Kingdom of Israel

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The Kingdom of Israel Hebrew: מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʼel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʼēl) is one of the successor states to the older United Monarchy (also often called the 'Kingdom of Israel'). It existed from roughly 930s BCE until about 720s BCE. This article follows its history until its final destuction by the Assyrian Empire, and considers the fate of its population and territory following its destruction.

Israel is often referred to as the Northern Kingdom to distinguish it from the Southern Kingdom of Judah.

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[edit] History

[edit] Origins of the United Monarchy

The United Monarchy was formed out of the territories of the twelve Hebrew tribes living in the area in and around modern Israel and Palestine.

[edit] United Monarchy

Main article: United Monarchy

The Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the older Kingdom of Israel, which existed from around 1030 BCE-920 BCE. The other successor state bore the name Kingdom of Judah. However, recent archaeological research questions the existence of the United Monarchy at all, based on a lack of supporting evidence for much of what is written in the Bible. Much of what has been described to be from the 10th century BCE has instead been ascribed to the 9th century BCE, thus removing the United Monarchy from the chronology presented in the Hebrew Bible.

[edit] Divided Monarchy

[edit] Kingdom of Israel

Soon after the death of Solomon, the prophecy of Ahijah (1 Kings 11:31-35) was fulfilled with the division of the kingdom. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2,3).

Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten the burdensome taxation and services that his father had imposed on his subjects (12:4), and the rebellion became complete. The Tribe of Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry, "Every man to his tents, O Israel" (2 Samuel 20:1). Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-18; 2 Chronicles 10), and in 930 BCE-920 BCE, Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem, with the Tribe of Judah and the Tribe of Benjamin remaining faithful to Rehoboam. War continued, with varying success, between the two kingdoms for about sixty years, until Jehoshaphat allied himself with the house of Ahab through marriage. Later, his son and successor Jehoram of Judah married Ahab's daughter Athaliah, cementing the alliance.

c. 850 BCE Mesha Stele records victory of King Mesha of Moab against Omri and Ahab in Old Hebrew alphabet, cf.2 Kings 3

The sons of Ahab were slaughtered by Jehu following his Coup d'état around 840 BCE.

Shechem was the first capital of this kingdom (1 Kings 12:25), afterwards Tirza (14:17). Samaria was subsequently chosen as the capital (16:24), and continued as such until the destruction of the kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5). During the siege of Samaria (lasting for three years) by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser V died and was succeeded by Sargon II of Assyria, who himself records the capture of that city thus: "Samaria I looked at, I captured; 27,280 men who dwelt in it I carried away" (2 Kings 17:6) into Assyria. Thus, around 720 BCE after a duration of two centuries, the kingdom of the nine tribes came to an end.

[edit] Kingdom of Judah

Main article: Kingdom of Judah

The Kingdom of Judah, or Southern Kingdom, existed as an independent state from about 930 BCE until 586 BCE when it was conquered by the Babylonian Empire.

[edit] Post Conquest Developments

[edit] Lost Tribes of Israel

Main article: Lost Tribes of Israel

The inhabitants of the Kingdom of Israel were scattered throughout the East, and are popularly known as the Lost ten tribes of Israel.

"Judah held its ground against Assyria for yet one hundred and twenty-three years, and became the rallying-point of the dispersed of every tribe, and eventually gave its name to the whole race. Those of the people who in the last struggle escaped into the territories of Judah or other neighbouring countries naturally looked to Judah as the head and home of their race. And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria, and swelled that immense population which made Babylonia a second Judah".

After the deportation of the ten tribes, the vacated land was colonized by various eastern tribes, especially Syrians, whom the king of Assyria sent there (Ezra 4:2, 10; 2 Kings 17:24-29).

In 537 BCE, the ruler of the Persian Empire, Cyrus the Great permitted exiled populations within the newly conquered Babylonian Empire to return to their native lands, marking the end of the so-called Babylonian Captivity. Any Israelite exiles retaining their national identity or having joined with their fellow exiles from the Kingdom of Judah, and possessing the will to return to their old territories would have begun returning to the territories of the former Kingdom of Israel at this time.

[edit] Samaritans

Main article: Samaritans

The emergence of the Samaritan people as an ethnic group distinct from Jewish people, with a religion distinct from Judaism yet bearing much in common with it can be traced to the political changes in the area when it was occupied by the Assyrians. The removal of the old ruling structure of the Kingdom of Israel, together with the influx of a foreign population in an area already devastated by foreign conquest lead to the emergence of a new identity distinct from that of the Kingdom of Judah to the south. This population has persisted as a separate ethnic entity through the restoration of an autonomous Jewish nation in the area by Cyrus the Great, and on into the present.

[edit] Culture

[edit] Notable Personalities

[edit] Prophets Active in the Kingdom of Israel

[edit] Extent of the Kingdom

The Kingdom of Israel was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Zebulun, Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, Dan, Manasseh, Ephraim,Simeon, Reuben and Gad, and was named after Israel, son of Isaac.

