John Seigenthaler, Sr.

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Press photo of Seigenthaler

John Lawrence Seigenthaler (IPA pronunciation: [ˈsigɛnˌθɔlɚ]; born July 27, 1927) is an American journalist, writer, and political figure.

Seigenthaler joined The Tennessean in 1949 and became editor in 1962, publisher in 1973, and chairman in 1982 before retiring as chairman emeritus in 1991. Seigenthaler was also founding editorial director of USA Today from 1982 to 1991. During this period he served on the board of directors for the American Society of Newspaper Editors and from 1988 to 1989 was its president.

While covering a story in the mid-1950s, Seigenthaler met singer Dolores Watson. Giving up dreams of a musical career, Watson married Seigenthaler in 1955, and later gave birth to the couple's only child, John Seigenthaler, Jr., currently an anchor with NBC News. The elder Seigenthaler's brother, Thomas Seigenthaler, was the founder of Seigenthaler Public Relations.


[edit] Early years

Born in Nashville, Tennessee, Seigenthaler is the oldest of eight siblings. He attended Father Ryan High School and served in the U.S. Air Force from 1946 to 1949. After leaving the service, Seigenthaler was hired at The Tennessean as a reporter after his uncle encouraged an editor about his talent.<ref name="early">"Seigenthaler Named Nieman Fellow", The Tennessean, June 5, 1958.</ref> Those skills weren't immediately evident after he was lectured by an editor about his first article, but he was able to establish himself on the staff among heavy competition that included future standout journalists David Halberstam and Tom Wicker.

While working at The Tennessean, Seigenthaler took courses in sociology and literature at Peabody College, now part of Vanderbilt University. He also attended the American Press Institute for Reporters at Columbia University.<ref name="early"/>

[edit] Beginnings as a reporter

Image:Young seigenthaler.jpg
Seigenthaler began working as a staff reporter at The Tennessean in 1949.

Seigenthaler began his career in journalism as a police beat reporter in The Tennessean city room.<ref name="mentor">Ritter, Frank. "A Model and Mentor: Seigenthaler Leaves Mark at Newspapers Nationwide", The Tennessean, December 6, 1991.</ref> He first gained prominence in November 1953 when he tracked down the former Thomas C. Buntin and his wife. The bizarre case involved the son of a wealthy Nashville business owner who had disappeared in September 1931, followed six weeks later by the disappearance of his secretary. Seigenthaler was sent to Texas by The Tennessean after reports surfaced that Buntin (now known as Thomas D. Palmer) was living somewhere in the Lone Star state. After a series of dead-ends, Seigenthaler struck pay dirt in Orange, Texas, where he saw an elderly man step off a bus. Noting the man's distinctive left ear, Seigenthaler followed him home. After three further days of investigation, he went back to the home, where he confirmed the identities of Buntin/Palmer, his wife, the former Betty McCuddy, and their six children.<ref name="couple">"Visitors in Limbo", Time Magazine, December 7, 1953.</ref> Seigenthaler won a National Headliner Award for the story.<ref name="mentor"/>

Less than a year later, on October 5, 1954, Seigenthaler once again made national news for his efforts in saving a suicidal man from jumping off the Shelby Street Bridge in Nashville. Gene Bradford Williams had called The Tennessean saying he would jump and for the newspaper to "send a reporter and photographer if you want a story." After talking to Williams at the bridge for 40 minutes, Seigenthaler watched the man begin to attempt his 100-foot plunge off the bridge railing. Grabbing hold of his collar, Seigenthaler and police saved the man from falling into the Cumberland River. Williams muttered "I'll never forgive you" to Seigenthaler.<ref name="bridge">"Reporter Balks Man's Suicide From Bridge", Los Angeles Times, October 6, 1954, p. 6.</ref>

In July 1957, Seigenthaler began a battle to eliminate corruption within the local branch of the Teamsters, noting the criminal backgrounds of key employees, along with the uses of intimidation in keeping news of certain union activities quiet. During this period, he contacted Dave Beck and Jimmy Hoffa, both top Teamsters officials, but the two men ignored Seigenthaler's queries. His series of articles resulted in the impeachment of Chattanooga Criminal Court Judge Ralston Schoolfield.<ref name="fightingtennessean">"The Fighting Tennessean", Time Magazine, September 14, 1962.</ref>

Seigenthaler took a one-year sabbatical from The Tennessean in 1958 to participate in Harvard University's prestigious Nieman Fellowship program.<ref name="early"/> Upon returning to The Tennessean, Seigenthaler became an assistant city editor and special assignment reporter.<ref name="mentor"/>

[edit] Association with Robert F. Kennedy

Frustrated by the leadership of Tennessean publisher Silliman Evans, Jr., Seigenthaler resigned in 1960 to serve as an administrative assistant to incoming Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy. On April 21, 1961, Seigenthaler was the only other Justice Department figure to witness a meeting between Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr.

