Human Development Index

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Image:HDImap2006.png
World map indicating Human Development Index (2006).

██ high (0.800 - 1)

██ medium (0.500 - 0.799)

██ low (0.300 - 0.499)

██ n/a

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of living for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare. It is used to distinguish whether the country is a developed, developing, or under developed country, and also to measure the impact of economic policies on quality of life.<ref>Davies, A. and G. Quinlivan (2006), A Panel Data Analysis of the Impact of Trade on Human Development, Journal of Socioeconomics</ref> The index was developed in 1990 by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, and has been used since 1993 by the United Nations Development Programme in its annual Human Development Report.

The HDI measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development:

Each year, UN member states are listed and ranked according to these measures. Those high on the list often advertise it (e.g., Jean Chrétien, Former Prime Minister of Canada [1]), as a means of attracting talented immigrants (economically, individual capital) or discouraging emigration.

An alternative measure, focusing on the amount of poverty in a country, is the Human Poverty Index.

Contents

[edit] Methodology

In general to transform a raw variable, say <math>x</math>, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:

  • <math>x</math>-index = <math>\frac{x - \min\left(x\right)} {\max\left(x\right)-\min\left(x\right)}</math>

where <math>\min\left(x\right)</math> and <math>\max\left(x\right)</math> are the lowest and highest values the variable <math>x</math> can attain, respectively.

The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the average of the following three general indices:

  • Life Expectancy Index (LEI) = <math>\frac{LE - 25} {85-25}</math>
  • Education Index (EI) = <math>\frac{2} {3} \times ALI + \frac{1} {3} \times GEI</math>
  • Adult Literacy Index (ALI) = <math>\frac{ALR - 0} {100 - 0}</math>
  • GDP Index (GI) = <math>\frac{\log\left(GDPpc\right) - \log\left(100\right)} {\log\left(40000\right) - \log\left(100\right)}</math>

Therefore:

HDI = <math>\frac{1} {3} \times (LEI) + \frac{1} {3} \times (EI) + \frac{1} {3} \times (GI)</math>

LE: Life expectancy
ALR: Adult literacy rate
CGEI: Combined gross enrolment index
GDPpc: GDP per capita at PPP in USD

[edit] 2006 report

Image:HDImap spectrum2006.png
Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) </td>
██ over 0.95 ██ 0.90-0.949 ██ 0.85-0.899 ██ 0.80-0.849 ██ 0.75-0.799 ██ 0.70-0.749 ██ 0.65-0.699 ██ 0.60-0.649 ██ 0.55-0.599 ██ 0.50-0.549 ██ 0.45-0.499 ██ 0.40-0.449 ██ 0.35-0.399 ██ 0.30-0.349 ██ under 0.30 ██ N/A

The report for 2006 was launched in Cape Town, South Africa on November 9 2006. Its focus was on "power, poverty and the global water crisis." [2] Most of the data used for the report are derived largely from 2004 or earlier, thus indicating an HDI for 2004. Not all UN member states choose to or are able to provide the necessary statistics.

The report showed a stagnation in world HDI, due to a continued improvement of developed countries, averaged with a general decline of the developing world. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia showed an important decline in HDI, in comparison with last year's report. Other developing regions showed little to no improvement.

An HDI below 0.5 is considered to represent low development and 29 of the 31 countries in that category are located in Africa, with the exceptions of Haiti and Yemen. The bottom ten countries are all in Africa. The highest-scoring Sub-Saharan countries, Equatorial Guinea and South Africa, are ranked 120th and 121st, respectively (with a shared HDI of 0.653).

An HDI 0.8 or more is considered to represent high development. This includes all developed countries and some developing countries in mainly Eastern Europe, Latin America, Southeast Asia and oil-rich Arabian Peninsula. All member states of the European Union (as well as the acceding countries, Romania and Bulgaria) are included in this category.

