Honolulu, Hawaii

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Honolulu, Hawaii
Image:Honoluluflag2.PNG
Image:Sealshadow.jpg
Flag Seal
Nickname: "Sheltered Bay"
Location within the island of Oahu in the state of Hawaii
Coordinates: 21°18′32″N, 157°49′34″W
Country United States
State Hawaii
County City and County of Honolulu
Mayor Mufi Hannemann
Area  
 - City 105 mi² / 272.1 km²
 - Land 85.7 mi² / 222.0 km²
 - Water 85.7 mi² / 222.0 km²
Elevation Sea Level m
Population  
 - City (2004) 377,260 (estimate)
 - Density 1,699/km²
Time zone Hawaii-Aleutian Standard Time (UTC-10)
Website: http://www.co.honolulu.hi.us/

Honolulu is the capital and the most populous community of the State of Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaiian language, honolulu means "sheltered bay" or "place of shelter." The census-designated place (CDP) is located along the southeast coast of the island of Oʻahu. The term also refers to the District of Honolulu (see Geography below). As of July 1, 2004, the United States Census Bureau estimate for Honolulu puts the population at 377,260 and that of the city and county (essentially, the Island of Oʻahu) at 900,000. In Hawaiʻi, local governments operate only at the county level, and the City & County of Honolulu encompasses all of the Island of Oʻahu (approximately 600 square miles).

Contents

[edit] History

Image:IMG 9491r-vi.jpg
View of the DFS Galleria in Waikīkī

It is not known when Honolulu was first settled by the original Polynesian migrants to the archipelago. Oral histories and artifacts indicate that there was a settlement where Honolulu now stands in the 12th century. However, after Kamehameha I conquered Oʻahu in the Battle of Nuʻuanu Pali, he moved his royal court from the Island of Hawaiʻi to Waikīkī in 1804. His court later relocated, in 1809, to what is now downtown Honolulu.

Captain William Brown of England was the first foreigner to sail, in 1794, into what is now Honolulu Harbor. More foreign ships would follow, making the port of Honolulu a focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia.

In 1845, Kamehameha III moved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lāhainā on Maui to Honolulu. He and the kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into a modern capital, erecting buildings such as St. Andrew's Cathedral, ʻIolani Palace, and Aliʻiōlani Hale. At the same time, Honolulu became the center of commerce in the Islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing major businesses in downtown Honolulu.

Despite the turbulent history of the late 19th century and early 20th century, which saw the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, Hawaiʻi's subsequent annexation by the United States, and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Honolulu would remain the capital, largest city, and main airport and seaport of the Hawaiian Islands.

An economic and tourism boom following statehood brought rapid economic growth to Honolulu and Hawaiʻi. Modern air travel would bring thousands, eventually millions (per annum) of visitors to the Islands. Today, Honolulu is a modern city with numerous high-rise buildings, and Waikīkī is the center of the tourism industry in Hawaiʻi, with thousands of hotel rooms.

[edit] Geography and climate

Honolulu is located at 21°18'32" North, 157°49'34" West (21.308950, -157.826182)GR1. While this is clearly in the tropics, the climate (temperature and humidity) is moderated by the mid-ocean location and some cooling achieved by the California Current that passes through the islands much of year. The average daily low and high temperatures in January are 65/80 °F (18/27 °C) and in July are 74/88 °F (23/31 °C). Temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) only rarely, with lows in the 50's °F (15 °C) occurring perhaps once or twice in a year. The hottest temperature ever recorded in Honolulu was 95 °F (35 °C) on September 19, 1994 and the coldest temperature ever recorded was 53 °F (11.6 °C) on January 31, 1998, 1972 and 1948 and on January 20, 1969 and on February 1 and February 2, 1976 and on February 9, 1981 and on February 12, 1983.

Image:Honolulu - NASA.jpg
Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station

The Honolulu District is located on the southeast coast of O‘ahu between Makapuʻu and Hālawa. The District boundary follows the Koʻolau crestline, so Makapuʻu Beach is in the Koʻolaupoko District. On the west, the district boundary follows Hālawa Stream, then crosses Red Hill and runs just west of Āliamanu Crater, so that Aloha Stadium, Pearl Harbor (with the USS Arizona Memorial), and Hickam Air Force Base are actually all located in the island's ʻEwa District.

