Kingdom of Judah

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Judea is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel.
Image:Levant 830.png
Map of the southern Levant, c.830s BCE. ██ Kingdom of Judah ██ Kingdom of Israel ██ Philistine city-states ██ Phoenician states ██ Kingdom of Ammon ██ Kingdom of Edom ██ Kingdom of Aram-Damascus ██ Aramean tribes ██ Arubu tribes ██ Nabatu tribes ██ Assyrian Empire ██ Kingdom of Moab

Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda Maləkôt, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh Maləkôṯ) (c.930 BCE586 BCE) was one of the successor states to the "United Monarchy" often known as the Kingdom of Israel.

According to the Hebrew Bible, a Kingdom of Judah first emerged after the death of King Saul, when the tribe of Judah elevated David to rule over them. After the death of Saul's son Ish-bosheth, David also came to rule the other tribes of Israel, creating a united Kingdom of Israel. David's grandson Rehoboam was rejected by ten of the twelve Tribes of Israel during the disruption at Shechem, which reduced the Davidic line to the Kingdom of Judah.

The Kingdom of Judah was named for the tribe of Judah which initially was the only one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel to follow the house of David to found the Southern Kingdom. Soon after, the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah. Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom (Joshua 18:28). While its sibling, the Kingdom of Israel, or Northern Kingdom, fell to the Assyrian Empire in c. 720 BCE, the Kingdom of Judah survived for almost 350 years, until it was conquered in 586 BCE by the Babylonian Empire under Nebuzar-adan, captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard.(2 Kings 25:8-21). This event coincided with the destruction of the First Temple of Jerusalem and with the Babylonian Captivity.

Judah is often referred to as the Southern Kingdom to distinguish it from the Northern Kingdom of Israel.


[edit] History

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The United Monarchy was formed out of the territories of the twelve Hebrew tribes living in the area in and around modern Israel and Palestine. It existed from around 1030 BCE-920 BCE.

After the death of the son of King David, King Solomon, the ten northern tribes of the Kingdom of Israel revolted against the Davidic line, refusing to accept Rehoboam son of Solomon and instead chose as king Jeroboam who was not a member of King David's family.

When the disruption took place at Shechem, at first only the tribe of Judah followed the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom (Joshua 18:28), which was called the kingdom of Judah.

The Kingdom of Israel, or Northern Kingdom, existed as an independent state from about 930 BCE until around 720 BCE when it was conquered by the Assyrian Empire. The Jews were exiled completely, becoming known as the The Ten Lost Tribes.

[edit] Timeline

These two kings reversed Hezekiah's reforms and officially revived idolatry. According to later rabbinical accounts, Manasseh placed a grotesque, four-faced idol in the Holy of Holies.

For the first sixty years, the kings of Judah aimed at re-establishing their authority over the kingdom of the other ten tribes, so that there was a state of perpetual war between them. For the following eighty years, there was no open war between them. For the most part, they were in friendly alliance, co-operating against their common enemies, especially against Damascus. After the destruction of Israel, Judah continued to exist for about a century and a half until its final overthrow in (586 BCE) by Nebuzar-adan, who was captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard (2 Kings 25:8-21), an event which also saw the destruction of the First Temple.

[edit] Babylonian Captivity

Main article: Babylonian Captivity

In the wake of the conquest by the Babylonian Empire much of the populate of the Kingdom of Judah was dispersed throughout that empire.

[edit] Culture

[edit] Notable Personalities

[edit] Prophets Active in the Kingdom of Judah

[edit] Extent of the Kingdom

The Kingdom of Judah was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin, and was named after Judah, son of Jacob (Israel).

Its capital was Jerusalem.

The kingdom maintained a separate existence for three hundred and eighty-nine years. It occupied an area of about 8,900 km² (3,435 square miles).

[edit] The Kings of Judah

For this period, most historians follow the chronology established by William F. Albright, by Edwin R. Thiele, or by Gershon Galil, all of which are shown below. All dates are BCE.

