John F. Kennedy International Airport
Learn more about John F. Kennedy International Airport
|John F. Kennedy International Airport|
|IATA: JFK - ICAO: KJFK|
<tr><th colspan="2" align="left" valign="top">Airport type</th><td colspan="2" valign="top">Public</td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" align="left" valign="top">Operator</th><td colspan="2" valign="top">Port Authority of New York and New Jersey</td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" align="left" valign="top">Serves</th><td colspan="2" valign="top">New York, New York</td></tr>
|Elevation AMSL||13 ft (4 m)|
JFK is the top international air passenger gateway to the United States and is also the leading freight gateway to the country by value of shipments.<ref>Bureau of Transportation Statistics, United States Department of Transportation. See "Top 20 U.S. Gateways for Nonstop International Air Travel: 1990, 1995, and 2000" here and "John F. Kennedy International Airport, NY—Air Freight Gateway" here.</ref> It is the home airport for JetBlue Airways, whilst being a major international gateway hub for Delta Air Lines, and a major secondary hub for American Airlines.
The airport is operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which manages three other airports in the New York metropolitan area, Newark Liberty International Airport, LaGuardia Airport and Teterboro Airport. Of these, JFK is the largest.
Although JFK is known as the premier international hub for both New York City and the United States, it also handles domestic flights, mostly to the West Coast. In 2005 the airport handled 41 million passengers; Newark International handled about 33 million and LaGuardia about 26 million, making for a total of approximately 100 million travelers using New York's airports as the city's airspace surpassed Chicago's to become the busiest in the United States.<ref>"NYC airports handled record traffic in 2005." New York Business.com 6 January 2006.</ref>
JFK's outbound international travel accounted for 17% of all U.S. travelers who went overseas in 2004, the largest share of any U.S. airport. In 2000, JFK handled an average of about 50,000 international passengers each day. The JFK-London Heathrow route is the leading U.S. international airport pair with over 2.9 million passengers in 2000.<ref>"U.S. International Travel and Transportation Trends." 2002.Bureau of Transportation Statistics, United States Department of Transportation </ref> Other top international destinations from JFK are Paris, Frankfurt, and Tokyo. Nearly 100 airlines from over 50 countries operate regularly scheduled flights from JFK.
A 2006 survey by J.D. Power and Associates in conjunction with Aviation Week found JFK ranked second in overall traveller satisfaction among large airports in the United States, behind McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas.<ref>"Survey: JetBlue is best low-cost carrier." 29 June 2006. Associated Press.</ref>
JFK is undergoing a US$10.3 billion redevelopment, one of the largest airport reconstruction projects in the world. The airport recently opened a new Terminal One and Terminal Four, and refurbished Terminal Seven. Construction has begun on a new Terminal Five, while leaving the current landmark building in place. Terminals 8 and 9 are currently undergoing redevelopment as one single terminal. Terminals Eight, Two, and Three are slated for demolition or reconstruction.
The airport has been operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey under a lease with New York City since 1947. About $60 million was spent on the construction of the airport. Currently, estimates predict some $6.6 billion of economic activity and 207,000 jobs in the New York metropolitan region thanks to JFK International.
Construction of the airport began in 1942 with modest ambitions. Only 1,000 acres (4 km²) of land on the site of Idlewild golf course were earmarked for use. The golf course provided the airport's original namesake, Idlewild Airport.
The airport saw its first commercial flight on July 1, 1948. It was dedicated as 'New York International Airport on July 31 of that same year, although the name "Idlewild" remained in common use and the official IATA airport code was IDL.
As aviation grew, so did Idlewild. New York's importance as an international center of business and commerce meant there was an ever-greater need for more and more capacity. 4,000 acres (16 km²) and eight terminals were eventually added to the original airport. Over the years many illustrious airlines made the airport a major hub, including Pan Am, TWA, Eastern, National, Tower Air, and Flying Tiger Line.
The 1948 Temporary Terminal was the sole terminal until 1957, when the International Arrivals Building opened. Eight other "Unit Terminals" were constructed from 1958 to 1971, each designed by one of the airport's main airlines.