Most of the city's commercial and industrial developments are located on a narrow but relatively flat coastal plain, while numerous ridges and valleys located inland of the coastal plain divide Honolulu's residential areas into distinct neighborhoods: some spread along valley floors (like Mānoa in Mānoa Valley) and others climb the interfluvial ridges. Within Honolulu proper can be found several volcanic cones: Punchbowl, Diamond Head, Koko Head (includes Hanauma Bay), Koko Crater, Salt Lake, and Āliamanu being the most conspicuous.

Honolulu and Juneau, Alaska are the only two US state capitals that cannot be reached directly by road from the contiguous 48 States. Direct connections to these capitals require a boat or a plane.

[edit] Government

Originally governed by a Board of Supervisors, the City & County of Honolulu is administered under a mayor-council system of governance overseeing all municipal services: civil defense, driver licensing, emergency medical, fire, parks and recreation, police, sanitation, streets, vehicle registration, voter registration, water, among others. One of the largest municipal governments in the United States, the City & County of Honolulu has an annual operating budget of $1 billion.

The current mayor of Honolulu is Mufi Hannemann (term ends January 2009).

[edit] Neighborhoods and special districts

Image:Honolulu Downtown.jpg
View of downtown Honolulu at Bishop and King streets with First Hawaiian Center building (left) and Bank of Hawaiʻi (right)
  • Downtown Honolulu is the financial, commercial, and governmental center of Hawaiʻi. On the waterfront is Aloha Tower, which for many years was the tallest building in Hawaiʻi. Currently the tallest building is the 438-foot-tall (134 m) First Hawaiian Center, located on King and Bishop Streets ([1]).
  • The Capitol District is the eastern part of Downtown Honolulu. It is the current and historic center of Hawaiʻi's state government, incorporating the Hawaiʻi State Capitol, ʻIolani Palace, Honolulu Hale (City Hall), State Library, and the statue of King Kamehameha I, along with numerous government buildings.
  • Kakaʻako is a light-industrial district between Downtown and Waikīkī that has seen a large-scale redevelopment effort in the past decade. It is home to two major shopping areas, Ward Warehouse and Ward Centre. The John A. Burns School of Medicine, part of the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa is also located there. A Memorial to the Ehime Maru Incident victims is built at Kakaʻako Waterfront Park.
  • Waikīkī is the world famous tourist district of Honolulu, located between the Ala Wai Canal and the Pacific Ocean next to Diamond Head. Numerous hotels, shops, and nightlife opportunities are located along Kalākaua and Kuhio Avenues. World-famous Waikīkī Beach attracts millions of visitors a year. Just west of Waikīkī is Ala Moana Center, the world's largest open-air shopping center. A majority of the hotel rooms on Oʻahu are located in Waikīkī.
Image:DwntwnfmCapitol.jpg
Downtown Honolulu as seen from the Capitol District
  • Mānoa and Makiki are residential neighborhoods located in adjacent valleys just inland of downtown and Waikīkī. Mānoa Valley is home to the main campus of the University of Hawaiʻi.
  • Nuʻuanu and Pauoa are middle-class to upper-middle-class residential districts located inland of downtown Honolulu. The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific is located in Punchbowl Crater fronting Pauoa Valley.
  • Palolo and Kaimukī are neighborhoods east of Mānoa and Makiki, inland from Diamond Head. Palolo Valley parallels Mānoa and is a residential neighborhood. Kaimukī is primarily a residential neighborhood with a commercial strip centered on Waiʻalae Avenue running behind Diamond Head. Chaminade University is located in Kaimukī.
  • Waiʻalae and Kāhala are the upper-class districts of Honolulu located directly east of Diamond Head, where there are many high-priced homes. Also found in these neighborhoods are the Waiʻalae Country Club and the Kāhala Mandarin Oriental Hotel.
  • East Honolulu includes the residential communities of ʻĀina Haina, Niu Valley, and Hawaiʻi Kai. These are considered upper-middle-class neighborhoods.
  • Kalihi and Pālama are working-class neighborhoods with a number of government housing developments. Lower Kalihi, toward the ocean, is a light-industrial district.
  • Salt Lake and Āliamanu are (mostly) residential areas built in extinct tuff cones along the western end of the Honolulu District, not far from the Honolulu International Airport.
  • Moanalua is two neighborhoods and a valley at the western end of Honolulu, and home to Tripler Army Medical Center.
  • Hawaii Kai is a large residential area in the extreme eastern end of the island. The upscale gated community Hawaii Loa Ridge is located here.

