Idriss Déby

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Idriss Déby
Image:Idriss Deby.png


Assumed office 
December 2 1990
Preceded by Hissène Habré
Succeeded by Incumbent

Born 1952
Fada, Bourkou-Ennedi-Tibesti region, Chad
Political party Patriotic Salvation Movement
Spouse  ?

Lieutenant General Idriss Déby Itno (born in Fada in 1952) is the President of Chad and the head of the Patriotic Salvation Movement. Déby is of the Zaghawa ethnic group, specifically, the Bidyate clan. He added "Itno" to his surname in January 2006.


[edit] Rise to power

Déby is a son of a herder. After finishing school he entered the Officers' School in N'Djamena. From there he was sent to France for training, returning to Chad in 1976 with a professional pilot certificate. He remained loyal to the army and to President Félix Malloum until central authority crumbled in 1979. Déby tied his fortunes to those of Hissène Habré, one of the chief Chadian warlords. A year after Habré became President in 1982, in exchange for his loyalty, Déby was made commander-in-chief of the army. He distinguished himself in 1984 by destroying pro-Libyan forces in Eastern Chad. In 1985 Habré removed him from his post and sent him to Paris to follow a course at the Ecole de Guerre; on his return he was made chief military advisor to the Presidency. In 1987 he confronted Libyan forces on the field, adopting tactics that inflicted heavy losses to enemy forces. A rift emerged in 1989 among Habré and Déby over the increasing power of the Presidential Guard. Habré accused Déby of preparing a coup d'état, motivating Déby to flee to Libya. He moved to Sudan and formed the Patriotic Salvation Movement, an insurgent group, supported by Libya and Sudan, which started operations against Habré in October 1989. He unleashed a decisive attack on 10 November 1990, and on 2 December Déby's troops marched unopposed into the capital, N'Djaména.

[edit] Recent political career

After three months of provisional government, on 28 February 1991, a charter was approved for Chad with Déby as president. A new constitution was approved by referendum in March 1996, followed by a presidential election in June. Déby received first place in the first round but fell short of a majority; he was then elected president in the second round, held in July, with 69% of the vote. He was re-elected in the May 2001 presidential election, taking 63% in the first round,<ref>Elections in Chad, African Elections Database.</ref> but international observers noted irregularities in the election process. In June 2005, a successful referendum was held to eliminate a two-term constitutional limit, which enabled Déby to run again in 2006.<ref>"Strong yes vote in referendum allows President Deby to seek a new term", IRIN, June 22, 2005.</ref> He was a candidate in the 2006 presidential election, held May 3, which was greeted with an opposition boycott. According to official results Déby won the election with 64.67% of the vote; this was revised downward from the initially announced result of 77.6%.<ref>"Deby win confirmed, but revised down to 64.67 pct", IRIN, May 29, 2006.</ref>

[edit] Chadian-Sudanese conflict

Déby has been facing internal unrest and tension with Sudan from late 2005 to early 2006. An attempted coup d'état, involving the shooting down of Déby's plane, was foiled in March<ref>"Coup attempt foiled, government says", IRIN, March 15, 2006.</ref>. There has been significant fighting with rebels in the east of the country. In mid-April, there was fighting with rebels at N'Djaména, although the fighting soon subsided with government forces still in control of the capital.<ref>"Chad confronts rebels in capital",, April 13, 2006.</ref> Deby subsequently broke ties with Sudan, accusing it of backing the rebels,<ref>Andrew England, "Chad severs ties with Sudan", Financial Times, April 15, 2006.</ref> and said that the May election would still take place.<ref>Rebels 'will not delay' Chad poll",, April 18, 2006.</ref>

Déby was sworn in for another term in office on August 8, 2006.<ref>"Deby sworn in as Chad's president", People's Daily Online, August 9, 2006.</ref> Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir attended Déby's inauguration, and the two leaders agreed to restore diplomatic relations on this occasion.<ref>"Chad, Sudan restore ties", Reuters, The Australian, August 9, 2006.</ref> Deby has also extended Chad's diplomatic relations to Iran, openly supporting this regime. [1]

[edit] Petroleum disagreement

At the end of August 2006, Déby made international news after calling for his country to have a 60 per cent stake in its oil output after receiving "crumbs" from foreign companies running the industry. He said Chevron and Petronas were refusing to pay taxes totalling $486.2 million. Recently, Chad passed a World Bank-backed oil revenues law that required most of its oil revenue to be allocated to health, education and infrastructure projects. The World Bank had previously frozen an oil revenue account in a dispute over how Chad spent its oil profits.<ref>"Petronas disputes Chad's tax claims",, August 30, 2006.</ref>

After Déby was reelected in May, several rebel groups broke apart. Déby was in Abeche from 11 September to 21 September, flying in a helicopter to personally oversee attacks on Rally for Democratic Forces rebels.<ref>"Chad: New Fronts Open in Eastern Fighting", 21 September, 2006.</ref>

[edit] Corruption

October 2006, Chad was placed at the top of the list of the world's most corrupt nations by for, as they put it: "what may turn out to be the single most piggish use of philanthropic funds". Proceeds from a project, which was funded in part by the World Bank to build an oil pipeline through Chad and Cameroon, were supposed to have been ring-fenced by Deby's government to assist and feed "the desperately poor people of these nations. Instead, some $30 million was diverted to buy arms to keep in power the government of President Idriss Deby. This is turning out to be the first real challenge for new World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz." [2]

[edit] See also

[edit] References


Preceded by:
Hissène Habré
President of Chad
2 December 1990
Succeeded by:
Current president
<tr><th colspan="2">
Image:Flag of Chad.svg  Image:Flag of Sudan.svg Chadian-Sudanese conflict
</th></tr> <tr><th>Places</th><td>Chad Sudan N'Djamena Adré Geneina Abéché</td></tr> <tr><th>People</th><td>Idriss Déby Omar al-Bashir Muammar al-Qaddafi Mohammed Nour Abdelkerim Yaya Dillo Djérou Abdelwahit About Ahmed Aboul Gheit Baba Gana Kingibe Fur people Zaghawa</td></tr> <tr><th>Non-militant
organizations</th><td>Chadian Association for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees African Union Mission in Sudan Organization for Community Supported Sustainable Agriculture in Chad Petroleum Revenue Oversight and Control Committee</td></tr> <tr><th>Rebel groups </th><td>Union of Forces for Democracy United Front for Democratic Change Platform for Change, Unity and Democracy Alliance of Revolutionary Forces of West Sudan Rally for Democracy and Liberty Rally of Democratic Forces National Movement for Reform and Development Janjaweed</td></tr> <tr><th>Military</th><td>Military of Chad Military of Sudan Chad Air Force</td></tr> <tr><th>History and events</th><td>History of Chad History of Sudan Darfur conflict Second Battle of Adré Battle of Borota Tripoli Agreement Battle of Amdjereme Dalola raid Chadian presidential election, 2006 Battle of N'Djamena 2006 Chadian coup d'état attempt Mediation of the Chadian-Sudanese conflict Dakar Accord</td></tr> br:Idriss Déby Itno

da:Idriss Déby de:Idriss Déby el:Ιντρίς Ντεμπί es:Idriss Déby fr:Idriss Déby Itno gl:Idriss Déby id:Idriss Déby he:אידריס דבי ms:Idriss Déby nl:Idriss Déby it:Idriss Déby ja:イドリス・デビ no:Idriss Déby pl:Idriss Déby fi:Idriss Déby sv:Idriss Déby zh:伊德裡斯·代比

Idriss Déby

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