Learn more about Jerome Kagan
Jerome Kagan (born 1929) was one of the key pioneers of developmental psychology. Daniel and Amy Starch Research Professor of Psychology, Emeritus at Harvard University, he has shown that an infant's "temperament" is quite stable over time, in that certain behaviors in infancy are predictive of certain other behavior patterns in adolescence.
In an empirical study by Haggbloom et al using six criteria such as citations and recognition, Kagan was found to be the 22nd most eminent psychologist of the 20th Century, just above Carl Jung.<ref>Haggbloom, S.J. et al. (2002). The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. Review of General Psychology. Vol. 6, No. 2, 139–15. Haggbloom et al combined 3 quantitative variables: citations in professional journals, citations in textbooks, and nominations in a survey given to members of the Association for Psychological Science, with 3 qualitative variables (converted to quantitative scores): National Academy of Science (NAS) membership, American Psychological Association (APA) President and/or recipient of the APA Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award, and surname used as an eponym. Then the list was rank ordered.</ref>
 Personal background
Kagan was born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. He earned a B.S. degree from Rutgers University in 1950. In 1951 he married Cele Katzman, and they have one daughter. Kagan earned his master's degree from Harvard University and his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1954. He spent a year as an instructor in psychology at Ohio State University. After two years as a psychologist at the U.S. Army Hospital at West Point, he did research in developmental psychology at Ohio's Fels Institute (1957-64) before beginning his career at Harvard University.
 Research and publications
He is the author of Personal Development (1971), Growth of the Child (1978), and The Nature of the Child (1982).
 Related concepts
Kagan is critical of certain other concepts such as intelligence, fear, anxiety and the popular "pleasure principle" (which underlies some economic theories)the idea that humans beings have a biologically innate drive to maximize our pleasure. On the other hand, he presents evidence that we have a biologically programmed sense of ethics and morality.
Kagan rejects "attachment theory", British psychiatrist John Bowlby's notion that the bond between mother and infant (as assessed in the first year of life) is crucially influential in later emotional and even intellectual growth. He has also criticized Judith Rich Harris's theory that peer groups matter more than parents in influencing the personality of children. He believes that both sides in the nature/nuture debates were too rigid, and that the development of personality is still not well understood.