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Image:Hunter Petroglyph by jcheever.jpg
A hunter on horseback shoots at deer or elk with a bow.
This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. For other uses, see Hunting (disambiguation).

Hunting is the practice of pursuing animals to kill them for food, recreation, or trade of their products. In modern use, the term refers to regulated and legal hunting, as distinguished from poaching, which is the killing, trapping or capture of animals contrary to law. Hunted animals are referred to as game animals, and are usually large mammals or migratory birds.

By definition, hunting strictly speaking excludes the killing -though the same techniques may be used- of individual animals that have become dangerous to humans and the killing of non-game animals, domestic animals, or vermin (or "varmints") as a means of pest control. Hunting may be a component of modern wildlife management, sometimes used to help maintain a population of healthy animals within an environment's ecological carrying capacity. Wildlife managers are frequently part of hunting regulatory and licensing bodies, where they help to set rules on the number, manner and conditions in which game may be hunted or "harvested."

The pursuit, capture and release, or capture to eat of fish is called fishing, which is not commonly categorized as a kind of hunting, although many hunters may also fish. Trapping is also usually considered a separate activity. Neither is it considered hunting to pursue animals without intent to possibly kill, as in wildlife photography or birdwatching, or to "hunt" for plants or mushrooms.


[edit] History

[edit] Ancient roots

Before the widespread domestication of animals, hunting was a crucial component of hunter-gatherer societies, and is a theme of many stories and myths, as well as many proverbs, aphorisms, adages and metaphors even today.

Persistence hunting may well have been the first form of hunting practised by paleolithic humans. It is likely that this method of hunting evolved before humans invented missile weapons, such as the spear thrower or the bow-and-arrow. Since they could not kill their prey from a distance and were not fast enough to catch the animal, the only reliable way to kill it would have been to run it down over a long distance.

In this regard one has to bear in mind that as hominids adapted to bipedalism they would have lost some speed, becoming less able to catch prey with short, fast charges, but gaining endurance and become better adapted to persistence hunting. The evolution of the distinctively human sweating apparatus and relative hairlessness would have given hunters an additional advantage by keeping their bodies cool in the midday heat.

During the persistence hunt an antelope, such as a kudu, is not shot or speared from a distance, but simply run down in the midday heat. Depending on the specific conditions, hunters of the central Kalahari will chase a kudu for about two to five hours over 25 to 35 km (15 to 22 miles) in temperatures of about 40 to 42 °C (104 to 108 °F). The hunter chases the kudu, which then runs away out of sight. By tracking it down at a fast running pace the hunter catches up with it before it has had enough time to rest in the shade. The animal is repeatedly chased and tracked down until it is too exhausted to continue running. The hunter then kills it at close range with a spear.

The persistence hunt is still practised by hunter-gatherers in the central Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa.

Even as animal domestication became relatively widespread, hunting was usually a significant contributor to the human food supply, even after the development of agriculture. The supplementary meat and materials from hunting included protein (literally "the most important") food, bone for implements, sinew for cordage, fur and feathers for ornament, with rawhide and leather also used in clothing and shelter. The earliest hunting weapons would have included rocks, spears, the atlatl, bow and arrows.

On Ancient reliefs, especially from Mesopotamia, kings are often depicted as hunters on big game such as lions, specially from a war chariot, another virile status symbol; perhaps the archetype is the legendary biblical Nimrod (king). The cultural and psychological importance of hunting in ancient societies is represented by deities such as the horned god Cernunnos, or lunar goddesses of classical antiquity, Greek Artemis or Roman Diana. Taboos are often related to hunting, and mythological association of prey species with a divinity could be reflected in hunting restrictions such as a 'reserve' surrounding a temple. Euripides' tale of Artemis and Acteon, for example, may be seen as a caution against disrespect of prey or impudent boasting.

Hunting is still vital in marginal climates, especially those unsuited for pastoral uses or agriculture. Inuit peoples in the Arctic trap and hunt animals for clothing, and produce complicated parkas consisting of up to 60 stitched pieces capable of with-standing sub-zero temperatures. From the skins of sea mammals they may make water-proof kayaks, clothing, gloves and footwear.

With domestication of the dog, birds of prey and the ferret, various forms of animal-aided hunting developed including venery (scent hound hunting, such as fox hunting), coursing (sight hound hunting), falconry and ferreting. These are all associated with medieval hunting; in time various dog breeds were selected for very precise tasks during the hunt, reflected in such names as pointer and setter.