The Worldport (Pan Am), now Terminal 3, opened in 1962. It featured a large, elliptical roof suspended by 32 sets of radial posts and cables. The roof extended far beyond the base of the terminal and covered the passenger loading area. It introduced special bridges that connected to the terminal and that could be moved to provide an easy walkway for passengers from the terminal to a docked aircraft.
The TWA Flight Center, now Terminal 5, also opened in 1962. Designed by Eero Saarinen, it was sculpted as an abstract symbol of flight. It is considered one of the most architectually distinguished airport terminal designs in the world. With the demise of TWA, however, it is no longer in use. The main building will be kept as a part of jetBlue Airways's new reconstructed Terminal 5.
The airport was renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport in 1963, one month after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The airport received the new IATA airport code of JFK, and since then the airport has become widely referred to by this abbreviation.
In 1970, National Airlines opened their Sundrome, designed by Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. It is now used by JetBlue Airways and is known as Terminal 6. As air traffic in New York continued to grow, both Terminal 5 and Terminal 3 were modified in the 1970s to accommodate new Boeing 747s. The supersonic Concorde, operated by Air France and British Airways, provided scheduled trans-Atlantic supersonic service to JFK from 1977 until 2003, when the Concorde was retired by both carriers. JFK had the most Concorde operations annually of any airport in the world.
In 1998, the airport began construction of the AirTrain JFK rapid transit system. Completed in December 2003, the rail network links each airport terminal to New York City subways and regional commuter trains at Howard Beach and Jamaica.
The $1.4 billion replacement for the International Arrivals Building, Terminal 4, opened in 2001. Replacements for other original terminals have since been completed or are under development.
After the September 11, 2001 attacks, JFK was one of the first airports in the United States to be temporarily closed.
 Ground transportation
JFK is connected to New York's subway and commuter rail system by the recently-constructed AirTrain. AirTrain stops at all terminals, car rental lots, and two subway stations. It is free within the airport, but the fare is $5 to reach the subway stations. Using AirTrain and the Long Island Rail Road at Jamaica Station, travel time between JFK and Midtown Manhattan is about 45 minutes.
Various city buses connect to the New York City Subway and Long Island Rail Road, with free transfers provided for Subway connections. The buses are handicapped accessible, but connections may not be.
New York City's yellow cabs, operated by the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission, offer a flat rate service of $45 (as of 2006) from JFK airport to Manhattan, excluding tips and tolls. This flat rate is in effect only inbound to Manhattan from the airport; from Manhattan to JFK, taxi passengers pay the metered rate. As of November 30, 2006, the $45 flat fare, plus any tolls, will apply to outbound travel from Manhattan to JFK as well.
The fastest mode of travel between lower Manhattan and JFK airport is with US Helicopter, which has scheduled helicopter flights every hour from the Downtown Manhattan Heliport. The flights last 8 minutes and costs $159 each way. Included in the price is the luxury of avoiding long security screening lines at the airport. Passengers travelling by helicopter pass through X-ray and bomb-detection machines at a security checkpoint operated at the heliport.
 Terminals, airlines and destinations
Two pairs of parallel runways, four in all, surround the airport's central terminal area. Runway 13R-31L is the second longest commercial runway in North America, at a length of 14,572 ft (4,441 m). There are also numerous large facilities north and west of the central terminals for air cargo handling and loading.
