Greater London

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Greater London
London region
London region shown within England
Status Region
Administrative area
Ceremonial county *
— Total
Ranked 9th
1,579 km²
— Total
— Density
Ranked 2nd
7,517,700 (mid-2005)
4,761/km² (mid-2005)
HQ City Hall, Southwark
— Type
London Assembly
directly elected
Authority Greater London Authority
Mayor Ken Livingstone
European parliament London
† - called London
* - excluding the City of London

Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. The administrative area was created in 1965 and covers the City of London and 32 London boroughs. Its area also forms the London region of England and the London European Parliament constituency.

It covers 1579 km² (609 square miles) and had a 2005 mid-year estimated population of 7,517,700. It is bounded by the Home Counties of Essex and Hertfordshire in the East of England region and Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Surrey and Kent in South East England. The highest point is Westerham Heights, in the North Downs and on the boundary with Kent, at 245 metres.


[edit] Status

Greater London is not a "City" as it does not have official city status; in any case one London borough, Westminster, is officially a city, as well as the City of London itself which would make such a status anomalous. A Lord Lieutenant of Greater London is appointed for its area, less the City of London; an area identical to the Metropolitan Police District; and for the purposes of the Lieutenancies Act 1997 this area is defined as a county.

The term "London" is normally used in reference to Greater London or to the overall conurbation, but not to the ancient, tiny City of London in east central London. Instead, this small area is often referred to simply as "the City" or "the Square Mile" and it forms the main financial district. Archaically the urbanised area of London was known as the Metropolis. In common usage, the terms 'London' and 'Greater London' are usually used interchangeably.

It is officially divided for some purposes, with varying definitions, into Inner London and Outer London. For strategic planning purposes the region is divided into five sub regions.

[edit] Politics

[edit] Regional government

It is the only English region with a directly elected mayor with wide ranging devolved powers and an elected regional assembly which together comprise the Greater London Authority (the "GLA"). The current Mayor of London is Ken Livingstone. He is scrutinised by an elected London Assembly, which may amend his annual budget (by two-thirds majority) but otherwise lacks the power to block his directives. The headquarters of the GLA is at City Hall in Southwark. The Mayor is responsible for London's strategic planning and is required to produce a London Plan document.
The Greater London Authority is based in City Hall

[edit] Local government

Further information: London borough

Greater London is divided into 32 London boroughs, each governed by a London borough council; and the City of London, which has a unique government dating back to the 12th century. They are often considered as unitary authorities but not named as such. All London borough councils belong to the Association of London Government. Two London boroughs, Kensington and Chelsea and Kingston, carry the purely honorific title of Royal borough.

  1. City of London
  2. City of Westminster
  3. Kensington and Chelsea
  4. Hammersmith and Fulham
  5. Wandsworth
  6. Lambeth
  7. Southwark
  8. Tower Hamlets
  9. Hackney
  10. Islington
  11. Camden
  12. Brent
  13. Ealing
  14. Hounslow
  15. Richmond
  16. Kingston
  17. Merton
  1. Sutton
  2. Croydon
  3. Bromley
  4. Lewisham
  5. Greenwich
  6. Bexley
  7. Havering
  8. Barking and Dagenham
  9. Redbridge
  10. Newham
  11. Waltham Forest
  12. Haringey
  13. Enfield
  14. Barnet
  15. Harrow
  16. Hillingdon

[edit] London Assembly

Further information: London Assembly constituencies
Greater London Authority logo

For elections to the London Assembly, London is divided into fourteen constituencies. The constituencies are formed from the area of two or three boroughs combined. The City of London forms part of the City and East constituency.

[edit] UK Parliament

Further information: List of Parliamentary constituencies in Greater London

London is divided into 74 Parliamentary constituencies, which are all borough constituencies. They are formed from the combined area of several wards from one or more London Boroughs. Typically a single borough is covered by two or three constituencies. Their number will be reduced to 73 before the next general election.

