John F. Kennedy International Airport

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For the general aviation airport in Ashland, Wisconsin, see John F. Kennedy Memorial Airport.
John F. Kennedy International Airport
IATA: JFK - ICAO: KJFK
Summary

<tr><th colspan="2" align="left" valign="top">Airport type</th><td colspan="2" valign="top">Public</td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" align="left" valign="top">Operator</th><td colspan="2" valign="top">Port Authority of New York and New Jersey</td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" align="left" valign="top">Serves</th><td colspan="2" valign="top">New York, New York</td></tr>

Elevation AMSL 13 ft (4 m)
Coordinates 40°38′23″N, 73°46′44″W
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
4L/22R 11,351 3,460 Asphalt/Concrete
4R/22L 8,400 2,560 Asphalt
13L/31R 10,000 3,048 Asphalt
13R/31L 14,572 4,442 Asphalt/Concrete

John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFKICAO: KJFK) is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in south-eastern New York City.

JFK is the top international air passenger gateway to the United States and is also the leading freight gateway to the country by value of shipments.<ref>Bureau of Transportation Statistics, United States Department of Transportation. See "Top 20 U.S. Gateways for Nonstop International Air Travel: 1990, 1995, and 2000" here and "John F. Kennedy International Airport, NY—Air Freight Gateway" here.</ref> It is the home airport for JetBlue Airways, whilst being a major international gateway hub for Delta Air Lines, and a major secondary hub for American Airlines.

The airport is operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which manages three other airports in the New York metropolitan area, Newark Liberty International Airport, LaGuardia Airport and Teterboro Airport. Of these, JFK is the largest.

Contents

Image:Planes at JFK.jpg
An Air India 747 landing at JFK, with El Al Israel and Swiss International jets at Terminal 4. JFK is a major entry point for international arrivals in the United States.

Although JFK is known as the premier international hub for both New York City and the United States, it also handles domestic flights, mostly to the West Coast. In 2005 the airport handled 41 million passengers; Newark International handled about 33 million and LaGuardia about 26 million, making for a total of approximately 100 million travelers using New York's airports as the city's airspace surpassed Chicago's to become the busiest in the United States.<ref>"NYC airports handled record traffic in 2005." New York Business.com 6 January 2006.[1]</ref>

JFK's outbound international travel accounted for 17% of all U.S. travelers who went overseas in 2004, the largest share of any U.S. airport. In 2000, JFK handled an average of about 50,000 international passengers each day. The JFK-London Heathrow route is the leading U.S. international airport pair with over 2.9 million passengers in 2000.<ref>"U.S. International Travel and Transportation Trends." 2002.Bureau of Transportation Statistics, United States Department of Transportation [2]</ref> Other top international destinations from JFK are Paris, Frankfurt, and Tokyo. Nearly 100 airlines from over 50 countries operate regularly scheduled flights from JFK.

A 2006 survey by J.D. Power and Associates in conjunction with Aviation Week found JFK ranked second in overall traveller satisfaction among large airports in the United States, behind McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas.<ref>"Survey: JetBlue is best low-cost carrier." 29 June 2006. Associated Press.[3]</ref>

JFK is undergoing a US$10.3 billion redevelopment, one of the largest airport reconstruction projects in the world. The airport recently opened a new Terminal One and Terminal Four, and refurbished Terminal Seven. Construction has begun on a new Terminal Five, while leaving the current landmark building in place. Terminals 8 and 9 are currently undergoing redevelopment as one single terminal. Terminals Eight, Two, and Three are slated for demolition or reconstruction.

[edit] History

The airport has been operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey under a lease with New York City since 1947. About $60 million was spent on the construction of the airport. Currently, estimates predict some $6.6 billion of economic activity and 207,000 jobs in the New York metropolitan region thanks to JFK International.

Construction of the airport began in 1942 with modest ambitions. Only 1,000 acres (4 km²) of land on the site of Idlewild golf course were earmarked for use. The golf course provided the airport's original namesake, Idlewild Airport.

