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A government is a body that has the authority to make and the power to enforce laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group. In its broadest sense, "to govern" means to administer or supervise, whether over a state, a set group of people, or a collection of assets.

The word government is ultimately derived from the Greek κυβερνᾶν (kybernan), which means "to steer".

Typically, "the government" refers to the executive function. In many countries (particularly those having parliamentary systems), the government refers to the executive branch of government or a specifically named executive, such as the Blair government (compare to the administration as in the Bush administration in U.S. usage). In countries using the Westminster system, the party in government will also usually control the legislature.

Examples of government within the UK are the "Welsh Assembly Government", the executive branch within Wales, and the "Scottish government", an unofficial term used to describe the Scottish Executive.


[edit] Forms of government

Main article: Forms of government

Many different forms of government have existed in the past, exist today, or may exist in the future. They are traditionally classified according to the number of people who hold political power:

  • Autocracies are governments where one individual ultimately holds all power. This category includes absolute monarchies as well as dictatorships with an all-powerful president or other central figure.
  • Oligarchies are governments where political power is held by a small group of individuals who share similar interests with each other. A common type of oligarchy is plutocracy, where the small group of powerful individuals is composed of the wealthiest members of society.
  • Democracies are governments where the people as a whole - hold political power. It may be exercised by them (direct democracy), or through representatives chosen by them (representative democracy).

The lines between some of the above forms of government can sometimes be ambiguous. For example, during the 19th century, most self-proclaimed "democracies" restricted voting rights to a minority of the population (e.g. property-owning males). This could qualify them as oligarchies rather than democracies[citation needed]. On the other hand, the voting minority was often quite large (20-30% of the population) and its members did not form the compact group with common interests that is the hallmark of most oligarchies. Thus, this form of government occupied a space between democracy and oligarchy as they are understood today. Here you can find comprehensive database of governmental institutions on the Internet: parliaments, ministries, offices, law courts, embassies, city councils, public broadcasting corporations, central banks, multi-governmental institutions etc. Includes also political parties. Contains more than 17000 entries from more than 220 countries and territories.

[edit] Ideas about governmental origin

There are a wide range of theories about the reasons for establishing governments. The four major ones are briefly described below. Note that they do not always fully oppose each other - it is possible for a person to subscribe to a combination of ideas from two or more of these theories.

[edit] Force Theory

Many political philosophies that are opposed to the existence of a government (such as Anarchism), as well as others, emphasize the historical roots of governments - the fact that governments, along with private property, originated from the authority of warlords and petty despots who took, by force, certain patches of land as their own (and began exercising authority over the people living on that land). Thus, it is argued that governments enforce the will of the strong and oppress the weak, maintaining and protecting the privilege of a ruling class. Mainstream anarchism argues that government primarily interferes to protect property rights, while Anarcho-capitalism argues that government primarily violates property rights. Other minority ideologies in anarchism such as Anarcho-primitivism argues against domestication, while Black anarchism and Anarcha-feminism argue that the ruling class is whites and men, respectively.

[edit] Order and tradition

The various forms of conservatism, by contrast, generally see the government as a positive force that brings order out of chaos, establishes laws to end the "war of all against all", encourages moral virtue while pnishing vice, and respects tradition. Sometimes, in this view, the government is seen as something ordained by a higher power, as in the divine right of kings, which human beings have a duty to obey.

[edit] Natural rights

Natural rights are the basis for the theory of government shared by most branches of liberalism (including libertarianism). In this view, human beings are born with certain natural rights, and governments are established strictly for the purpose of protecting those rights. While there is much controversy in the details of natural rights, the tradition of liberalism generally recognize three fundamental natural rights: a right to life, liberty and property. These rights are a common thread of debate from modern natural rights theorists such as Tibor Machan to Enlightenment thinkers such as Locke, Kant, or Jefferson.

[edit] Governmental operations

Main article: government operations

Governments concern themselves with regulating and administering many areas of human activity, such as trade, education, or medicine. Governments also employ different methods to maintain the established order, such as secrecy, police and military forces, (particularly under despotism, see also police state), making agreements with other states, and maintaining support within the state. Typical methods of maintaining support and legitimacy include providing the infrastructure for administration, justice, transport, communication, social welfare etc., claiming support from deities, providing benefits to elites, providing shops for important posts within the state, limiting the power of the state through laws and constitutions and appealing to nationalism. Different political ideologies hold different ideas on what the government should or should not do. The modern standard unit of territory is a country. In addition to the meaning used above, the word state can refer either to a government or to its territory. Within a territory, subnational entities may have local governments which do not have the full power of a national government (for example, they will generally lack the authority to declare war or carry out diplomacy).

[edit] Size of government

Main articles: government ownership, government spending

The scale to which government should exist and operate in the world is a matter of debate. Government spending in developed countries varies considerably but generally makes up between about 30% and 70% of their GDP. One major exception is the United States, where central government spending takes up less than 20% of GDP.[citation needed]

[edit] World Government

Some speculate that technological changes such as the internet and the global english language would bring a World Government into existence. Some consider some governments such as the European Commission as trends towards such a system. However, others do not see this as possible.

[edit] Quotations about government

"They that govern the most make the least noise." -- John Selden

[edit] See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

[edit] Relevant lists Here you can find comprehensive database of governmental institutions on the Internet: parliaments, ministries, offices, law courts, embassies, city councils, public broadcasting corporations, central banks, multi-governmental institutions etc. Includes also political parties. Contains more than 17000 entries from more than 220 countries and territories.

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