Kingdom of Judah
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Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda Maləkôt, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh Maləkôṯ) (c.930 BCE–586 BCE) was one of the successor states to the "United Monarchy" often known as the Kingdom of Israel.
According to the Hebrew Bible, a Kingdom of Judah first emerged after the death of King Saul, when the tribe of Judah elevated David to rule over them. After the death of Saul's son Ish-bosheth, David also came to rule the other tribes of Israel, creating a united Kingdom of Israel. David's grandson Rehoboam was rejected by ten of the twelve Tribes of Israel during the disruption at Shechem, which reduced the Davidic line to the Kingdom of Judah.
The Kingdom of Judah was named for the tribe of Judah which initially was the only one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel to follow the house of David to found the Southern Kingdom. Soon after, the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah. Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom (Joshua 18:28). While its sibling, the Kingdom of Israel, or Northern Kingdom, fell to the Assyrian Empire in c. 720 BCE, the Kingdom of Judah survived for almost 350 years, until it was conquered in 586 BCE by the Babylonian Empire under Nebuzar-adan, captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard.(2 Kings 25:8-21). This event coincided with the destruction of the First Temple of Jerusalem and with the Babylonian Captivity.
Judah is often referred to as the Southern Kingdom to distinguish it from the Northern Kingdom of Israel.
After the death of the son of King David, King Solomon, the ten northern tribes of the Kingdom of Israel revolted against the Davidic line, refusing to accept Rehoboam son of Solomon and instead chose as king Jeroboam who was not a member of King David's family.
When the disruption took place at Shechem, at first only the tribe of Judah followed the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom (Joshua 18:28), which was called the kingdom of Judah.
The Kingdom of Israel, or Northern Kingdom, existed as an independent state from about 930 BCE until around 720 BCE when it was conquered by the Assyrian Empire. The Jews were exiled completely, becoming known as the The Ten Lost Tribes.
- 727-698 BCE. Reign of king Hezekiah of Judah. He is noted in the Bible for initiating reforms that outlawed, or enforced Jewish laws against, idolatry (in this case, the worship of Ba'alim and/or Asherah, among other traditional Near Eastern divinities).  2 Kings 18-20
- c. 705 BCE Siloam inscription in Old Hebrew alphabet
- 698-642 BCE. Reign of king Manasseh of Judah, sacrificed his son to Molech, 2 Kings 21.
- 642-640 BCE. Reign of king Amon.
These two kings reversed Hezekiah's reforms and officially revived idolatry. According to later rabbinical accounts, Manasseh placed a grotesque, four-faced idol in the Holy of Holies.
- 640-609 BCE. The reign of king Josiah was accompanied by a religious reformation. According to the Bible, while repairs were made on the Temple, a 'Book of the Law' was discovered (possibly the book of Deuteronomy).  See also 1 Kings 13, 2 Kings 22-23 , 2 Chr 34-35
- 586 BCE. Babylon, under king Nebuchadnezzar II, seized Jerusalem. The First Temple was destroyed; the date was the 9th of Av, or Tisha B'Av. 
For the first sixty years, the kings of Judah aimed at re-establishing their authority over the kingdom of the other ten tribes, so that there was a state of perpetual war between them. For the following eighty years, there was no open war between them. For the most part, they were in friendly alliance, co-operating against their common enemies, especially against Damascus. After the destruction of Israel, Judah continued to exist for about a century and a half until its final overthrow in (586 BCE) by Nebuzar-adan, who was captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard (2 Kings 25:8-21), an event which also saw the destruction of the First Temple.
 Babylonian Captivity
In the wake of the conquest by the Babylonian Empire much of the populate of the Kingdom of Judah was dispersed throughout that empire.
 Notable Personalities
 Prophets Active in the Kingdom of Judah
- Amos, born in Judah but prophesied in Israel
- Isaiah, cousin of king Uzziah
 Extent of the Kingdom
Its capital was Jerusalem.
The kingdom maintained a separate existence for three hundred and eighty-nine years. It occupied an area of about 8,900 km² (3,435 square miles).