 Terminal 1
- Aeroflot (Moscow-Sheremetyevo)
- Aeroméxico (Mexico City, Puebla [begins December 8, 2006])
- Air China (Beijing)
- Air France (Paris-Charles de Gaulle)
- Air Plus Comet (Madrid)
- Alitalia (Milan-Malpensa, Rome-Fiumicino)
- Austrian Airlines (Vienna)
- China Airlines (Taipei-Taiwan Taoyuan)
- China Eastern Airlines (Shanghai-Pudong) [begins December 9, 2006]
- Japan Airlines (São Paulo-Guarulhos, Tokyo-Narita)
- Korean Air (Seoul-Incheon)
- Lufthansa (Frankfurt, Munich)
- MAXjet Airways (London-Stansted)
- Olympic Airlines (Athens)
- Royal Air Maroc (Casablanca)
- Saudi Arabian Airlines (Jeddah, Riyadh, Dammam)
- Turkish Airlines (Istanbul-Atatürk)
 Terminal 2 (Delta Connection)
- Delta Air Lines (see below)
- Delta Connection operated by Atlantic Southeast Airlines (Atlanta)
- Delta Connection operated by Chautauqua Airlines (Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Cleveland, Columbus)
- Delta Connection operated by Comair (Atlanta, Baltimore/Washington, Boston, Buffalo, Burlington, Chicago-O'Hare, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Jacksonville [begins December 15, 2006], Miami, Montréal, Nashville, Norfolk, Pittsburgh, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Toronto-Pearson, Washington-Reagan)
- Delta Connection operated by Freedom Airlines (Albany, Baltimore/Washington, Burlington, Hartford, Manchester (NH), Norfolk, Philadelphia, Portland (ME), Providence, Syracuse (NY), Washington-Dulles, Washington-Reagan)
- Delta Air Lines (Accra [begins December 11, 2006], Amsterdam, Athens, Atlanta, Barcelona, Berlin-Tegel, Boston, Brussels, Bucharest-Otopeni [begins June 5, 2007], Budapest, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Cozumel [begins December 23, 2006], Dublin, Fort Lauderdale, Frankfurt, Istanbul-Atatürk, Kiev-Boryspil, Las Vegas, London-Gatwick, Los Angeles, Los Cabos, Madrid, Manchester (UK), Mexico City, Milan-Malpensa, Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Mumbai, Nice, Oranjestad, Orlando, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Phoenix [begins Feb. 15, 2007], Pisa [begins May 31, 2007], Punta Cana [begins December 9, 2006], Rome-Fiumicino, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan, Santiago (DR), Santo Domingo, São Paulo-Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Shannon, St. Thomas [begins March 3, 2007], Tampa, Venice, West Palm Beach)
- Miami Air (Non-Miami Air Operated Charters)
 Terminal 4
- Aer Lingus (Dublin, Shannon)
- Aerolíneas Argentinas (Buenos Aires-Ezeiza)
- Aerosvit Airlines (Kiev-Boryspil)
- Air India (Chennai, Delhi, London-Heathrow, Mumbai)
- Air Jamaica (Barbados, Grenada, Kingston, Montego Bay, St. Lucia)
- Air Tahiti Nui (Papeete)
- Asiana Airlines (Seoul-Incheon)
- Avianca (Barranquilla, Bogotá, Cali, Medellin, Pereira)
- BWIA West Indies Airways (Antigua, Barbados, Georgetown, Port of Spain) [ends December 31, 2006]
- Caribbean Airlines (Barbados, Port of Spain) [begins January 1, 2007]
- Continental Airlines (Houston-Intercontinental)
- Copa Airlines (Panama City)
- Czech Airlines (Prague)
- EgyptAir (Cairo)
- El Al (Tel Aviv)
- Emirates (Dubai, Hamburg)
- Eos Airlines (London-Stansted)
- Etihad Airways (Abu Dhabi)
- Eurofly (Bologna, Rome-Fiumicino, Palermo, Naples, Milan-Malpensa)
- Harmony Airways (Vancouver) [seasonal]
- Israir (Tel Aviv)
- JetBlue Airways (Cancún [arrivals], San Juan (PR), Santiago (DR) [arrivals])
- KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (Amsterdam)
- Kuwait Airways (Kuwait City, London-Heathrow)
- LAN Airlines (Lima, Santiago de Chile)
- LAN Ecuador (Guayaquil)
- LOT Polish Airlines (Rzeszow [begins summer 2007], Warsaw)
- LTU International (Düsseldorf)
- Mexicana (Mexico City)
- Miami Air (Miami-Air Operated Charters)
- North American Airlines (Accra, Georgetown, Lagos)
- Northwest Airlines (Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul)
- Pakistan International Airlines (Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Manchester (UK))