The airport saw its first commercial flight on July 1, 1948. It was dedicated as 'New York International Airport on July 31 of that same year, although the name "Idlewild" remained in common use and the official IATA airport code was IDL.

As aviation grew, so did Idlewild. New York's importance as an international center of business and commerce meant there was an ever-greater need for more and more capacity. 4,000 acres (16 km²) and eight terminals were eventually added to the original airport. Over the years many illustrious airlines made the airport a major hub, including Pan Am, TWA, Eastern, National, Tower Air, and Flying Tiger Line.

The 1948 Temporary Terminal was the sole terminal until 1957, when the International Arrivals Building opened. Eight other "Unit Terminals" were constructed from 1958 to 1971, each designed by one of the airport's main airlines.

The Worldport (Pan Am), now Terminal 3, opened in 1962. It featured a large, elliptical roof suspended by 32 sets of radial posts and cables. The roof extended far beyond the base of the terminal and covered the passenger loading area. It introduced special bridges that connected to the terminal and that could be moved to provide an easy walkway for passengers from the terminal to a docked aircraft.

The TWA Flight Center, now Terminal 5, also opened in 1962. Designed by Eero Saarinen, it was sculpted as an abstract symbol of flight. It is considered one of the most architectually distinguished airport terminal designs in the world. With the demise of TWA, however, it is no longer in use. The main building will be kept as a part of jetBlue Airways's new reconstructed Terminal 5.

The airport was renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport in 1963, one month after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The airport received the new IATA airport code of JFK, and since then the airport has become widely referred to by this abbreviation.

In 1970, National Airlines opened their Sundrome, designed by Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. It is now used by JetBlue Airways and is known as Terminal 6. As air traffic in New York continued to grow, both Terminal 5 and Terminal 3 were modified in the 1970s to accommodate new Boeing 747s. The supersonic Concorde, operated by Air France and British Airways, provided scheduled trans-Atlantic supersonic service to JFK from 1977 until 2003, when the Concorde was retired by both carriers. JFK had the most Concorde operations annually of any airport in the world.

In 1998, the airport began construction of the AirTrain JFK rapid transit system. Completed in December 2003, the rail network links each airport terminal to New York City subways and regional commuter trains at Howard Beach and Jamaica.

The $1.4 billion replacement for the International Arrivals Building, Terminal 4, opened in 2001. Replacements for other original terminals have since been completed or are under development.

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, JFK was one of the first airports in the United States to be temporarily closed.

[edit] Ground transportation

Image:Airports New York City Map Julius Schorzman.png
Map showing New York City and the locations of JFK (1), LaGuardia (2) and Newark (3).

[edit] Rail

JFK is connected to New York's subway and commuter rail system by the recently-constructed AirTrain. AirTrain stops at all terminals, car rental lots, and two subway stations. It is free within the airport, but the fare is $5 to reach the subway stations. Using AirTrain and the Long Island Rail Road at Jamaica Station, travel time between JFK and Midtown Manhattan is about 45 minutes.

[edit] Bus

Various city buses connect to the New York City Subway and Long Island Rail Road, with free transfers provided for Subway connections. The buses are handicapped accessible, but connections may not be.

[edit] Taxi

New York City's yellow cabs, operated by the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission, offer a flat rate service of $45 (as of 2006) from JFK airport to Manhattan, excluding tips and tolls. This flat rate is in effect only inbound to Manhattan from the airport; from Manhattan to JFK, taxi passengers pay the metered rate. As of November 30, 2006, the $45 flat fare, plus any tolls, will apply to outbound travel from Manhattan to JFK as well.

[edit] Helicopter

The fastest mode of travel between lower Manhattan and JFK airport is with US Helicopter, which has scheduled helicopter flights every hour from the Downtown Manhattan Heliport. The flights last 8 minutes and costs $159 each way. Included in the price is the luxury of avoiding long security screening lines at the airport. Passengers travelling by helicopter pass through X-ray and bomb-detection machines at a security checkpoint operated at the heliport.