During the Freedom Rides of 1961, Seigenthaler was sent to be chief negotiator for the government, in its attempts to work with Alabama Governor John Malcolm Patterson. After several days of refusing to return calls, Patterson finally agreed to protect the Riders, but their state trooper escort disappeared as soon as they arrived in Montgomery on May 20, 1961, leaving them unprotected before the waiting white mob.<ref name="gitlin">Gitlin, Todd (1987). The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-05233-0.</ref>

Seigenthaler was a block away when he rushed to help Susan Wilbur,<ref name="wilbur">"Aide Hurt in Riots Returns to Capital", United Press International, May 22, 1961.</ref> a Freedom Rider who was being chased by the angry mob. Seigenthaler shoved her into his car and shouted "Get back! I'm with the Federal government"<ref> "American Experience: RFK" transcript accessed November 27, 2006</ref> but was hit behind the left ear with a pipe. Knocked unconscious, he was not picked up until police arrived 10 minutes later, with Montgomery Police Commissioner Lester B. Sullivan noting, "We have no intention of standing police guard for a bunch of troublemakers coming into our city."<ref name="riot">"President's Representative Hurt Helping a Girl Escape Violence", Associated Press, May 21, 1961.</ref><ref name="riot2">Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-63. New York: Simon & Schuster, 428–452. ISBN 0-671-68742-5.</ref>

Seigenthaler's brief career in government would conclude as a result of Evans' death from a heart attack on July 29, 1961. A brief transition period followed, during which long-time Tennessean reporter John Nye served as publisher. On March 20, 1962, the newspaper made the announcement that Evans' brother, Amon Carter Evans, would be the new publisher.

One of the new Evans' first duties would be to bring back Seigenthaler as editor. The two had worked together before at the paper, when Seigenthaler served as assistant city editor and Evans was an aspiring journalist. On one occasion during that era, the two nearly came to blows over Seigenthaler's assignment of Evans to a story.

Evans named Seigenthaler editor of The Tennessean on March 21, 1962.<ref name="editor">"Seigenthaler Editor Of Tennessean", Nashville Banner, March 22, 1962.</ref> With this new team in place, The Tennessean quickly regained its hard-hitting reputation. One example of the paper's resurgence came following a Democratic primary in August 1962, when The Tennessean found documented evidence of voter fraud based on absentee ballots in the city's second ward.<ref name="fightingtennessean"/>

Seigenthaler's friendship with Kennedy became one of the focal points of Jimmy Hoffa's bid to shift his jury tampering trial from Nashville. Citing "one-sided, defamatory" coverage from the newspaper, Hoffa's lawyers were able to get Seigenthaler to admit he personally wanted Hoffa convicted. However, the journalist noted that he hadn't conveyed those sentiments to his reporters. Hoffa's lawyers gained a minor victory when the trial was moved to Chattanooga in a change of venue, but Hoffa was nonetheless convicted in 1964 after a 45-day trial.

The following year, Seigenthaler led a fight for access to the Tennessee state senate chamber in Nashville after a resolution was passed revoking the floor privileges of Tennessean reporter Bill Kovach. The action came after Kovach had refused to leave a committee hearing following a call for executive session.

In December 1966, Seigenthaler and Richard Goodwin represented the Kennedy family when controversy developed about historian William Manchester's book about the John F. Kennedy assassination, Death of a President. Seigenthaler had read an early version of the book, which led to Jacqueline Kennedy threatening a lawsuit over inaccurate and private statements in the publication.

Seigenthaler then took a temporary leave from his duties at the newspaper to work on Robert Kennedy's 1968 presidential campaign. During this period, the journalist was described by the New York Times as, "one of a handful of advisers in whom [Kennedy] has absolute confidence."<ref name="advisor">Turner, Wallace. "New Aides Try to Reverse Decline in Kennedy California Drive", The New York Times, May 10, 1968.</ref> Moments after a victory in the California primary, Kennedy was shot by an assassin and died on June 6, 1968. Seigenthaler would serve as one of the pallbearers at his funeral, and later co-edited the book An Honorable Profession: A Tribute to Robert F. Kennedy.