- Royal Jordanian Airlines (Amman)
- Singapore Airlines (Frankfurt, Singapore)
- South African Airways (Dakar, Johannesburg)
- Sun Country Airlines (Minneapolis/St. Paul)
- Swiss International Air Lines (Geneva, Zürich)
- TACA (Guatemala City, Guayaquil, Quito, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador)
- Lacsa (San José (CR))
- TAM Linhas Aéreas (São Paulo-Guarulhos)
- Thai Airways International (Bangkok)
- Uzbekistan Airways (Riga, Tashkent)
- Virgin Atlantic Airways (London-Heathrow)
- Xtra Airways (Port of Spain)(On behalf of Travelspan)
 Terminal 5 (Closed/Future JetBlue Terminal)
 Terminal 6 (JetBlue Terminal)
- JetBlue Airways (Aguadilla,Aruba, Austin, Bermuda, Boston, Buffalo, Burbank, Burlington, Cancún [departures], Charlotte, Chicago-O'Hare [begins January 4, 2007], Columbus, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Houston-Hobby, Jacksonville, Las Vegas, Long Beach, Nashville, Nassau, New Orleans, Oakland, Ontario, Orlando, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Ponce, Portland (ME), Portland (OR), Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Jose (CA), Santiago (DR) [departures], Sarasota/Bradenton, Seattle/Tacoma, Syracuse, Tampa, Tucson, Washington-Dulles, West Palm Beach)
 Terminal 7
- Air Canada (Calgary, Vancouver)
- All Nippon Airways (Tokyo-Narita)
- British Airways (London-Heathrow, Manchester (UK))
- Cathay Pacific Airways (Hong Kong, Vancouver)
- Iberia Airlines (Madrid)
- Icelandair (Reykjavik)
- Qantas (Sydney)
- United Airlines (Los Angeles, San Francisco)
- US Airways
 Terminal 8 (American Airlines Terminal)
- American Airlines (Barbados, Bermuda, Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Cancún, Caracas, Kingston [seasonal], Los Cabos [begins December 16, 2006], Montego Bay, Oranjestad, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Port-au-Prince, Providenciales, Puerto Plata [seasonal], Punta Cana, Rio de Janeiro-Galeão, São Paulo-Guarulhos, St. Maarten, Santiago (DR), Santo Domingo, St. Thomas)
- Iberia Airlines (Madrid)
- Finnair (Helsinki)
- Malév Hungarian Airlines (Budapest)
 Terminal 9 (American Airlines Terminal)
- American Airlines (Brussels, Dallas/Fort Worth, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Miami, Rome-Fiumicino [seasonal], San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan, Seattle/Tacoma, Tokyo-Narita, Zürich)
- American Eagle (Boston, Baltimore/Washington, Chicago-O'Hare, Cleveland, Halifax, Montréal, Raleigh/Durham, St. Louis, Toronto-Pearson, Washington-Reagan)
- US Helicopter (Downtown Manhattan Heliport, Pier 6 - East River)
 New Destinations and Airlines
- Air Algerie (Algiers) [Begins January, 2007]
- Caribbean Airlines (Barbados,Port of Spain) [begins January 1, 2007]
- China Eastern Airlines (Shanghai-Pudong) [begins December 9, 2006]
- flyglobespan (Liverpool) [begins May 24, 2007]
- Qatar Airways (Doha) [begins Summer 2007]
 Cargo and other facilities
JFK is the nation’s busiest international air freight gateway by value of shipments and the second busiest overall by value including all air, land and sea U.S. freight gateways. Over 21% of all U.S. international air freight by value and 11% by tonnage moved through JFK in 2003.<ref name="bts">Bureau of Transportation Statistics, United States Department of Transportation. "John F. Kennedy International Airport, NY—Air Freight Gateway."</ref>
JFK is a major hub for air cargo between the United States and Europe. London, Brussels and Frankfurt are JFK's three top trade routes.<ref name="bts"/> The European airports are mostly a link in a global supply chain, however. The top destination markets for cargo flying out of JFK in 2003 were Tokyo, Seoul and London. Similarly, the top origin markets for imports at JFK were Seoul, Hong Kong, and Taipei, with London taking the fourth spot.<ref name="bts"/>
Some of the cargo imported and exported through JFK includes electrical machinery, woven and knit apparel, medical instruments, footwear, plastics and paper.