[edit] Hunting in pastoral and agricultural societies

Image:Ladies Hunting.png
Ladies Hunting. Costumes of the fifteenth century. From a miniature in a ms. copy of Ovid's Epistles. No 7231 bis. Bibl. natle de Paris.

Even as agriculture and animal husbandry become more prevalent, hunting often remains a part of human cultures where the environment and social conditions allow. Hunting may be used to kill animals who prey upon domestic animals or to extirpate native animals seen as competition for resources such as water or forage.

As hunting moved from a subsistence activity to a social one, two trends emerged. One was that of the specialist hunter: rather than a general masculine task, hunting became one of many trades pursued by those with special training and equipment. The other was the emergence of hunting as a sport for those of a higher social class. Here in middle English the word "game" finds its meaning extended from a sport to an animal which is hunted.

As game became more of a luxury than a necessity, the stylized pursuit of it also became a luxury. Dangerous hunting, as for lions or wild boars, usually on horseback (or from a chariot, as in Pharaonic Egypt and Mesopotamia) also had function similar to tournaments and manly sports: an honourable, somewhat competitive pastime to help the aristocracy practice skills of war in times of peace.

Image:Nobleman in Hunting Costume preceded by his Servant trying to find the Scent of a Stag From a Miniature in the Book of Gaston Phoebus Des Deduitz de la Chasse des Bestes Sauvaiges.png
Nobleman in Hunting Costume, preceded by his Servant, trying to find the Scent of a Stag. From a Miniature in the Book of Gaston Phoebus ("Des Deduitz de la Chasse des Bestes Sauvaiges"). Manuscript of the Fourteenth Century (National Library of Paris).

In most parts of medieval Europe, the upper-class (aristocracy and higher clergy) obtained as proud privilege the sole rights to hunt (and sometimes fish) in certain areas of a feudal territory. Game in these areas was certainly used as a source of food and furs, often provided via professional huntsmen; but it was also expected to provide a form of recreation for the aristocracy. The importance of this proprietary view of game can be seen in the Robin Hood legends, in which one of the primary charges against the outlaws is that they "hunt the King's deer".

[edit] Hunting with dogs

Although various animals have been used to aid the hunter, none has been as important as the dog. The domestication of the dog has led to a symbiotic relationship in which the dog has lost its evolutionary independence and provided aid in hunting to man in exchange for support. The modern hunting dog represents the combined efforts of generations of mankind in a way that is virtually unparalleled, except perhaps in the cultivation of grapes and production of wine.

Image:Aktation, Nordisk familjebok.png
in Greek mythology, Actaeon is devoured by his own dogs
Their evolution through selective breeding from wolves which hunted for themselves to the pointer and other hunting dogs which find, identify and retrieve prey entirely in service to man is extraordinary.

Although it is largely forgotten by the modern world, the use of dogs in hunting represents a collaboration of persons over time which reaches back to the dawn of our species.

The very word for hunting in Ancient Greek, kynègia, is derived from kynos 'dog'. In the Ottoman empire some 33-34 of the 196 orta (companies, none under a hundred men) of the elite force of Janissaries were Sekban, i.e. dog guards, destined in peace time for the ruler's beloved (dog) hunting past time.

Dogs today are used to find, chase and retrieve game. Hunting dogs allow man, with his less accute senses of smell and hearing, to pursue and kill prey that would otherwise be very difficult or dangerous to hunt.

[edit] Modern sport hunting

In time, this aristocratic type of hunting lost its roots as a source of food and supplies and was seen as a sporting activity. Ultimately, the rising middle class or bourgeoisie adopted the practice and retained its image.

Generally hunters also took two separate paths, recreational and trophy hunting. Although skilled recreational hunters may choose to become more selective hunters in attempts at taking a mature animal, many people hunt not only to kill but to enjoy the outdoors in a way few ever experience.

[edit] Hunting and religion

Since prehistory, the importance of hunting for most cultures was reflected in their religions. For example, many old (often zoomorph) deities are either predators or prey of man. In pagan religions, specific rituals may be present before and after a hunt, the rituals done may vary according to the species hunted or the season the hunt is taking place.

Often a hunting ground, or the hunt for one or more species, was reserved or prohibited in the context of a temple cult.