[edit] Terminals, airlines and destinations

Image:Jfkairport.jpg
JFK Terminal 5

Two pairs of parallel runways, four in all, surround the airport's central terminal area. Runway 13R-31L is the second longest commercial runway in North America, at a length of 14,572 ft (4,441 m). There are also numerous large facilities north and west of the central terminals for air cargo handling and loading.

[edit] Terminal 1

[edit] Terminal 2 (Delta Connection)

  • Delta Air Lines (see below)
    • Delta Connection operated by Atlantic Southeast Airlines (Atlanta)
    • Delta Connection operated by Chautauqua Airlines (Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Cleveland, Columbus)
    • Delta Connection operated by Comair (Atlanta, Baltimore/Washington, Boston, Buffalo, Burlington, Chicago-O'Hare, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Jacksonville [begins December 15, 2006], Miami, Montréal, Nashville, Norfolk, Pittsburgh, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Toronto-Pearson, Washington-Reagan)
    • Delta Connection operated by Freedom Airlines (Albany, Baltimore/Washington, Burlington, Hartford, Manchester (NH), Norfolk, Philadelphia, Portland (ME), Providence, Syracuse (NY), Washington-Dulles, Washington-Reagan)

[edit] Terminal 3 (Delta Air Lines Worldport)

  • Delta Air Lines (Accra [begins December 11, 2006], Amsterdam, Athens, Atlanta, Barcelona, Berlin-Tegel, Boston, Brussels, Bucharest-Otopeni [begins June 5, 2007], Budapest, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Cozumel [begins December 23, 2006], Dublin, Fort Lauderdale, Frankfurt, Istanbul-Atatürk, Kiev-Boryspil, Las Vegas, London-Gatwick, Los Angeles, Los Cabos, Madrid, Manchester (UK), Mexico City, Milan-Malpensa, Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Mumbai, Nice, Oranjestad, Orlando, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Phoenix [begins Feb. 15, 2007], Pisa [begins May 31, 2007], Punta Cana [begins December 9, 2006], Rome-Fiumicino, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan, Santiago (DR), Santo Domingo, São Paulo-Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Shannon, St. Thomas [begins March 3, 2007], Tampa, Venice, West Palm Beach)
  • Miami Air (Non-Miami Air Operated Charters)

[edit] Terminal 4

Image:Passport-control-jfk-02.jpg
Immigration control for incoming passengers at Terminal 4.
Image:IMG 0854r.jpg
JFK Terminal 4 with a Pakistan International (PIA) Boeing 777

[edit] Terminal 5 (Closed/Future JetBlue Terminal)

Image:08terminal5.jpg
The TWA Flight Center Building - thin-shell structure by Eero Saarinen

Closed temporarily for construction, to become the new terminal for JetBlue Airways. See TWA Flight Center.

[edit] Terminal 6 (JetBlue Terminal)

  • JetBlue Airways (Aguadilla,Aruba, Austin, Bermuda, Boston, Buffalo, Burbank, Burlington, Cancún [departures], Charlotte, Chicago-O'Hare [begins January 4, 2007], Columbus, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Houston-Hobby, Jacksonville, Las Vegas, Long Beach, Nashville, Nassau, New Orleans, Oakland, Ontario, Orlando, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Ponce, Portland (ME), Portland (OR), Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Jose (CA), Santiago (DR) [departures], Sarasota/Bradenton, Seattle/Tacoma, Syracuse, Tampa, Tucson, Washington-Dulles, West Palm Beach)
Image:IMG 0873r.jpg
Terminals 6 and 7 with Air China landing.

[edit] Terminal 7

[edit] Terminal 8 (American Airlines Terminal)

  • American Airlines (Barbados, Bermuda, Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Cancún, Caracas, Kingston [seasonal], Los Cabos [begins December 16, 2006], Montego Bay, Oranjestad, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Port-au-Prince, Providenciales, Puerto Plata [seasonal], Punta Cana, Rio de Janeiro-Galeão, São Paulo-Guarulhos, St. Maarten, Santiago (DR), Santo Domingo, St. Thomas)
  • Iberia Airlines (Madrid)
  • Finnair (Helsinki)
  • Malév Hungarian Airlines (Budapest)

[edit] Terminal 9 (American Airlines Terminal)

[4][5].