 The Kings of Judah
|Albright dates||Thiele dates||Galil dates||Common/Biblical Name||Regnal name and style||Notes|
|1000–962||1010–970||David||דוד בן-ישי מלך ישראל|
Daud ben Yeshy, Melekh Ysr’al
|King of a united Israel|
|962–922||970–931||Solomon||שלמה בן-דוד מלך ישראל|
Shelomoh ben Daud, Melekh Ysr’al
|King of a united Israel - Son of David by Bathsheba, his rights of succession were disputed by his older half-brother Adonijah|
|922–915||931–913||931–914||Rehoboam||רחבעם בן-שלמה מלך יהודה|
Rehav’am ben Shlomoh, Melekh Yehudah
|915–913||913–911||914–911||Abijam||אבים בן-רחבעם מלך יהודה |
’Aviyam ben Rehav’am, Melekh Yehudah
|913–873||911–870||911–870||Asa||אסא בן-אבים מלך יהודה |
’Asa ben ’Aviyam, Melekh Yehudah
|873–849||870–848||870–845||Jehoshaphat||יהושפט בן-אסא מלך יהודה |
Yehoshafat ben ’Asa, Melekh Yahudah
|849–842||848–841||851–843||Jehoram||יהורם בן-יהושפט מלך יהודה|
Yehoram ben Yehoshafat, Melekh Yahudah
|842–842||841–841||843–842||Ahaziah||אחזיהו בן-יהורם מלך יהודה |
’Ahazyahu ben Yehoram, Melekh Yehudah
|Killed by Yehu, King of Israel|
|842–837||841–835||842–835||Athaliah||עתליה בת-עמרי מלכת יהודה|
‘Atalyah bat ‘Omri, Malkat Yehudah
|Queen Mother, wife of Jehoram; died in a coup|
|837–800||835–796||842–802||Jehoash||יהואש בן-אחזיהו מלך יהודה |
Yehoash ben ’Ahazyahu, Melekh Yehudah
|Killed by his servants|
|800–783||796–767||805–776||Amaziah||אמציה בן-יהואש מלך יהודה |
’Amatzyah ben Yehoash, Melekh Yehudah
|עזיה בן-אמציה מלך יהודה|
‘Uziyah ben ’Amatzyah, Melekh Yehudah
עזריה בן-אמציה מלך יהודה
‘Azaryah ben ’Amatzyah, Melekh Yehudah
|George Syncellus wrote that the First Olympiad took place in Uzziah's 48th regnal year|
|742–735||740–732||758–742||Jotham||יותם בן-עזיה מלך יהודה |
Yotam ben ‘Uziyah, Melekh Yehudah
|735–715||732–716||742–726||Ahaz||אחז בן-יותם מלך יהודה|
’Ahaz ben Yotam, Melekh Yehudah
|The Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III records he received tribute from Ahaz; compare 2 Kings 16:7-9; Fate unknown|
|715–687||716–687||726–697||Hezekiah||חזקיה בן-אחז מלך יהודה|
Hizqiyah ben ’Ahaz, Melekh Yehudah
|Contemporary with Sennacherib of Assyria, and Merodach-baladan of Babylon (but see note 1, below)|
|687–642||687–643||697–642||Manasseh||מנשה בן-חזקיה מלך יהודה|
Menasheh ben Hizqiyah, Melekh Yehudah
|Mentioned in Assyrian records as a contemporary of Esarhaddon.|
|642–640||643–641||642–640||Amon||אמון בן-מנשה מלך יהודה|
’Amon ben Menasheh, Melekh Yehudah
|640–609||641–609||640–609||Josiah||יאשיהו בן-אמון מלך יהודה|
Yo’shiyahu ben ’Amon, Melekh Yehudah
|Died in battle at Megiddo against Necho II of Egypt.|
|יהואחז בן-יאשיהו מלך יהודה|
Yeho’ahaz ben Yo’shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah
אחז בן-יאשיהו מלך יהודה
’Ahaz ben Yo’shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah
|609–598||609–598||609–598||Jehoiakim||יהויקים בן-יאשיהו מלך יהודה|
Yehoyaqim ben Yo’shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah
|The Battle of Carchemish occurred in the fourth year of his reign (Jeremiah 46:2)|
|יהויכין בן-יהויקים מלך יהודה|
Yehoyakhin ben Yehoyaqim, Melekh Yehudah
יכניהו בן-יהויקים מלך יהודה
Yekhonyahu ben Yehoyaqim, Melekh Yehudah
|Jerusalem was captured by the Babylonians and Jehoiachin deposed on March 16, 597 BC. Called 'Jeconiah' in Jeremiah and Esther|
|597–587||597–586||597–586||Zedekiah||צדקיהו בן-יהויכין מלך יהודה|
Tzidqiyahu ben Yo’shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah
|The last king of Judah. Deposed, blinded and sent into exile; fate unknown. See note 2, below.|
- Hezekiah: contemporary with Sennacherib of Assyria, and Merodach-baladan of Babylon.
- Zedekiah: King during the second rebellion (588–586 BCE). Jerusalem was captured after a lengthy siege, the temple burnt, Zedekiah taken into exile and Judah was reduced to a province. Nebuchadnezzar had left Gedaliah as his governor, who was killed in one last revolt, and the few members of the ruling classes left from the kingdom of Judah took the prophets Jeremiah and Baruch with them as they fled to sanctuary in Egypt.
 From the end of the kingdom to the present
After the end of the ancient kingdom the area passed into foreign rule, apart from brief periods, under the following powers:
- 141–37 BC: The Hasmonean state in Israel established by the Maccabees, since 63 BC under Roman supremacy
- 37 BC–AD 70: Herodian Dynasty ruling Judea under Roman supremacy (37 BC-AD 6, AD 41-44), interchanging with direct Roman rule (6-41, 44-66). This ended in the first Jewish Revolt of 66 - 73, which saw the Temple destroyed in 70.
- AD 70–395: province of Roman Empire first called Judea, after 135 called Palaestina. In 395 the Roman Empire is split into a Western and an Eastern part.
- 395–638: Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire
- 638–1099: Arab Caliphates and subject rulers
- 1187–1260: dominated by the Ayyubides of Egypt
- 1260–1516: dominated by the Mamluks of Egypt
- 1918–1948: British mandate of Palestine under, first, League of Nations, then, successor United Nations; the Emirate of Trans-Jordan was separated from the rest of Palestine in 1922, and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan became independent upon the expiration of the League of Nations Mandate in 1946.
- May 1948 to present: independent State of Israel
 See also
 External links
- The Jewish History Resource Center Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- Complete Bible Genealogy A synchronized chart of the kings of Judah and Israel
|The Biblical and Historical Israelites|
| Children of Israel · Twelve Tribes of Israel · Ten Lost Tribes
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