From early Christian times, hunting, in one form or another has been forbidden to clerics. Thus the "Corpus Juris Canonici" (C. ii, X, De cleric. venat.) we sais "We forbid to all servants of God hunting and expeditions through the woods with hounds; and we also forbid them to keep hawks or falcons." The Fourth Council of the Lateran, held under Pope Innocent III, decreed (canon xv): "We interdict hunting or hawking to all clerics." The decree of the Council of Trent is worded more mildly: "Let clerics abstain from illicit hunting and hawking" (Sess. XXIV, De reform., c. xii), which seems to imply that not all hunting is illicit, and canonists generally make a distinction declaring noisy (clamorosa) hunting unlawful but not quiet (quieta) hunting.

Ferraris (s.v. "Clericus", art. 6) gives it as the general sense of canonists that hunting is allowed to clerics if it be indulged in rarely and for sufficient cause, as necessity, utility or honest recreation, and with that moderation which is becoming to the ecclesiastical state. Ziegler, however (De episc., l. IV, c. xix), thinks that the interpretation of the canonists is not in accordance with the letter or spirit of the laws of the Church.

Nevertheless, although the distinction between lawful and unlawful hunting is undoubtedly permissible, it is certain that a bishop can absolutely prohibit all hunting to the clerics of his diocese, as was done by synods at Milan, Avignon, Liège, Cologne and elsewhere. Benedict XIV (De synodo diœces., l. II, c. x) declared that such synodal decrees are not too severe, as an absolute prohibition of hunting is more conformable to the ecclesiastical law. In practice, therefore, the synodal statutes of various localities must be consulted to discover whether they allow quiet hunting or prohibit it altogether.

[edit] National hunting traditions

[edit] Shikar (India)

During feudal and colonial epoch on the Indian continent, hunting was a true 'regal sport' in the numerous princely states, as many (Maha)rajas, Nawabs etcetera maintained a whole corps, attached to their court, of shikaris, i.e. native professional hunters. Since these had to be armed (not unlike the common lancer units; both could be mounted), they might also double as a supplementary police corps or military contingent; they would be headed by a master of the hunt, who might be styled Mir-shikar. Often these were recruited from the normally low-ranking local tribes (e.g. pre-Aryan Bhils in Rajasthan's premier kingdom Mewar), because of their traditional knowledge of environment, techniques etcetera, but thus could be closer than most subjects to the ruler, who would often hunt big game (preferably the emperor of Asians wildlife, the (Bengal) tiger) in majestic style: on the back of an elephant, often commandeering extra helpers as drivers to scare the game out of the grass or jungle till it came within gun reach. As hunting was an important princely pass-time, worthy hunting lodges were constructed (not unlike feudal Europe).

After European guests of these princes had enjoyed the honor of taking part in these elephant hunts, some colonial Sahibs started organizing their own, and tiger numbers especially dwindled alarmingly. Later, independent republics and neighbouring Himalayan monarchies (as Nepal) acted to curb such massively disturbing 'expeditions', in the name of conservation, although the threat of extirpation, and of extinction by poaching remains real for many species and habitats.

[edit] Safari

Image:Kenyan hunters.jpg
In 1977 Kenya chose to ban all hunting in favor of other tourism.

A safari (from Swahili word meaning a long journey) is an overland journey (especially in Africa).

Safari as a distinctive way of hunting was popularized by US author Ernest Hemingway and president Theodore Roosevelt. It is a several days or even weeks-lasting journey and camping in the bush or jungle, while pursuing big game. Nowadays, it's often used to describe tours through African national parks to watch or hunt wildlife.

Hunters are usually tourists, accompanied by (licensed and highly regulated) professional hunter ("PH"), local guides, skinners and porters in more difficult terrains. A special safari type is the solo-safari where all the license acquiring, stalking, preparation and outfitting is done by the hunter himself. Among trophy hunters, those who outfitted the safaris themselves would receive the greatest admiration.

On the rise, even before integral ecotourism was, is the animal-friendly version known as photo-safari, where the only shots aimed at wildlife come from camera lenses. The synonym Bloodless hunt for hunting with the use of film and a still photo camera was first used by the Polish photographer Włodzimierz Puchalski.

[edit] United Kingdom

Different hunting cultures in 1850's England.

The most controversial form of hunting in the United Kingdom is fox hunting. Originally a form of vermin control to protect livestock, it became a popular social activity for the upper classes in Victorian times, and a traditional rural activity for riders and foot followers alike. The special rituals of the fox hunt and the controversy surrounding it are addressed in the articles fox hunting and fox hunting legislation. Some animal welfare supporters feel that the suffering caused to foxes, horses and hounds are cruel and unnecessary, whilst proponents argue that it is a rural tradition, culturally and economically important.