[edit] History

[edit] Creation

Arms of Greater London Council

Although the London County Council had been created as a London-wide authority covering the County of London in 1889, the County did not even cover all the built-up area of London then, particularly West Ham and East Ham; furthermore many of the LCC housing projects, including the vast Becontree Estate, were constructed outside its formal boundaries. <ref>Saint, A., Politics and the people of London: the London County Council (1889-1965), (1989)</ref>

London County Council pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan and City Police Districts there were 122 housing authorities. A Royal Commission was set up to consider the issue. <ref>London Local Government. The Times. April 18, 1921.</ref> <ref>Complex London: Big Task For Inquiry Commission. The Times. August 5, 1921.</ref> London County Council proposed a vast new Greater London, somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the entire Home Counties. <ref>Greater London: Case for Central Authority: Area and Powers. The Times. December 14, 1921.</ref> Protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor, Slough and Eton in the authority. <ref>Windsor and Greater London : Protests Against Proposals. The Times. December 27, 1921</ref>

The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCC's scheme. Two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a Central Authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission. <ref>Greater London: Report of Royal Commission. The Times. March 22, 1923.</ref>

Greater London was formally created by the London Government Act 1963, which took force on 1 April 1965, replacing the former administrative counties of Middlesex and London, adding the City of London, which was not under the London County Council, and absorbing parts of Kent, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire. The term 'Greater London' had been used well before 1965, particularly to refer to the area covered by the Metropolitan Police District or the London Passenger Transport Area and by 1958 an area somewhat larger than the current region had been defined by the Registrar General as the Greater London Conurbation.

[edit] Greater London Council

Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council (GLC) sharing power with the Corporation of London (governing the small City of London) and the 32 London borough councils. The Greater London Council was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. Its functions were devolved to the Corporation and the London boroughs with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards.

[edit] Greater London Authority

Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994. A referendum held in 1998, established public will to create a regional authority. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly-elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999. The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were both won by Ken Livingstone, who had been the final leader of the GLC. In 2000 the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary.

[edit] Statistics

[edit] Population

Image:Population greater-london graph.gif
Population of Greater London

The population on the current territory of Greater London rose from about 1.1 million in 1801 (back then only about 0.85 million people were in the urban area of London, while 0.25 million were living in villages and towns not yet part of London) to an estimated 8.6 million in 1939, but declined to 6.8 million around 1980, before starting to rebound in the beginning of the 1980s. As of 2003, the population in Greater London has only recovered the level of the beginning of the 1970s (which was also the level of population in 1921). Some researchers expect the population of Greater London to reach 8.15 million by 2016, which would still be 0.45 million short of the 1939 peak.

Figures here are for Greater London in its 2001 limits. Figures before 1971 have been reconstructed by the Office for National Statistics based on past censuses in order to fit the 2001 limits. Figures from 1981 onward are midyear estimates (revised as of 2004), which are more accurate than the censuses themselves, known to underestimate the population of London.

1891 April 5/6 5,572,012
1901 March 31/April 1 6,506,954
1911 April 2/3 7,160,525
1921 June 19/20 7,386,848
1931 April 26/27 8,110,480
1939 Midyear estimate 8,615,245
1951 April 8/9 8,196,978
1961 April 23/24 7,992,616
1971 April 25/26 7,452,520
1981 Midyear estimate 6,805,000
1991 Midyear estimate 6,829,300
2001 Midyear estimate 7,322,400
2003 Midyear estimate 7,387,900
2004 Midyear estimate 7,429,200
2005 Midyear estimate 7,517,700

[edit] Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Inner London at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added<ref name="fn_4">Components may not sum to totals due to rounding</ref> Agriculture<ref name="fn_1">includes hunting and forestry</ref> Industry<ref name="fn_2">includes energy and construction</ref> Services<ref name="fn_3">includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured Hi</ref>
1995 64,616 7 8,147 56,461
2000 92,330 6 10,094 82,229
2003 112,090 12 10,154 101,924

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Outer London at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added<ref name="fn_4" /> Agriculture<ref name="fn_1" /> Industry<ref name="fn_2" /> Services<ref name="fn_3" />
1995 44,160 51 10,801 33,307
2000 60,304 43 12,529 47,732
2003 67,582 39 13,081 54,462

[edit] Wider population

Greater London is not exactly coterminous with London's built up area and a somewhat wider Greater London Urban Area has been defined and is used for mainly statistical purposes. London's wider metropolitan area is known as the London commuter belt.

[edit] References

<references />

[edit] External links


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Sui generis: City of London

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Greater London

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