[edit] Top thirty countries (HDI range from 0.965 down to 0.885)

  1. Image:Flag of Norway.svg Norway (=)
  2. Image:Flag of Iceland.svg Iceland (=)
  3. Image:Flag of Australia.svg Australia (=)
  4. Image:Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland (↑ 4)
  5. Image:Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden (↑ 1)
  6. Image:Flag of Canada.svg Canada (↓ 1)
  7. Image:Flag of Japan (bordered).svg Japan (↑ 4)
  8. Image:Flag of the United States.svg United States (↑ 2)
  9. Image:Flag of Switzerland.svg Switzerland (↓ 2)
  10. Image:Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands (↑ 2)
  1. Image:Flag of Finland (bordered).svg Finland (↑ 2)
  2. Image:Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg (↓ 8)
  3. Image:Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium (↓ 4)
  4. Image:Flag of Austria.svg Austria (↑ 3)
  5. Image:Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark (↓ 1)
  6. Image:Flag of France.svg France (=)
  7. Image:Flag of Italy.svg Italy (↑ 1)
  8. Image:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom (↓ 3)
  9. Image:Flag of Spain.svg Spain (↑ 2)
  10. Image:Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand (↓ 1)

  1. Image:Flag of Germany.svg Germany (↓ 1)
  2. Image:Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong (SAR(=)
  3. Image:Flag of Israel (bordered).svg Israel (=)
  4. Image:Flag of Greece.svg Greece (=)
  5. Image:Flag of Singapore (bordered).svg Singapore (=)
  6. Image:Flag of South Korea (bordered).svg South Korea (↑ 2)
  7. Image:Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia (↓ 1)
  8. Image:Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal (↓ 1)
  9. Image:Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus (=)
  10. Image:Flag of the Czech Republic (bordered).svg Czech Republic (↑ 1)

[edit] Top/bottom three countries by region

Africa

047. Image:Flag of the Seychelles.svg Seychelles
063. Image:Flag of Mauritius.svg Mauritius (↑ 2)
064. Image:Flag of Libya.svg Libya (↓ 6)
...
175. Image:Flag of Mali.svg Mali (↓ 1)
176. Image:Flag of Sierra Leone.svg Sierra Leone (=)
177. Image:Flag of Niger.svg Niger (=)

Asia

007. Image:Flag of Japan (bordered).svg Japan (↑ 4)
022. Image:Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong (SAR) (=)
023. Image:Flag of Israel (bordered).svg Israel (=)
...
138. Image:Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal (↓ 2)
142. Image:Flag of East Timor.svg East Timor (↓ 2)
150. Image:Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen (↑ 1)

Europe

001. Image:Flag of Norway.svg Norway (=)
002. Image:Flag of Iceland.svg Iceland (=)
004. Image:Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland (↑ 4)
...
097. Image:Flag of Georgia (bordered).svg Georgia (↑ 3)
099. Image:Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan (↑ 2)
114. Image:Flag of Moldova.svg Moldova (↑ 1)

North America

006. Image:Flag of Canada.svg Canada (↓ 1)
008. Image:Flag of the United States.svg United States (↑ 2)
031. Image:Flag of Barbados.svg Barbados (↓ 1)
...
117. Image:Flag of Honduras.svg Honduras (↓ 1)
118. Image:Flag of Guatemala.svg Guatemala (↓ 1)
154. Image:Flag of Haiti.svg Haiti (↓ 1)

Oceania

003. Image:Flag of Australia.svg Australia (=)
020. Image:Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand (↓ 1)
055. Image:Flag of Tonga.svg Tonga (↓ 1)
...
119. Image:Flag of Vanuatu.svg Vanuatu (↓ 1)
128. Image:Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg Solomon Islands (=)
139. Image:Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua New Guinea (↓ 2)

South America

036. Image:Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina (↓ 2)
038. Image:Flag of Chile (bordered).svg Chile (↓ 1)
043. Image:Flag of Uruguay.svg Uruguay (↑ 3)
...
091. Image:Flag of Paraguay.svg Paraguay (↓ 3)
103. Image:Flag of Guyana.svg Guyana (↑ 4)
115. Image:Flag of Bolivia.svg Bolivia (↓ 2)

[edit] Countries not included

The following countries or territories are not ranked in the 2006 Human Development Index, for being unable or unwilling to provide the necessary data, or for not being recognized as states by the United Nations.

Africa

Americas

Asia

Europe

Oceania

[edit] References

<references/>

[edit] See also

[edit] External links


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