Similar to fox hunting in many ways is the chasing of hare with hounds. Sight hounds such as greyhounds may be used to run down hare in coursing with scent hounds such as beagles used for beagling, the hunting of hares on foot. Other sorts of foxhounds may also be used for hunting deer or mink. Using dogs to chase wild mammals in this way was made illegal in February 2005 by the Hunting Act 2004. Hunting deer by foot without hounds is called game stalking.

The shooting of game birds, especially pheasant and grouse, is a popular sport in the UK, with the British Association for Shooting and Conservation saying that over a million people per year participate in shooting (including game shooting, clay shooting and target shooting)[1]. The open season for grouse famously begins on August 12, the so-called Glorious Twelfth. The definition of game in the United Kingdom is governed by the Game Act 1831.

See also: Hunting in the United Kingdom

[edit] United States

North American hunting predates the United States by thousands of years, and many Native American hunters retain key hunting rights through legal treaty as part of a long, cultural tradition. In certain cases (such as the Marine Mammal Protection Act), Federal law provides explicit protection for Native American hunting rights. This is particularly true in Alaska, where people still feed on sea and land mammals as well as fish and birds. It is common for rural Alaska Native communities to obtain 50-90% of their daily protein from hunting. [citation needed]

Regulation of hunting is primarily performed by the individual states, although additional regulations are imposed by the federal government in the case of migratory birds (such as ducks and geese) and endangered species. These regulations vary widely from state to state. These regulations govern the areas, time periods, techniques and methods by which specific game animals may be harvested. Some states make a distinction between protected species and unprotected species (often varmints) for which there are no hunting regulations. Hunters of protected species require a hunting license in all states, for which completion of a hunter safety course is sometimes a pre-requisite.

Typically game animals are divided into several categories for regulatory purposes. Typical categories, along with example species, are as follows:

Hunting big game typically requires a "tag" for each animal harvested. Tags must be purchased in addition to the hunting license, and the number of tags issued to an individual is typically limited. In cases where there are more prospective hunters than the quota for that species, tags are usually assigned by lottery. Tags may be further restricted to a specific area or "wildlife management unit". Hunting migratory waterfowl requires a "duck stamp" from the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, which is similar in concept to a tag.

Harvest of animals other than big game is typically restricted by a "bag limit" and a "possession limit". A bag limit is a maximum number of a specific animal species that an individual can harvest in a single day. A possession limit is a maximum number of a specific animal species that can be in an individual's possession at any time.

Weapons used in hunting are also typically regulated by game category, area within the state and time period. Regulations for big game hunting often specify a minimum caliber or muzzle energy for firearms. The use of rifles is often banned in areas with high population density or limited topographic relief. Specific seasons for bow hunting or muzzle-loading black powder weapons are often established to limit competition with hunters using more effective weapons.

Hunting in the United States is not associated with any particular class or culture. Current regulation of hunting within the United States goes back to the 1800's, and most modern hunters see themselves as conservationists and sportsmen, along the lines of Theodore Roosevelt. The Boone and Crockett Club is an excellent example of this: founded in 1887 to discourage commercial hunting, promote conservation and the "fair chase" ethic of hunting "individual animals in a manner that conserves, protects, and perpetuates the hunted population."

Local hunting clubs and national organizations provide hunter education and help protect the future of their sport by buying land to set aside as habitat or by lobbying in Washington, D.C. and state capitals [2]. Two such private organizations are Ducks Unlimited and Delta Waterfowl.

Each year, nearly $200 million in hunters' federal excise taxes are distributed to State agencies to support wildlife management programs, the purchase of lands open to hunters, and hunter education and safety classes. Since 1934 the sale of Federal Duck Stamps, a required purchase for migratory waterfowl hunters over 16 years old, has raised over $700 million to help purchase more than 5.2 million acres (20,000 km²) of habitat for the National Wildlife Refuge System lands that support waterfowl and many other wildlife species, and are often open to hunting. States also collect monies from hunting licenses to assist with management of game animals, as designated by law. A key task of Federal and state park rangers and game wardens is to enforce laws and regulations related to hunting, including species protection, hunting seasons, and hunting bans.

