs that execute these affairs.

[edit] Affairs

The affairs of the kingdom include:

  • Defence
  • Foreign affairs
  • Citizenship - There is a common Dutch nationality; sometimes there are discussions about changing the law such that Caribbean citizens staying in the European part can be restricted, or that they can be sent back, e.g. if they are criminal. The Netherlands Antilles and Aruba have always had such restrictions for European-Netherlands citizens.
  • Extradition

[edit] Administration

The King or Queen and the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom (Dutch: Rijksministerraad) together form the administration of the kingdom. The Council of Ministers of the Kingdom constitutes of the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands (Dutch: Ministerraad) completed by two Authorized Ministers (Dutch: Gevolmachtigd minister) from both Islands.

Laws applicable to the whole Kingdom are known as Kingdom Laws (Dutch: Rijkswetten). An example of such a law is the Kingdom Law regarding Dutch citizenship (Dutch: Rijkswet op het Nederlanderschap).

The Dutch King or Queen is the head of state of the kingdom. Because the Dutch King or Queen resides in the Netherlands, two governors are appointed to represent him or her in both Island governments.

[edit] Legislature

The legislature of the kingdom consists of the parliament of the Netherlands and the administration of the kingdom together. Articles 14, 16 and 17 of the Statute give some participation to the parliaments of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba.

[edit] Geography

The highest point is Mount Scenery (862 m) on the small island of Saba, Netherlands Antilles.

[edit] Biology

[edit] References

  • Stegenga, H. Mol, I. Prud'homme van Reine, W.F. and Lokhorst, G.M. 1997. Checklist of the marine algae of the Netherlands. Gorteria Supplement 4 :1 - 57.


[edit] Population, area and currency

component population
(July 2006 est.)
pop. dens.
(per km²)
Aruba 71891 193 372 Aruban Florin
Netherlands 16491461 41526 397 euro
Netherlands Antilles 221736 960 231 Netherlands Antilles Gulden
total 16785088 42679 393

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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