Politics of Rwanda

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Rwanda
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Rwanda



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Politics of Rwanda takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Rwanda is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. On 5 May 1995, the Transitional National Assembly adopted a new constitution which included elements of the constitution of 18 June 1991 as well as provisions of the 1993 Arusha peace accord and the November 1994 multiparty protocol of understanding.

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[edit] Political background

After its military victory in July 1994, the Rwandese Patriotic Front organized a coalition government similar to that established by President Juvénal Habyarimana in 1992. Called The Broad Based Government of National Unity, its fundamental law is based on a combination of the constitution, the Arusha accords, and political declarations by the parties. The MRND party was outlawed.

Political organizing was banned until 2003. The first post-war presidential and legislative elections were held in August and September 2003, respectively.

The biggest problems facing the government are reintegration of more than 2 million refugees returning from as long ago as 1959; the end of the insurgency and counter-insurgency among ex-military and Interahamwe militia and the Rwandan Patriotic Army, which is concentrated in the north and south west; and the shift away from crisis to medium- and long-term development planning. The prison population will continue to be an urgent problem for the foreseeable future, having swelled to more than 100,000 in the 3 years after the war. Trying this many suspects of genocide will tax Rwanda's resources sorely.

The current government prohibits any form of discrimination by ethnicity, race or religion. The government has also passed laws prohibiting emphasis on Hutu or Tutsi identity in most types of political activity.

[edit] Executive branch

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Paul Kagame FPR 24 March 2000
Prime Minister Bernard Makuza MDR 8 March 2000

The President of Rwanda is elected for a seven-year term by the people. The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the president

[edit] Legislative branch

The Parliament (Inteko Ishinga Amategeko or Parlement) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Umutwe w'Abadepite/Chambre des Députés) has 80 members, 53 of them elected for a five-year term by proportional representation with a 5 % burden, 24 (female members) elected by provincial councils, 2 by the National Youth Council and 1 by the Federation of the Associations of the Disabled. The Senate (Umutwe wa Sena or Sénat) has 26 members elected or appointed for an eight-year term: 12 elected by provincial and sectoral councils, 8 appointed by the president to ensure the representation of historically marginalized communities, 4 by the Forum of political formations and 2 elected by the stafff of the universities. Additional former presidents can request to be member of the senate. Rwanda is a one party dominant state with the Rwanda Patriotic Front in power. Opposition parties are allowed, but are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power.

[edit] Political parties and elections

The following election results include names of political parties. See for additional information about parties the List of political parties in Rwanda. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Rwanda.
[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 25 August 2003 Rwandan presidential election results
Candidates - Parties Votes %
Paul Kagame - Rwandese Patriotic Front (Front patriotique rwandais) 3,544,777 95.1
Faustin Twagiramungu 134,865 3.6
Jean-Népomuscène Nayinzira 49,634 1.3
Total valid votes 3,729,276 100.0
Invalid/Blank votes 83,291
Total votes (turnout 96.6%) 3,812,567
Registered voters 3,948,749
Source: National Electoral Commission of Rwanda
[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 30 September 2003 Chamber of Deputies of Rwanda election results
Parties Votes % Seats
Coalition Rwandese Patriotic Front (Front patriotique rwandais) 2,774,661 73.8 33
Christian Democratic Party (Parti démocratique chrêtien) 3
Islamic Democratic Party (Parti démocratique islamique) 2
Rwandese Socialist Party (Parti socialiste rwandais) 1
Democratic Union of the Rwandese People (Union démocratique du People rwandais) 1
Social Democratic Party (Parti social démocrate) 462,254 12.3 7
Liberal Party (Parti libéral) 396,978 10.6 6
Party for Progress and Concord (Parti pour le Progrès et la Concorde) 83,563 2.2 -
Total (turnout 96.5 %) 3,760,602 100.0 53
Source: African Elections

[edit] Judicial branch

The Constitutional Court, consists of the Court of Cassation and the Council of State in joint session.

[edit] Administrative divisions

Rwanda has 5 provinces: Kigali Province, North Province, East Province, South Province and West Province.

[edit] International organization participation

Rwanda is member of ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO


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