Varmint hunting is an American phrase for the killing of non-game animals seen as pests. While not an efficient form of pest control (poisoning and trapping are much more effective), it does provide recreation and is much less regulated. Varmint species are often responsible for detrimental effects on crops, livestock, landscaping, infrastructure, and pets. Some animals (such as wild rabbits or squirrels) may be utilized for fur or meat, but often no use is made of the carcass. Which species are "varmints" depends on the circumstance and area. Common varmints include various rodents, coyotes, crows, foxes, feral cats, and feral hogs. Some animals once considered varmints are now protected, such as wolves.

[edit] Wildlife management

Hunting can be an important tool for wildlife management. Hunting gives resource managers a valuable tool to control populations of some species that might otherwise exceed the carrying capacity of their habitat and threaten the well-being of other wildlife species, and in some instances, that of human health and safety [3]. Hunting reduces the annual crop of new animals and birds to allow the remaining animals sufficient feed and shelter to survive. Some environmentalists assert that introducing appropriate predator animals would achieve the same benefit with more efficiency and less environmental impact, but some livestock owners disagree, seeing human killing as more explicitly selective. For science on this topic see: Aldo Leopold.

An example of using hunters in wildlife management can be found in the "Snow, Blue and Ross' Goose Conservation Order 2005." [4] The Conservation Order allows hunters, after all other waterfowl seasons are closed, to shoot an unlimited number of these species of geese. The reason for the Conservation Order is that these species have grown so numerous that they are destroying the Arctic environment which many species of animals use as breeding grounds.

Animal management authorities sometimes rely on hunting to control certain animal populations. These hunts are sometimes carried out by professional hunters although other hunts include amateurs. Overpopulations of deer in urban parks might be hunted by animal management authorities.

[edit] A Variety of hunting methods

Historical, subsistence and sport hunting techniques can differ radically, with modern hunting regulations often addressing issues of where, when and how hunts are conducted. Techniques may vary depending on government regulations, a hunter's personal ethics, local custom, weapons and the animal being hunted. Often a hunter will use a combination of more than one technique, and some are used primarily in poaching and wildlife management, explicitly forbidden to sport hunters.

  • Baiting is the use of decoys, lures, scent or food to attract animals
  • Blind or Stand hunting is waiting for animals from a concealed or elevated position
  • Calling is the use of animal noises to attract or drive animals
  • Camouflage is the use of visual concealment (or scent) to blend with the environment
  • Dogs may be used to help flush, herd, drive, track, point at, pursue or retrieve prey
  • Driving is the herding of animals in a particular direction, usually toward another hunter in the group
  • Flushing is the practice of scaring animals from concealed areas
  • Glassing is the use of optics (such as binoculars) to more easily locate animals
  • Scouting includes a variety of tasks and techniques for finding animals to hunt
  • Spotlighting is the use of artificial light to find or blind animals before killing
  • Stalking is the practice of walking quietly, often in pursuit of an identified animal
  • Still Hunting is the practice of walking quietly in search of animals
  • Tracking is the practice of reading physical evidence in pursuing animals
  • Trapping is the use of devices (snares, pits, deadfalls) to capture or kill an animal

[edit] Trophy hunting

Úsov Château, the Czech Republic, contains a large collection of tropheys acquired by Liechtensteins in their hunting expeditions in Europe, Africa and Asia.

In the 1800s southern and central European hunters often pursued game only for a trophy, usually the head or pelt of an animal, to be displayed as a sign of prowess. The rest of the animal was often wasted. In contrast, in relatively scarcely populated northern Europe, hunting has remained the tradition of the common people, and still serves a purpose as a means of acquiring meat, although the standard of living does not require it. Eating game is generally considered a healthier and more ethical alternative to the exploitation of farmed animals. In the Nordic countries, hunting for trophies was, and still is, frowned upon, but an impressive trophy is considered a bonus. This is perhaps the most common practice of modern hunters worldwide.

Trophy hunting is the most controversial aspect of hunting for opponents of hunting, who argue that modern economics or vegetarianism should eliminate the need for most killing of animals, if not animal domestication entirely. They see such killing as an issue of morality, citing British fox hunting as an especially inhumane "blood sport."

Hunting in North America in the 1800s was done primarily as a way to supplement food supplies. The safari method of hunting was a development of sport hunting that saw elaborate travel in Africa, India and other places in pursuit of trophies. In modern times, trophy hunting persists, but is frowned upon by some when it involves rare or endangered species of animal. Other people also object to trophy hunting in general because it is seen as a senseless act of killing another living thing for recreation, rather than food.