[edit] Demographics

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 371,657 people, 140,337 households, and 87,429 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,674.4/km² (4,336.6/mi²). There were 158,663 housing units at an average density of 714.8/km² (1,851.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 19.67% White; 1.62% Black or African American; 0.19% Native American; 55.85% Asian; 6.85% Pacific Islander; 0.89% from other races; and 14.93% from two or more races. 4.37% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Of the 140,337 households, 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.7% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size is 3.23.

In Honolulu in 2000, the age distribution was 19.2% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city proper was $45,112, and the median income for a family was $56,311. Males had a median income of $36,631 versus $29,930 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $24,191. 11.8% of the population and 7.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 14.6% of those under the age of 18 and 8.5% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

[edit] Notable citizens

Further information: List of famous people from Hawaii

[edit] Transportation

[edit] Air

Located on the western end of Honolulu proper, Honolulu International Airport (HNLA) is the principal aviation gateway to the state of Hawaiʻi.

[edit] Highways

Two freeways serve Honolulu:

Other major highways that link Honolulu proper with other parts of the Island of Oʻahu are:

Like most major American cities, the Honolulu metropolitan area experiences heavy traffic congestion during rush hours, especially to and from the western suburbs of Kapolei, ʻEwa, ʻAiea, Pearl City, Waipahu, and Mililani. Land for expanding road capacity is at a premium everywhere on Oʻahu.

[edit] Public transportation

Established by former Mayor Frank F. Fasi, Honolulu's public transit system has been twice honored by the American Public Transportation Association bestowing the title of "America's Best Transit System" for 1994-1995 and 2000-2001. Oʻahu Transit Services' "TheBus" operates 93 routes with a fleet of 525 buses.

Currently, there is no fixed-rail mass transit system in Honolulu. However, in 2004, the City & County of Honolulu and the State of Hawai‘i approved development of an action plan for a fixed rail mass transit system to be built in several phases. The initial line could link Kapolei in West O‘ahu to UH Manoa. Several attempts had been made since the 1980s and 1990s to construct a fixed rail mass transit system but stalled during Honolulu City Council hearings.

Also in 2004, construction had started on a bus rapid transit (BRT) system using dedicated rights-of-way for buses. The system, proposed by former Mayor Jeremy Harris, was expected to link the Iwilei neighborhood with Waikīkī. However, current Mayor Mufi Hannemann has largely dismantled the BRT system and deployed its buses along other express bus routes.

[edit] Cultural institutions

[edit] Performing arts

Established in 1900, the Honolulu Symphony is the oldest US symphony orchestra west of the Rocky Mountains. Other classical music ensembles include the Hawaiʻi Opera Theatre. Honolulu is also a center for Hawaiian music. The main music venues include the Neal Blaisdell Center Concert Hall, the Waikīkī Shell, and the Hawaiʻi Theatre.

Honolulu also includes several venues for live theatre, including the Diamond Head Theatre and the Manoa Valley Theatre.

[edit] Visual arts

Located near downtown Honolulu, the premier venue for visual arts in Hawaiʻi is the Honolulu Academy of Arts. The Honolulu Academy of Arts features the largest collection of Western and Asian art in Hawaiʻi and also hosts a year-round film and video program dedicated to the presentation of arthouse and world cinema in the museum's Doris Duke Theatre. The Contemporary Museum in Makiki is the main museum of contemporary art in the state.