In 2000, Korean Air Cargo opened a new $102 million cargo terminal at JFK. It was the largest air freight facilities on the East Coast. It has a total warehouse floor area of more than 55,000 sq ft (16, 764 m²) and is capable of handling 200,000 tons annually. Lufthansa, FedEx, Japan Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo, Air France and Asiana are among some of the other major air cargo carriers at JFK.
JFK has dedicated cargo terminals for Continental Airlines, Emirates SkyCargo, Evergreen International Airlines, EVA Air, Fed Ex, Japan Airlines, Korean Air, Nippon Cargo Airlines, Northwest Airlines, United Airlines, and UPS.
Most cargo and maintenance facilities at JFK are located north and west of the main terminal area. JetBlue Airways built a central maintenance and operations base at JFK, which was completed in May of 2005.
List of All Cargo Airlines: Dragonair, Nippon Cargo Airlines, China Cargo Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo, Lufthansa Cargo, Cargoitalia, CAL Cargo Airlines, Cargolux, ABX Air, Astar Air Cargo, Atlas Air, Cargo 360, Evergreen International Airlines, FedEx Express, Gemini Air Cargo, Polar Air Cargo, United Parcel Service, World Airways, Varig Logística, Prince Edward Air, Execaire
JFK has been the site of several notable air disasters.
- December 18, 1954 - a Linee Aeree Italiane Douglas DC-6 crashed on its fourth approach attempt to land at Idlewild (the former name of JFK), after circling for 2.5 hours. 26 of the 32 passengers on board were killed.
- December 16, 1960 - a United Airlines Douglas DC-8 collided with a TWA Super Constellation on approach to the airport; the United jet crashed in a Brooklyn neighborhood, the TWA plane on Staten Island, killing 127 people on board and five on the ground.
- March 1, 1962 - an American Airlines Boeing 707 crashed on takeoff from Idlewild after its rudder separated from the tail. All 95 passengers and 12 crew members were killed.
- November 30, 1962 - an Eastern Air Lines Douglas DC-7 crashed into the ground during a missed approach.
- February 8, 1965 - an Eastern Air Lines Douglas DC-7 crashed off Jones Beach after takeoff when the pilots found themselves on an apparent collison course with an inbound Pan Am Boeing 707 and made evasive maneuvers.
- June 24, 1975 - Eastern Air Lines Flight 66, a Boeing 727 on final approach from New Orleans, crashed into the runway lights short of runway 22L, killing 112 passengers and crew. The cause of the crash was wind shear during a heavy thunderstorm.
- January 25, 1990 - Avianca Flight 52, a Boeing 707-321B arriving from Bogota and Medellin, crashed at Cove Neck, Long Island, after a missed approach at JFK and subsequently running out of fuel.
- November 12, 2001 - The most recent disaster at JFK was American Airlines Flight 587, an Airbus A300 that crashed while en route to Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic. During climb, the aircraft lost most of its vertical fin due to the co-pilot's overcontrol of the rudder, and crashed into the Belle Harbor neighborhood of Queens. The crash killed all 260 persons on the plane and five people on the ground. It happened almost two months to the day after the September 11 attacks.
