International waters

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International waters
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The terms international waters or transboundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1].

Oceans and seas, waters outside of national jurisdiction are also referred to as the High Seas or Mare liberum.

Ships sailing the high seas are generally under flag state jurisdiction. In the case of piracy or slave trade, any nation can exercise jurisdiction.

Contents

[edit] International waterways

Image:Zonmar-en.svg
Sea areas in international rights

Several international treaties have established freedom of navigation on semi-enclosed seas.


[edit] Links and References

[edit] International Waters Agreements

[edit] Global Agreements

[edit] Regional Agreements

At least ten conventions are included within the Regional Seas Program of UNEP, including:

  1. the Atlantic Coast of West and Central Africa (Abidjan Convention, 1984);
  2. the North-East Pacific (Antigua Convention);
  3. the Mediterranean (Barcelona Convention);
  4. the wider Caribbean (Cartagena Convention);
  5. the South-East Pacific (Lima Convention, 1986);
  6. the South Pacific (Noumea Convention);
  7. the East African seaboard (Nairobi Convention, 1985);
  8. the Kuwait region (Kuwait Convention);
  9. the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden (Jeddah Convention).

Addressing regional freshwater issues is the 1992 Helsinki Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (UNECE/Helsinki Water Convention)

[edit] Waterbody-Specific Agreements

[edit] International Waters Institutions

[edit] Freshwater Institutions

[edit] Marine Institutions

[edit] International Waters Resources on the Web

[edit] See also

ca:Alta mar de:Hohe See el:Ανοικτή θάλασσα fr:Haute mer nl:Internationale wateren pt:Alto-mar ru:Открытое море sv:Internationellt vatten zh:公海

International waters

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