Albright dates Thiele dates Galil dates Common/Biblical Name Regnal name and style Notes
1000962 1010970 David דוד בן-ישי מלך ישראל
Daud ben Yeshy, Melekh Ysr’al
King of a united Israel
962922 970931 Solomon שלמה בן-דוד מלך ישראל
Shelomoh ben Daud, Melekh Ysr’al
King of a united Israel - Son of David by Bathsheba, his rights of succession were disputed by his older half-brother Adonijah
922915 931913 931914 Rehoboam רחבעם בן-שלמה מלך יהודה
Rehav’am ben Shlomoh, Melekh Yehudah
915913 913911 914911 Abijam אבים בן-רחבעם מלך יהודה
’Aviyam ben Rehav’am, Melekh Yehudah
913873 911870 911870 Asa אסא בן-אבים מלך יהודה
’Asa ben ’Aviyam, Melekh Yehudah
873849 870848 870845 Jehoshaphat יהושפט בן-אסא מלך יהודה
Yehoshafat ben ’Asa, Melekh Yahudah
849842 848841 851843 Jehoram יהורם בן-יהושפט מלך יהודה
Yehoram ben Yehoshafat, Melekh Yahudah
842842 841841 843842 Ahaziah אחזיהו בן-יהורם מלך יהודה
’Ahazyahu ben Yehoram, Melekh Yehudah
Killed by Yehu, King of Israel
842837 841835 842835 Athaliah עתליה בת-עמרי מלכת יהודה
‘Atalyah bat ‘Omri, Malkat Yehudah
Queen Mother, wife of Jehoram; died in a coup
837800 835796 842802 Jehoash יהואש בן-אחזיהו מלך יהודה
Yehoash ben ’Ahazyahu, Melekh Yehudah
Killed by his servants
800783 796767 805776 Amaziah אמציה בן-יהואש מלך יהודה
’Amatzyah ben Yehoash, Melekh Yehudah
783742 767740 788736 Uzziah
עזיה בן-אמציה מלך יהודה
‘Uziyah ben ’Amatzyah, Melekh Yehudah
עזריה בן-אמציה מלך יהודה
‘Azaryah ben ’Amatzyah, Melekh Yehudah
George Syncellus wrote that the First Olympiad took place in Uzziah's 48th regnal year
742735 740732 758742 Jotham יותם בן-עזיה מלך יהודה
Yotam ben ‘Uziyah, Melekh Yehudah
735715 732716 742726 Ahaz אחז בן-יותם מלך יהודה
’Ahaz ben Yotam, Melekh Yehudah
The Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III records he received tribute from Ahaz; compare 2 Kings 16:7-9; Fate unknown
715687 716687 726697 Hezekiah חזקיה בן-אחז מלך יהודה
Hizqiyah ben ’Ahaz, Melekh Yehudah
Contemporary with Sennacherib of Assyria, and Merodach-baladan of Babylon (but see note 1, below)
687642 687643 697642 Manasseh מנשה בן-חזקיה מלך יהודה
Menasheh ben Hizqiyah, Melekh Yehudah
Mentioned in Assyrian records as a contemporary of Esarhaddon.
642640 643641 642640 Amon אמון בן-מנשה מלך יהודה
’Amon ben Menasheh, Melekh Yehudah
640609 641609 640609 Josiah יאשיהו בן-אמון מלך יהודה
Yo’shiyahu ben ’Amon, Melekh Yehudah
Died in battle at Megiddo against Necho II of Egypt.
609 609 609 Jehoahaz
יהואחז בן-יאשיהו מלך יהודה
Yeho’ahaz ben Yo’shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah
אחז בן-יאשיהו מלך יהודה
’Ahaz ben Yo’shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah
609598 609598 609598 Jehoiakim יהויקים בן-יאשיהו מלך יהודה
Yehoyaqim ben Yo’shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah
The Battle of Carchemish occurred in the fourth year of his reign (Jeremiah 46:2)
598 598 598597 Jehoiachin
יהויכין בן-יהויקים מלך יהודה
Yehoyakhin ben Yehoyaqim, Melekh Yehudah
יכניהו בן-יהויקים מלך יהודה
Yekhonyahu ben Yehoyaqim, Melekh Yehudah
Jerusalem was captured by the Babylonians and Jehoiachin deposed on March 16, 597 BC. Called 'Jeconiah' in Jeremiah and Esther
597587 597586 597586 Zedekiah צדקיהו בן-יהויכין מלך יהודה
Tzidqiyahu ben Yo’shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah
The last king of Judah. Deposed, blinded and sent into exile; fate unknown. See note 2, below.

[edit] Notes

  1. Hezekiah: contemporary with Sennacherib of Assyria, and Merodach-baladan of Babylon.
  2. Zedekiah: King during the second rebellion (588586 BCE). Jerusalem was captured after a lengthy siege, the temple burnt, Zedekiah taken into exile and Judah was reduced to a province. Nebuchadnezzar had left Gedaliah as his governor, who was killed in one last revolt, and the few members of the ruling classes left from the kingdom of Judah took the prophets Jeremiah and Baruch with them as they fled to sanctuary in Egypt.

[edit] From the end of the kingdom to the present

After the end of the ancient kingdom the area passed into foreign rule, apart from brief periods, under the following powers:

  • 1516–1917: Ottoman Turks, having previously conquered the Byzantine Empire in 1453
  • 1918–1948: British mandate of Palestine under, first, League of Nations, then, successor United Nations; the Emirate of Trans-Jordan was separated from the rest of Palestine in 1922, and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan became independent upon the expiration of the League of Nations Mandate in 1946.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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ca:Judà cs:Judské království de:Juda (Reich) fj:Na Makanitu Vaka-Jiuta fr:Royaume de Juda ko:유다 왕국 hr:Kraljevstvo Juda id:Kerajaan Yehuda he:ממלכת יהודה mi:Kingitanga o Hura nl:Koninkrijk Juda ja:ユダ王国 pt:Reino de Judá ru:Иудейское царство sm:Le Malo o Iuta th:กษัตริย์แห่งยูดาห์ vi:Vương quốc Giu-đa yi:מלכות יהודה zh:猶大王國

Kingdom of Judah

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