  • American Airlines (Brussels, Dallas/Fort Worth, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Miami, Rome-Fiumicino [seasonal], San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan, Seattle/Tacoma, Tokyo-Narita, Zürich)
    • American Eagle (Boston, Baltimore/Washington, Chicago-O'Hare, Cleveland, Halifax, Montréal, Raleigh/Durham, St. Louis, Toronto-Pearson, Washington-Reagan)
  • US Helicopter (Downtown Manhattan Heliport, Pier 6 - East River)

[edit] New Destinations and Airlines

[edit] Cargo and other facilities

JFK is the nation’s busiest international air freight gateway by value of shipments and the second busiest overall by value including all air, land and sea U.S. freight gateways. Over 21% of all U.S. international air freight by value and 11% by tonnage moved through JFK in 2003.<ref name="bts">Bureau of Transportation Statistics, United States Department of Transportation. "John F. Kennedy International Airport, NY—Air Freight Gateway."[6]</ref>

JFK is a major hub for air cargo between the United States and Europe. London, Brussels and Frankfurt are JFK's three top trade routes.<ref name="bts"/> The European airports are mostly a link in a global supply chain, however. The top destination markets for cargo flying out of JFK in 2003 were Tokyo, Seoul and London. Similarly, the top origin markets for imports at JFK were Seoul, Hong Kong, and Taipei, with London taking the fourth spot.<ref name="bts"/>

Some of the cargo imported and exported through JFK includes electrical machinery, woven and knit apparel, medical instruments, footwear, plastics and paper.

In 2000, Korean Air Cargo opened a new $102 million cargo terminal at JFK. It was the largest air freight facilities on the East Coast. It has a total warehouse floor area of more than 55,000 sq ft (16, 764 m²) and is capable of handling 200,000 tons annually. Lufthansa, FedEx, Japan Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo, Air France and Asiana are among some of the other major air cargo carriers at JFK.

JFK has dedicated cargo terminals for Continental Airlines, Emirates SkyCargo, Evergreen International Airlines, EVA Air, Fed Ex, Japan Airlines, Korean Air, Nippon Cargo Airlines, Northwest Airlines, United Airlines, and UPS.

Most cargo and maintenance facilities at JFK are located north and west of the main terminal area. JetBlue Airways built a central maintenance and operations base at JFK, which was completed in May of 2005.

List of All Cargo Airlines: Dragonair, Nippon Cargo Airlines, China Cargo Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo, Lufthansa Cargo, Cargoitalia, CAL Cargo Airlines, Cargolux, ABX Air, Astar Air Cargo, Atlas Air, Cargo 360, Evergreen International Airlines, FedEx Express, Gemini Air Cargo, Polar Air Cargo, United Parcel Service, World Airways, Varig Logística, Prince Edward Air, Execaire

[edit] Accidents

JFK has been the site of several notable air disasters.

[edit] Other disasters involving JFK

Several aircraft based at JFK were also targets of the failed Project Bojinka terrorist plot in 1995.

[edit] JFK Airport in popular culture

As one of the major international gateways in the United States, JFK has enjoyed a high profile in popular culture. The British Invasion began with the arrival of The Beatles at JFK in 1964, who held their first American press conference at the airport. Rapper Notorious B.I.G. references the airport's code name in the song "Going to Cali." The theme song of the 1960s comedy TV series Car 54, Where Are You? contained a line reading: "There's a scout troop short a child, Khruschev's due at Idlewild." In his one-man show Red diaper baby, Josh Kornbluth's eccentric communist father insists on referring to JFK as the "Bay of Pigs Memorial Airport." JFK is also mentioned in the U2 song, Angel of Harlem. Many films have used JFK as a setting, including:

[edit] Trivia

  • JFK is the top international air passenger gateway to the United States.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] Notes

<references/>

[edit] External links

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John F. Kennedy International Airport

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