Remaining focused on the cause of civil rights, Seigenthaler then supported Tennessee Bishop Joseph Aloysius Durick in 1969 during the latter's contentious fight to end segregation, a stance that outraged many in the community who still believed in the concept.

[edit] Time as publisher

On February 8, 1973, Seigenthaler was promoted to publisher of the Tennessean, after Amon Carter Evans was named president of Tennessean Newspaper, Inc.

As the publisher, Seigenthaler worked with Al Gore, then a reporter, on investigative stories about Nashville city council corruption in the early 1970s.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> In February 1976, Seigenthaler contacted Gore at home to inform him that U.S. Representative Joe L. Evins was not running for re-election. Gore decided to resign from the paper and drop out of Vanderbilt University Law School, beginning his political career by entering the race for Tennessee's 4th congressional district, a seat previously held by Albert Gore, Sr., his father.

On May 5, 1976, Seigenthaler dismissed Jacque Srouji, a copy editor at The Tennessean, after finding that she had served as an informant for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for much of the previous decade. The controversy came to light after Srouji testified before the Energy and Environment Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship, which was investigating nuclear safety. Srouji, who was writing a book critical of Karen Silkwood, had perused more than 1000 pages of FBI documents pertaining to the nuclear power critic. In followup testimony, FBI agent Lawrence J. Olson, Sr. acknowledged that the bureau had a "special relationship" with Srouji. Tennessean reporters had been suspicious of Srouji's reporting coups, coming just months after she had joined the paper. These included such things as a late-night FBI raid on illegal gambling establishments, as well as one on a local business suspected of fraud.<ref name="srouji">"A Special Relationship", Time Magazine, May 24, 1976.</ref>

Afterwards the FBI appears to have collected rumors about Seigenthaler. FBI Deputy Assistant Director Homer Boynton told an editor of the New York Times to "look into Seigenthaler," whom he called "not entirely pure." After hearing this, Seigenthaler tried for a year to get his own FBI dossier, and finally received some highly expurgated material including these words: "Allegations of Seigenthaler having illicit relations with young girls, which information source obtained from an unnamed source." He had previously promised to publish whatever the FBI gave him, and did so. He flatly stated that the charges were false. The attorney general issued an apology, the allegations were removed from Seigenthaler's file, and he received the 1976 Sidney Hillman Prize for "courage in publishing".<ref name="fbi1">Lewis, Anthony. "Not Entirely Pure", New York Times, August 25, 1977.</ref><ref name="fbi2">"Letter, The Silkwood Case", The New York Review of Books, April 29, 1982.</ref>

In May 1982, Seigenthaler was named the first editorial director of USA Today. In announcing the appointment, Gannett president Allen Neuharth said Seigenthaler was "one of the most thoughtful and respected editors in America."<ref name="UASToday">Fontenay, Charles. "Publisher Heads Editorial Voice For USA TODAY", The Tennessean, May 14, 1982.</ref> During Seigenthaler's tenure at USA Today, he frequently commuted between Nashville and Washington to fulfill his duties at both newspapers.<ref name="commute">"7 Staffers Taking Up Duties at 'USA Today'", The Tennessean, September 7, 1982.</ref>

The publication of author Peter Maas' 1983 book, Marie: A True Story, again put Seigenthaler under scrutiny over the investigation of a pardon scandal involving former Tennessee governor Ray Blanton. Marie Ragghianti was the head of the state's Board of Pardons and Paroles before being fired after refusing to release prisoners who had bribed Blanton's aides. Since the Tennessean had supported Blanton, the newspaper's initial reluctance in investigating the charges was called into question. However, editors and reporters had believed that Ragghianti's alleged broken affair with Blanton's chief counsel, T. Edward Sisk, was the motivation for her claims.<ref name="pardon">Friendly, Jonathan. "Debate on Reporting of Nashville Scandal Reopens", The New York Times, July 22, 1983.</ref>

[edit] Later life

Image:John Seigenthaler Sr. speaking.jpg
Seigenthaler continues to make frequent public speaking engagements.