Advocates of trophy hunting disagree. They note that modern regulations explicitly address issues of unnecessary harassment and that the vast majority of the edible portions of the animal are consumed by the hunters themselves or given to local inhabitants. This along with fees paid to hunt contribute to the local economy and provide value to animals that would otherwise be seen as competition for grazing, livestock, and crops [5].

[edit] Economics of hunting

A variety of industries benefit from hunting, and support hunting on economic grounds, beyond the ecological arguments of hunter-gathering and pastoral use of marginal habitats.

In Tanzania it is estimated that a safari hunter spends 50-100 times that of the average eco-tourist, and at a lower environmental impact. The average photo tourist often demands luxury accommodations and at a higher number of visitors to make the endeavor financially viable. In contrast, the average safari hunter travels on foot, staying in tented camps and in vastly smaller numbers. Safari hunters are also more likely to use remote areas, uninviting to the average eco-tourist. They argue that these hunters allow for anti-poaching activities and revenue for local communities [6].

In the United Kingdom the game hunting of birds as an industry is said to be extremely important to the rural economy: The Cobham Report of 1997 suggested it to be worth around £700 million, and hunting and shooting lobby groups now claim it to be worth over a billion.

Hunting is also a major industry in the United States, with many companies specializing in hunting equipment or specialty tourism. Today's hunters come from a broad range of economic, social, and cultural backgrounds, including a significant luxury segment. In 2001, over 13 million hunters averaged eighteen days hunting and spent over $20.5 billion on their sport. The Outdoor Channel and OLN are cable television channels where programs such as Hunter's Handbook TV teach hunting safety and showcase new hunting destinations or products such as recreational vehicles, specialty clothing or firearms.

In the U.S., proceeds from hunting licenses contribute to game management programs (especially at the state level) including preservation of wildlife habitat. Some organizations such as Ducks Unlimited and the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation provide sizeable funds to the enhancement and preservation of game animals, thereby augmenting or even exceeding government efforts. For instance, in 2004 the elk foundation reported that over a 20-year period it had preserved or improved some 4 million acres (16,000 km²) of habitat for a variety of wildlife.

Key parts of the agricultural industry may also support hunting. A marginal ranch or farm may be converted to a private "hunting preserve" to bring in tourist revenues, for example. Within American industrial forestry, deer are often considered pests, and hunters a key political ally to be used against more restrictive environmentalists.

[edit] Depictions in popular culture

In addition to positive portrayals of hunting and hunters on television shows aimed at hunters, hunting is also frequently portrayed in movies and popular culture as part of a broader social commentary.

Some of the most widespread depictions of hunting have been through animation, particularly in movies such as the 1942 film Bambi and through Looney Tunes cartoons featuring Bugs Bunny and Elmer Fudd. Such anthropomorphism of prey animals or "varmints" is frequently used as social satire, with the audience intended to sympathize with the hunted animal and the socially powerful hunter portrayed as incompetent or a macho buffoon. At the other end of the spectrum Ted Nugent portrays the hunter as a rock and roll iconoclast.

Hunting may also be depicted in a matter-of-fact way, as in the 1990 film Dances with Wolves or the 1970 Little Big Man which contrast modern hunters with a romantic noble savage. Filmed depictions of hunting by aboriginal cultures like American Indians tend to be more sympathetic. Hunting is portrayed as necessary subsistence, as is the case in many Alaskan Bush communities today.[7] Varmint hunting of prairie dogs is depicted in John Ross' novel Unintended Consequences. A favorable depiction of hunting is found in L. Neil Smith's science fiction novel Pallas. Hunting is central to many works by Ernest Hemingway and even used as an extended metaphor in the new age self-help fiction of Carlos Castaneda's Journey to Ixtlan.

[edit] See also

[edit] Sources and external links

af:Jag be:Паляванне bs:Lov bg:Лов cs:Lov da:Jagt de:Jagd es:Caza eo:Ĉasado fr:Chasse gl:Cinexética hr:Lov he:ציד it:Caccia lv:Medniecība lb:Juegd nl:Jacht (activiteit) ja:狩猟 no:Jakt nn:Jakt pl:Polowanie pt:Caça ru:Охота simple:Hunting sl:Lov fi:Metsästys sv:Jakt tr:Avcılık


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