 Other disasters involving JFK
- TWA Flight 800 (1996), outbound from JFK, exploded soon after takeoff, and crashed off the coast of Long Island and Islip
- Sabena Flight 548 (1961), outbound from JFK, crashed while trying to land in Brussels, Belgium
- Eastern Air Lines Flight 401 (1972), outbound from JFK, crashed while trying to land in Miami, Florida
- Pan Am Flight 1736 (1977), originated from JFK, collided with another 747 at Tenerife
- Korean Air Flight 007 (1983), originated from JFK, shot down off the coast of Sakhalin
- Pan Am Flight 103 (1988), bound for JFK, with continued service to Detroit, exploded over Lockerbie, Scotland
- Swissair Flight 111 (1998), outbound from JFK, crashed off the coast of Nova Scotia
- EgyptAir Flight 990 (1999), outbound from JFK, crashed off the coast of Nantucket
- Air France Flight 4590 (2000), a Concorde bound for JFK, crashed in Gonesse, France
- Korean Air Flight 85 (2001), bound for JFK on September 11, was escorted by fighter jets to Whitehorse International Airport during Operation Yellow Ribbon on fears it may have been hijacked. This wasn't the case; the plane was low on fuel, and according to a public affairs official at the airport, there was also a communication problem with the air crew. When the plane landed, witnesses reported that the RCMP ordered the crew out at gunpoint. The entire incident was a misunderstanding caused by a malfunctioning transponder.
Several aircraft based at JFK were also targets of the failed Project Bojinka terrorist plot in 1995.
 JFK Airport in popular culture
As one of the major international gateways in the United States, JFK has enjoyed a high profile in popular culture. The British Invasion began with the arrival of The Beatles at JFK in 1964, who held their first American press conference at the airport. Rapper Notorious B.I.G. references the airport's code name in the song "Going to Cali." The theme song of the 1960s comedy TV series Car 54, Where Are You? contained a line reading: "There's a scout troop short a child, Khruschev's due at Idlewild." In his one-man show Red diaper baby, Josh Kornbluth's eccentric communist father insists on referring to JFK as the "Bay of Pigs Memorial Airport." JFK is also mentioned in the U2 song, Angel of Harlem. Many films have used JFK as a setting, including:
- Auntie Mame (1958) - Mame Dennis Burnside makes reference to "Idlewild" and a Pan American flight near the end of the film.
- Live and Let Die (1973)
- Dog Day Afternoon (1975)
- Moonstruck (1987)
- Three Men and a Baby (1987)
- Big Business (1988)
- Coming to America (1988)
- Goodfellas (1990) (as Idlewild Airport)
- Quick Change (1990)
- The Wedding Banquet (1993)
- Turbulence (1997)
- Final Destination (2000)
- Catch Me If You Can (2002)
- The Terminal (2004)
- Taxi (2004)
- White Chicks (2004)
- Friends (2004) (Series Finale)
- Kangaroo Jack (2003) (Cameo appearance)
- School for Scoundrels (2006)
- JFK is the top international air passenger gateway to the United States.
 See also
- LaGuardia Airport
- Newark Liberty International Airport
- Transportation in New York City
- Transportation to New York City area airports, which details bus and rail connections to the three major area airports
- Busiest airports in the United States by international passenger traffic
- Thin-shell structure
- Airport Master Record (FAA Form 5010), also available as a printable form (PDF)
- John F. Kennedy International Airport (official web site)
 External links
- JFK Airport Monitor (from Passur.com)
- ATC Tower Ground and ATC Approach Departure (streaming audio from LiveATC.net)
- FAA Airport Diagram (PDF)
- New York State DOT Airport Diagram (PDF)
- Resources for this airport:
- AirNav airport information for KJFK
- MyMetar weather for KJFK
- ASN Accident history for KJFK
- FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker
- NOAA/NWS current and historical weather observations
- SkyVector aeronautical chart for KJFK
- FAA current JFK delay informationda:John F. Kennedy International Airport
de:John F. Kennedy International Airport es:Aeropuerto Internacional John F. Kennedy fr:Aéroport international John-F.-Kennedy ko:존에프케네디 국제공항 id:Bandara Internasional John F. Kennedy it:Aeroporto internazionale John F. Kennedy nl:John F. Kennedy International Airport ja:ジョン・F・ケネディ国際空港 pl:John F. Kennedy International Airport pt:Aeroporto Internacional John F. Kennedy ru:Международный аэропорт имени Джона Кеннеди fi:John F. Kennedyn kansainvälinen lentoasema sv:John F. Kennedy International Airport tl:Paliparang Pandaigdig ng John F. Kennedy zh:甘迺迪國際機場