In 1986, Middle Tennessee State University established the John Seigenthaler Chair of Excellence in First Amendment Studies, honoring Seigenthaler's "lifelong commitment to free expression values".<ref name="chairmanship">Template:Cite web</ref>

However, three years later, Seigenthaler again became embroiled in controversy with the FBI when he was tipped off by Circuit Court Judge Gilbert S. Merritt that Nashville-Davidson County Sheriff Lafayette "Fate" Thomas, his friend since childhood, was the target of a FBI government corruption sting. Although Seigenthaler was never charged with any crime, Thomas later pled guilty to mail fraud, theft of government property, and tax conspiracy and was sentenced to five years in prison. Despite the conviction, the FBI claimed that Thomas' knowledge of the plan ruined countless hours of investigative work.<ref name="sheriff">Brosnan, James. "Tenn. Judge in High-Court Pool Hampered Sting", The Commercial Appeal, June 4, 1993, pp. A4.</ref>

Seigenthaler announced his retirement in December 1991 from The Tennessean, just months after he made a similar announcement concerning his tenure at USA Today.

On December 15, 1991, Seigenthaler founded the First Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University,<ref name="center">Template:Cite web</ref> saying, "It is my hope that this center at Vanderbilt University... will help promote appreciation and understanding for those values so vital in a democratic society." The center serves as a forum for dialog about First Amendment issues, including freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and freedom of religion.

Over the next few years, Seigenthaler's prominent status became the focus of two arrests. During the case of white supremacist Jonathan David Brown, a federal witness testified that Seigenthaler was among the potential murder targets of Brown. The witness stated that he and Brown had attended a reception that Seigenthaler was at, "for future reference." Then, just days after the Oklahoma City Bombing in 1995, two brothers facing weapons charges, Sean and Brian Bottoms, had reportedly acknowledged that they were considering kidnapping Seigenthaler. That turned out to be incorrect, when it was revealed Seigenthaler's son, John Jr., was one of the intended targets.

In 2001, Seigenthaler was appointed to the National Commission on Federal Election Reform that followed the 2000 presidential election. He is also a member of the Constitution Project on Liberty and Security.

In 2002, when it was discovered that USA Today reporter Jack Kelley had fabricated some of his stories, USA Today turned to Seigenthaler, along with veteran editors Bill Hilliard and Bill Kovach, to monitor the investigation.<ref>Associated Press, "'USA Today' Probe Finds Kelley Faked Stories", Editor & Publisher, 19 March 2004</ref>

In 2002, Vanderbilt renamed the 57,000-square-foot (5,300 m²) building that houses the Freedom Forum, First Amendment Center, and Diversity Institute the John Seigenthaler Center. At one point, USA Today and Freedom Forum founder Allen Neuharth called Seigenthaler "the best champion of the First Amendment."<ref name="champion">Template:Cite web</ref>

Seigenthaler currently hosts a book review program on Nashville public television station WNPT, called A Word on Words, and chairs the selection committees for the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation's Profiles in Courage Award and the RFK Memorial's Robert F. Kennedy Book Award.

[edit] Wikipedia controversy

Image:Tv cnn John Seigenthaler Sr.jpg
Seigenthaler was interviewed on CNN along with Jimmy Wales in December 2005 concerning Seigenthaler's false Wikipedia biography.

In May 2005, an anonymous user (later identified as Brian Chase) created a five-sentence Wikipedia article about Seigenthaler which contained defamatory content. The article remained largely unchanged for four months, until it was brought to Seigenthaler's attention.

Seigenthaler contacted Wikipedia in September, and the content was deleted. He later wrote an op-ed on the experience for USA Today on November 29, in which he wrote "Wikipedia is a flawed and irresponsible research tool."<ref name="wikipedia">Seigenthaler, John. "A false Wikipedia 'biography'", USA Today, November 29, 2005.</ref> The op-ed prompted many commentators to write about the issue and the reliability of open editing models in the following weeks.

[edit] Publications

  • Seigenthaler, John (2004). James K. Polk: 1845-1849: The American Presidents Series. New York: Times Books. ISBN 0-8050-6942-9.
  • Seigenthaler, John (1974). The Year of the Scandal Called Watergate. New York: Times Books. ISBN 0-914636-01-4.
  • Seigenthaler, John (1971). A Search for Justice. Aurora Publishers. ISBN 0-87695-003-9.

[edit] References


[edit] External links

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John Seigenthaler, Sr.

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