[edit] Gardens

[edit] Other museums, aquariums, zoos, and cultural centers

  • The Bishop Museum is the largest museum in the State of Hawaiʻi and houses millions of natural history specimens and cultural artifacts relating to Hawaiʻi and the Pacific.
  • The Honolulu Academy of Arts has steadily grown to become Hawai‘i’s largest private presenter of visual arts programs, boasting a permanent collection of over 40,000 works of art from cultures around the world.
  • The Waikīkī Aquarium and the Honolulu Zoo are both located at the eastern end of Waikīkī in Kapiʻolani Park.
  • The Hawaii State Art Museum (HISAM) (official site) is located in the downtown district in the old YMCA building and features local artists. Blessed with both a great collection and a competent house staff.
  • Shangri La (Doris Duke)

[edit] Sports

Currently, Honolulu has no professional sports teams. However, Honolulu hosts the NFL's annual Pro Bowl each February in addition to the NCAA football Hawaii Bowl. Fans of spectator sports in Honolulu generally support the football, volleyball, basketball, and baseball programs of the University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa. High school sporting events, especially football, are especially popular. Venues for spectator sports in Honolulu include:

Honolulu's mild climate lends itself to year-round fitness activities as well. In 2004, Men's Fitness magazine named Honolulu the fittest city in the U.S. Honolulu is also home to three large road races:

  • The Great Aloha Run is held annually on Presidents' Day.
  • The Honolulu Marathon, held annually on the second Sunday in December, draws more than 20,000 participants each year, about half to two thirds of them from Japan.
  • The Honolulu Triathlon held its first race in 2004, when it hosted the US Olympic Triathlon Trials, and is billed as Hawaii's premier Olympic-distance triathlon. No sprint course is offered during the event, which is held in May.

[edit] Former professional franchises

[edit] Media

[edit] Newspapers

Honolulu is served by two daily newspapers: the Honolulu Advertiser and the Honolulu Star-Bulletin. It is one of the few cities of its size in the U.S. to have more than one daily newspaper.

[edit] Television

(from hawaiiradiotv.com)

[edit] Full power TV channels

[edit] Low-power TV channels

[edit] Digital TV channels

[edit] Radio stations

[edit] 17 AM radio stations

[edit] 20 FM radio stations

  • 88.1 KHPR Classical, News (National Public Radio)
  • 89.3 KIPO News, Information, Jazz (National Public Radio)
  • 90.3 KTUH Modern Rock, Progressive music
  • 92.3 KSSK Adult Contemporary
  • 93.1 KQMQ Top 40
  • 93.9 KIKI Rhythmic Top 40
  • 94.7 KUMU-FM Adult Contemporary
  • 95.5 KAIM-FM Contemporary Christian
  • 96.3 KRTR-FM Adult Top 40
  • 97.5 KHNR Talk
  • 98.5 KDNN Hawaiian Contemporary
  • 99.5 KHUI Hawaiian Adult Contemporary
  • 100.3 KCCN Hawaiian Top 40
  • 101.1 KLHI Modern Rock
  • 101.1 KXRG-LP Dance (Broadcasting daily from 2pm to 2am; one of nine full-time dance stations in the US)
  • 101.9 KUCD Modern Rock
  • 102.7 KDDB Rhythmic Top 40
  • 104.3 KPHW Rhythmic Top 40
  • 105.1 KINE Traditional Hawaiian
  • 105.9 KPOI Classic Rock
  • 107.9 KGMZ Oldies

[edit] Cable and satellite television

Oceanic-Time Warner Cable (a division of Time Warner Cable) is the primary cable television carrier in the Honolulu metropolitan area. Satellite television (DIRECTV, Dish Network, some C-Band) is also available as an alternative.

[edit] Tourist attractions

See also: Oahu

[edit] Colleges & universities

[edit] Sister cities

Honolulu currently has 26 sister cities. They are:

[edit] References

  1. Geographic references.
  2. Honolulu Advertiser, Section B. Monday, June 7, 2004. Estimated student body size and annual tuition for selected colleges on Oʻahu.
  3. [2], List of Sister Cities for the state of Hawaii, including Honolulu, from Sister Cities International.

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Image:Flag of Hawaii.svg

State of Hawaii

Topics

Geography | Government | History | Politics | People

Capital Honolulu
Islands

Hawaiʻi | Kahoʻolawe | Kauaʻi | Lānaʻi | Maui | Molokaʻi | Niʻihau | Northwestern Hawaiʻian Islands | Oʻahu

Communities

Hilo | Honolulu | Kahului | Waipahu | Līhuʻe

Counties

Hawaiʻi | Honolulu | Kalawao | Kauaʻi | Maui


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