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A global city or world city are a concept which postulates that globalisation can be broken down in terms of strategic geographic locales that see global processes being created, facilitated and enacted. The most complex of these entities is the "global city", whereby the linkages binding a city have a direct and tangible effect on global affairs through more than just socio-economic means, with influence in terms of culture, or politics. <ref>Sassen, Saskia - The global city: strategic site/new frontier</ref> The terminology of "global city", as opposed to megacity, is thought to have been first coined by Saskia Sassen in reference to London, New York and Tokyo in her 1991 work The Global City. <ref>Sassen, Saskia - The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. (1991) - Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-6910-7063-6</ref>


General characteristics

It has been argued that global cities are those sharing the following characteristics:[citation needed]

To some, London, New York City, Paris, and Tokyo have been traditionally considered the 'big four' world cities – not coincidentally, they also serve as symbols of global capitalism. [citation needed] However, many people have their own personal lists, and any two lists are likely to differ based on cultural background, values, and experience.

In certain countries, the rise of suburbia and the ongoing migration of manufacturing jobs to these countries has led to significant urban decay. Therefore, to boost urban regeneration, tourism, and revenue, the goal of building a "world-class" city has recently become an obsession with the governments of some mid-size cities and their constituents.

The phenomenon of world-city building has also been observed in Buenos Aires, Santiago, Frankfurt, Montréal, Sydney, Mexico City and Toronto: each of these cities has emerged as large and influential. [citation needed]

GaWC Inventory of World Cities (1999 Edition)

An attempt to define and categorise world cities was made in 1999 by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC), based primarily at Loughborough University in Loughborough, Leicestershire, England. The roster was outlined in the GaWC Research Bulletin 5<ref>GaWC Research Bulletin 5, GaWC, Loughborough University, 28 July 1999</ref> and ranked cities based on provision of "advanced producer services" such as accountancy, advertising, finance and law, by international corporations. The GaWC inventory identifies three levels of world cities and several sub-ranks.

Note that this roster generally denotes cities in which there are offices of certain multinational companies providing financial and consulting services rather than other cultural, political, and economic centres. There is a schematic map of GaWC cities at their website.<ref>The World According to GaWC, GaWC, Loughborough University</ref>

Alpha world cities (full service world cities)

Beta world cities (major world cities)

Gamma world cities (minor world cities)

Evidence of world city formation

Strong evidence

Some evidence

Minimal evidence

GaWC Leading World Cities (2004 Edition)

An attempt to redefine and recategorise leading world cities was made by PJ Taylor at GaWC in 2004.
This ranking list is referred to as the Official GaWC List.<ref>Leading World Cities, GaWC, Loughborough University</ref>

Global Cities

Well rounded global cities

  1. Very large contribution: London and New York City.
    Smaller contribution and with cultural bias: Los Angeles, Paris and San Francisco.
  2. Incipient global cities: Amsterdam, Boston, Chicago, Madrid, Milan, Moscow, Toronto.

Global niche cities - specialised global contributions

  1. Economic: Hong Kong, Singapore, and Tokyo.
  2. Political and social: Brussels, Geneva, Strasbourg and Washington.

World Cities

Subnet articulator cities

  1. Cultural: Berlin, Copenhagen, Melbourne, Munich, Oslo, Rome, Stockholm.
    Political: Bangkok, Beijing, Vienna.
  2. Social: Manila, Nairobi, Ottawa.

Worldwide leading cities

  1. Primarily economic global contributions: Frankfurt, Miami, Munich, Osaka, Singapore, Sydney, Zurich
  2. Primarily non-economic global contributions: Abidjan, Addis Ababa, Atlanta, Basle, Barcelona, Cairo, Denver, Harare, Lyon, Manila, Mexico City, Mumbai, New Delhi, Shanghai.

Global Cities Conference 2006

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This conference<ref>2006 Global Cities Conference</ref> took place at Liverpool Hope University, starting on 29 June 2006 and chaired by Dr. Lawrence Phillips of the Global Cities Conference at the university. Its aim was to establish what is meant by a 'global city', by examining criteria such as images, narratives, economics, planning and people's experiences. It also looked at whether the perceived 'big four' — London, Paris, New York, and Tokyo — are in fact the only candidates for global city status, or if they should in fact be joined by fast-growing cities in Asia or the developing world.

Other criteria

The GaWC list is based on specific criteria and, thus, may not include other cities of global significance or elsewhere on the spectrum. For example, cities with the following:


Table of the cities of the world

For selected criteria

Rank Population of city (proper) Population of metropolitan area Percentage foreign born <ref name="chap5"/> Cost of living <ref name="living"/> Metro systems by annual passenger ridership Annual passenger air traffic (2002) <ref></ref> Number of billionaires (United States Dollars) <ref>INTERNATIONAL PRIVATE WEALTH MANAGEMENT, International Financial Services, December 2004 PDF</ref><ref>Forbes reports billionaire boom, BBC, 10 March 2006</ref><ref>500 richest in Russia, Finance Magazine, published by RBC. February 2006.</ref>
1 Mumbai Tokyo Miami Moscow Tokyo London New York City
2 Shanghai Seoul Toronto Seoul Moscow Tokyo Los Angeles
3 Karachi Mexico City Los Angeles Tokyo Seoul Chicago Moscow
4 Buenos Aires New York City Vancouver Hong Kong Mexico City New York City London
5 Delhi São Paulo New York City London New York City Atlanta Hong Kong
6 Manila Mumbai Singapore Osaka Paris Paris Chicago
7 Moscow Delhi Sydney Singapore London Los Angeles San Francisco
8 Seoul Shanghai Abidjan Copenhagen Osaka Dallas Fort-Worth Paris
9 São Paulo Kolkata London Zurich Hong Kong Frankfurt Dallas
10 İstanbul Jakarta Paris Oslo Singapore Houston Tokyo

See also


<references />

External links

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Global city

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