Kingdom of Israel
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The Kingdom of Israel Hebrew: מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʼel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʼēl) is one of the successor states to the older United Monarchy (also often called the 'Kingdom of Israel'). It existed from roughly 930s BCE until about 720s BCE. This article follows its history until its final destuction by the Assyrian Empire, and considers the fate of its population and territory following its destruction.
Israel is often referred to as the Northern Kingdom to distinguish it from the Southern Kingdom of Judah.
 Origins of the United Monarchy
The United Monarchy was formed out of the territories of the twelve Hebrew tribes living in the area in and around modern Israel and Palestine.
 United Monarchy
The Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the older Kingdom of Israel, which existed from around 1030 BCE-920 BCE. The other successor state bore the name Kingdom of Judah. However, recent archaeological research questions the existence of the United Monarchy at all, based on a lack of supporting evidence for much of what is written in the Bible. Much of what has been described to be from the 10th century BCE has instead been ascribed to the 9th century BCE, thus removing the United Monarchy from the chronology presented in the Hebrew Bible.
 Divided Monarchy
 Kingdom of Israel
Soon after the death of Solomon, the prophecy of Ahijah (1 Kings 11:31-35) was fulfilled with the division of the kingdom. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2,3).
Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten the burdensome taxation and services that his father had imposed on his subjects (12:4), and the rebellion became complete. The Tribe of Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry, "Every man to his tents, O Israel" (2 Samuel 20:1). Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-18; 2 Chronicles 10), and in 930 BCE-920 BCE, Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem, with the Tribe of Judah and the Tribe of Benjamin remaining faithful to Rehoboam. War continued, with varying success, between the two kingdoms for about sixty years, until Jehoshaphat allied himself with the house of Ahab through marriage. Later, his son and successor Jehoram of Judah married Ahab's daughter Athaliah, cementing the alliance.
Shechem was the first capital of this kingdom (1 Kings 12:25), afterwards Tirza (14:17). Samaria was subsequently chosen as the capital (16:24), and continued as such until the destruction of the kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5). During the siege of Samaria (lasting for three years) by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser V died and was succeeded by Sargon II of Assyria, who himself records the capture of that city thus: "Samaria I looked at, I captured; 27,280 men who dwelt in it I carried away" (2 Kings 17:6) into Assyria. Thus, around 720 BCE after a duration of two centuries, the kingdom of the nine tribes came to an end.
 Kingdom of Judah
 Post Conquest Developments
 Lost Tribes of Israel
- "Judah held its ground against Assyria for yet one hundred and twenty-three years, and became the rallying-point of the dispersed of every tribe, and eventually gave its name to the whole race. Those of the people who in the last struggle escaped into the territories of Judah or other neighbouring countries naturally looked to Judah as the head and home of their race. And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria, and swelled that immense population which made Babylonia a second Judah".
In 537 BCE, the ruler of the Persian Empire, Cyrus the Great permitted exiled populations within the newly conquered Babylonian Empire to return to their native lands, marking the end of the so-called Babylonian Captivity. Any Israelite exiles retaining their national identity or having joined with their fellow exiles from the Kingdom of Judah, and possessing the will to return to their old territories would have begun returning to the territories of the former Kingdom of Israel at this time.
The emergence of the Samaritan people as an ethnic group distinct from Jewish people, with a religion distinct from Judaism yet bearing much in common with it can be traced to the political changes in the area when it was occupied by the Assyrians. The removal of the old ruling structure of the Kingdom of Israel, together with the influx of a foreign population in an area already devastated by foreign conquest lead to the emergence of a new identity distinct from that of the Kingdom of Judah to the south. This population has persisted as a separate ethnic entity through the restoration of an autonomous Jewish nation in the area by Cyrus the Great, and on into the present.
 Notable Personalities
 Prophets Active in the Kingdom of Israel
- Elijah, opponent of religious reforms under Ahab and Jezebel
- Elisha, chosen successor of Elijah
 Extent of the Kingdom
The Kingdom of Israel was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Zebulun, Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, Dan, Manasseh, Ephraim,Simeon, Reuben and Gad, and was named after Israel, son of Isaac.