Its capital was Samaria. [1] [2]

[edit] Royal Houses of Israel

For this period, most historians follow either of the older chronologies established by William F. Albright or Edwin R. Thiele, or the newer chronology of Gershon Galil, all of which are shown below. All dates are BCE.

Albright dates Thiele dates Galil dates Common/Biblical name Regnal Name and style Notes
[edit] The House of Jeroboam
922901 931910 931909 Jeroboam I ירבעם בן-נבט מלך ישראל
Yerav’am ben Nevat, Melekh Yisra’el
901900 910909 909908 Nadab נדב בן-ירבעם מלך ישראל
Nadav ben Yerav’am, Melekh Yisra’el
[edit] The House of Baasha
900877 909886 908885 Baasha בעשא בן-אחיה מלך ישראל
Ba’asha ben Achiyah, Melekh Yisra’el
877876 886885 885884 Elah אלה בן-בעשא מלך ישראל
’Elah ben Ba’asha, Melekh Yisra’el
[edit] The House of Zimri
876 885 884 Zimri זמרי מלך ישראל
Zimri, Melekh Yisra’el
Servant of Elah, ruled for 7 days, committed suicide
[edit] The House of Omri
876869 885874 884873 Omri עמרי מלך ישראל
’Omri, Melekh Yisra’el
Captain of the Hosts. "Khumri" in some foreign records, founder of a new dynasty.
869850 874853 873852 Ahab אחאב בן-עמרי מלך ישראל
Ah’av ben ’Omri, Melekh Yisra’el
Sent troops against the Assyrians in the Battle of Qarqar, 853; killed in siege
850849 853852 852851 Ahaziah אחזיהו בן-אחאב מלך ישראל
’Ahazyahu ben 'Ah’av, Melekh Yisra’el
849842 852841 851842 Joram יורם בן-אחאב מלך ישראל
Yehoram ben ’Ah’av, Melekh Yisra’el
[edit] The House of Jehu
842815 841814 842815 Jehu יהוא בן-נמשי מלך ישראל
Yehu ben Nimshi, Melekh Yisra’el
See Note 1
815801 814798 819804 Jehoahaz יהואחז בן-יהוא מלך ישראל
Yeho’ahaz ben Yehu, Melekh Yisra’el
801786 798782 805790 Jehoash
יואש בן-יואחז מלך ישראל
Yeho’ash ben Yeho’ahaz, Melekh Yisra’el
Jehoash paid tribute to King Adad-nirari III of Assyria (810783).
786746 782753 790750 Jeroboam II ירבעם בן-יואש מלך ישראל
Yerav’am ben Yeho’ash, Melekh Yisra’el
Israel at the height of its power
746 753 750749  Zachariah זכריה בן-ירבעם מלך ישראל
Zekharyah ben Yerav’am, Melekh Yisra’el
[edit] The House of Jabesh
745 752 749 Shallum שלם בן-יבש מלך ישראל
Shallum ben Yavesh, Melekh Yisra’el
[edit] The Last Houses of Israel
745738 752742 749738 Menahem מנחם בן-גדי מלך ישראל
Menahem ben Gadi, Melekh Yisra’el
738737 742740 738736 Pekahiah פקחיה בן-מנחם מלך ישראל
Pekahyah ben Menahem, Melekh Yisra’el
737732 740732 736732 Pekah פקח בן-רמליהו מלך ישראל
Pekah ben Remalyahu, Melekh Yisra’el
732722 732722 732722 Hoshea הושע בן-אלה מלך ישראל
Hoshe’a ben ’Elah, Melekh Yisra’el
Deposed. See Note 2
[edit] Notes

1. Jehu: Considered to be a contemporary of the Assyrian King Shalmaneser III (858824) to whom he paid tribute. This is based on an inscription on The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III showing "Yaua" son of Omri paying tribute, dated to 841 BCE.

2. Hoshea: Paid tribute to the Assyrian King Shalmaneser V (727722 BCE) but rebelled in 725 BCE. Shalmaneser besieged the capital, Samaria, but died shortly before the fall of the city. His brother Sargon II (722705 BCE) completed the siege with success in 722, making Judah the sole remaining Hebrew kingdom. The ten tribes were exiled to other parts of the Assyrian Empire and never heard from again in recorded history. A small group of people fled south to take refuge in Judah.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

ca:Regne d'Israel cs:Izraelské království de:Königreich Israel es:Reino de Israel eo:Izraelo fr:Royaume d'Israël ko:이스라엘 왕국 hr:Kraljevstvo Izrael id:Kerajaan Israel it:Regno di Israele he:ממלכת ישראל mi:Kingitanga o Iharaira fj:Na Matanitu Cokovata ni Isireli nl:Koninkrijk Israël ja:イスラエル王国 no:Kongetiden pt:Reino de Israel ru:Израильское царство sm:Le Malo o Isaraelu fi:Israelin kuningaskunta sv:Israel (kungarike) th:กษัตริย์แห่งอิสราเอล vi:Vương quốc Israel zh:以色列王國

Kingdom of Israel

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