Kanab ambersnail

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iKanab ambersnail
Image:Kanab Ambersnail.jpg
A Kanab ambersnail at Vaseys Paradise in Grand Canyon National Park.
Conservation status
Image:Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically endangered (CR)<ref>Roth, B (1996). Oxyloma kanabense. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 26 November2006.</ref>


Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Order: Pulmonata
Family: Succineidae
Genus: Oxyloma
Species: O. haydeni
Subspecies: O. h. kanabensis
Trinomial name
Oxyloma haydeni kanabensis
(Pilsbry, 1948)<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Image:Amber snails-habitat.png
Habitat of Kanab ambersnail (marked in orange)

The Kanab ambersnail (Oxyloma haydeni kanabensis) is a critically endangered subspecies of snail restricted to wetlands, springs, and seeps.<ref name=gf.state.az.us>Template:Cite web</ref> Only two natural habitats of the snail are known to exist, both located in the United States: Three Lakes, a meadow near Kanab, Utah, and Vaseys Paradise, a spring along the Colorado River within Grand Canyon National Park.<ref name=gf.state.az.us /> In addition to its natural populations, the Kanab ambersnail has been introduced to three springs above the historic high water level along the Colorado River. The family of land snails gets its common name, amber snail, from the snails' characteristic orange colored shell.<ref name="USParks"/>

The snail was first collected in 1909 by James Ferriss. He placed them in the Succinea genus. Their current trinomial description and placement as a subspecies comes from Henry Augustus Pilsbry's work of 1948, but this is based solely on shell similarities, and some have suggested that the Kanab ambersnail should be re-classified as a separate species.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

The Kanab ambersnail was proposed for emergency listing in 1991, and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has listed the Kanab ambersnail as endangered since 1992. The Kanab ambersnail is evaluated as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. In Utah, their habitat is threatened by commercial development by Brandt Child, a private landowner,<ref>Randall Fitzgerald, Mugged by the State: Outrageous Government Assaults on Ordinary People and their Property, Regnery Publishing, Inc. (2003) ISBN 0895261022</ref> whereas the Grand Canyon population is threatened by discharges from the Glen Canyon Dam which can sweep snails and their habitat downstream. Their natural predators are passerines and deer mice.<ref>USFWS. 1995. Kanab Ambersnail (Oxyloma haydeni kanabensis) recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, Colorado. 21 pp.[1]</ref><ref>Stevens, L.E., V.J. Meretsky, D.M. Kubly, J.C. Nagy, C. Nelson, J.R. Petterson, F.R. Protiva, and J.A. Sorensen. 1997b. The impacts of an experimental flood from Glen Canyon Dam on the endangered Kanab Ambersnail at Vaseys Paradise, Grand Canyon, Arizona: Final Report. Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, Flagstaff.[2]</ref>

Image:Nps KanabAmbersnail.jpg
An Ambersnail crawls across a hand, next to a U.S. dime (18 mm / 0.7 in diameter).

The Kanab ambersnail is typically found on host plants, primarily the scarlet monkeyflower and watercress,<ref name=colo>Template:Cite journal</ref> but also sedges and rushes. It feeds on plant tissue, fungi, algae, and bacteria, using its radula to scrape off food.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

[edit] Population and habitat

Only two populations of the snail are known to exist,<ref name="USParks">Template:Cite web</ref> specifically, Three Lakes near Kanab, Utah, and a few springs in the southwest of Grand Canyon National Park, including Vaseys Paradise.<ref name="MillerStudy">Miller, Mark P.; Stevens, Larry P.; Busch, Joseph D.; Sorensen, Jeff A.; Keim, Paul. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and mitochondrial sequence data detect genetic differentiation in endangered southwestern U.S.A. ambersnails (Oxyloma epp.)</ref><ref name=colo/> The latter was not discovered until 1991 when a survey of mollusks in the area was conducted.<ref name=bor>Brown, Steve; Cherlow, Jay R (2004). Bureau Of Reclamation: An Assessment of the Environmental Impact Statement on the Operations of the Glen Canyon Dam. DIANE Publishing, 77-8. ISBN 0788140574.</ref> There was formerly a third population present in Kanab, Utah, but it is believed to have become extirpated through the destruction of its habitat.<ref>Clarke, A.H. 1991. Status survey of selected land and freshwater gastropods in Utah.</ref>

In 1996, 16% of the Ambersnail's habitat at Vaseys Paradise was destroyed in a flood, and a more disastrous previous flood in 1994 had probably already threatened the snail's habitat.<ref name="MillerStudy" /> The suitable area for habitat in Three Lakes is believed to extend to an area 1.3 km long, and 90 m wide, and genetic diversity seems to indicate that the area is more stable than Vaseys Paradise. However their redistribution is also affected by the presence of their host plants and rock ledges.<ref name=bor />

[edit] References

<references />

[edit] Further reading

fr:Oxyloma haydeni kanabensis

vi:Ốc hổ phách Kanab

Kanab ambersnail

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