 Royal Houses of Israel
For this period, most historians follow either of the older chronologies established by William F. Albright or Edwin R. Thiele, or the newer chronology of Gershon Galil, all of which are shown below. All dates are BCE.
|Albright dates||Thiele dates||Galil dates||Common/Biblical name||Regnal Name and style||Notes|
|922–901||931–910||931–909||Jeroboam I||ירבעם בן-נבט מלך ישראל|
Yerav’am ben Nevat, Melekh Yisra’el
|901–900||910–909||909–908||Nadab||נדב בן-ירבעם מלך ישראל|
Nadav ben Yerav’am, Melekh Yisra’el
|900–877||909–886||908–885||Baasha||בעשא בן-אחיה מלך ישראל|
Ba’asha ben Achiyah, Melekh Yisra’el
|877–876||886–885||885–884||Elah||אלה בן-בעשא מלך ישראל|
’Elah ben Ba’asha, Melekh Yisra’el
|876||885||884||Zimri||זמרי מלך ישראל|
Zimri, Melekh Yisra’el
|Servant of Elah, ruled for 7 days, committed suicide|
|876–869||885–874||884–873||Omri||עמרי מלך ישראל|
’Omri, Melekh Yisra’el
|Captain of the Hosts. "Khumri" in some foreign records, founder of a new dynasty.|
|869–850||874–853||873–852||Ahab||אחאב בן-עמרי מלך ישראל|
Ah’av ben ’Omri, Melekh Yisra’el
|Sent troops against the Assyrians in the Battle of Qarqar, 853; killed in siege|
|850–849||853–852||852–851||Ahaziah||אחזיהו בן-אחאב מלך ישראל|
’Ahazyahu ben 'Ah’av, Melekh Yisra’el
|849–842||852–841||851–842||Joram||יורם בן-אחאב מלך ישראל|
Yehoram ben ’Ah’av, Melekh Yisra’el
|842–815||841–814||842–815||Jehu||יהוא בן-נמשי מלך ישראל|
Yehu ben Nimshi, Melekh Yisra’el
|See Note 1|
|815–801||814–798||819–804||Jehoahaz||יהואחז בן-יהוא מלך ישראל|
Yeho’ahaz ben Yehu, Melekh Yisra’el
|יואש בן-יואחז מלך ישראל|
Yeho’ash ben Yeho’ahaz, Melekh Yisra’el
|Jehoash paid tribute to King Adad-nirari III of Assyria (810–783).|
|786–746||782–753||790–750||Jeroboam II||ירבעם בן-יואש מלך ישראל|
Yerav’am ben Yeho’ash, Melekh Yisra’el
|Israel at the height of its power|
|746||753||750–749||Zachariah||זכריה בן-ירבעם מלך ישראל|
Zekharyah ben Yerav’am, Melekh Yisra’el
|745||752||749||Shallum||שלם בן-יבש מלך ישראל|
Shallum ben Yavesh, Melekh Yisra’el
|745–738||752–742||749–738||Menahem||מנחם בן-גדי מלך ישראל|
Menahem ben Gadi, Melekh Yisra’el
|738–737||742–740||738–736||Pekahiah||פקחיה בן-מנחם מלך ישראל|
Pekahyah ben Menahem, Melekh Yisra’el
|737–732||740–732||736–732||Pekah||פקח בן-רמליהו מלך ישראל|
Pekah ben Remalyahu, Melekh Yisra’el
|732–722||732–722||732–722||Hoshea||הושע בן-אלה מלך ישראל|
Hoshe’a ben ’Elah, Melekh Yisra’el
|Deposed. See Note 2|
1. Jehu: Considered to be a contemporary of the Assyrian King Shalmaneser III (858–824) to whom he paid tribute. This is based on an inscription on The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III showing "Yaua" son of Omri paying tribute, dated to 841 BCE.
2. Hoshea: Paid tribute to the Assyrian King Shalmaneser V (727–722 BCE) but rebelled in 725 BCE. Shalmaneser besieged the capital, Samaria, but died shortly before the fall of the city. His brother Sargon II (722–705 BCE) completed the siege with success in 722, making Judah the sole remaining Hebrew kingdom. The ten tribes were exiled to other parts of the Assyrian Empire and never heard from again in recorded history. A small group of people fled south to take refuge in Judah.
 See also
 External links
- Biblical History The Jewish History Resource Center - Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- Complete Bible Genealogy A synchronized chart of the kings of Israel and Judahzh-min-nan:Í-sek-lia̍t Ông-kok
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