Learn more about Francophonie
Proposed by Niger and adopted in 1987, the Francophonie flag symbolizes the five continents of French influence.
|Executive Secretariat||Abdou Diouf (since 2002)|
|Member states|| 53 |
(plus 2 associate members and 13 observers)
|Official site|| Official site of La Francophonie |
The Francophonie is an international organisation of French-speaking countries and governments. Formally known as the "Organisation internationale de la Francophonie" (in English, "International Organisation of French-speaking Communities"), fifty-three states and governments are members of the organisation, four others are associate members, and ten additional states are invited observers of its Summits. The prerequisite for admission is not the degree of French usage in the member countries, but a prevalent presence of french culture and French language in the member country's identity stemming from France's interaction with other nations in its history. Few of the member states are majority French-speaking aside from France, its overseas possessions and sub-national members. French functions in several other member states as a common language while having little current presence in the other members, being that the links are mainly historical and cultural .
French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, coined the french portmanteau "Franconphonie" in 1880 to refer to the community of people and countries using French. In addition to referring to the international organisation, Francophonie may also be used to reference the worldwide community of those people whose native language or second language is French (i.e., the French Sprachraum).
The modern Francophonie was created in 1970. Its motto is égalité, complémentarité, solidarité (equality, complementarity, and solidarity), alluding to France's motto. Started as a small club of Northern French-speaking countries, it has since evolved into an important international organisation whose numerous branches cooperate with the organisation's member states in the fields of culture, science, economy, justice, and peace.
The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie has an observer status at the UN General Assembly.
- 20 Mar 1970: Agency for Cultural and Technical Co-operation (ACCT)(Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique).
- 4 Dec 1995: Intergovernmental Agency of the Francophonie(Agence Intergouvernementale de la Francphonie).
- Dec 1998: International Organisation of the Francophonie (OIF) (Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie).
 Executive Secretariat (Secretaries-general)
Summits of the Francophonie are held every two years, at which time the leaders of the member states have an opportunity to meet and develop strategies and goals for the organisation.
- Paris, France (1986)
- Quebec City, Canada (1987)
- Dakar, Senegal (1989)
- Paris, France (1991)
- Mauritius (1993)
- Cotonou, Benin (1995)
- Hanoi, Vietnam (1997)
- Moncton, Canada (1999)
- Beirut, Lebanon (2002)
- Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (2004)
- Bucharest, Romania (2006)
 Ministerial conferences
 Permanent council
The Permanent Council of the Francophonie consists of Ambassadors of the member countries, and, like the ministers conferences, its main task is to plan future summits and also to supervise the implementation of summit decisions on a day-to-day basis.
 Intergovernmental agency
The Intergovernmental Agency of the Francophonie is the main operator of the cultural, scientific, technical, economic and legal cooperation programs decided at the Summits. The Agency's headquarters are in Paris and it has three regional branches in Libreville, Gabon; Lomé, Togo; and Hanoi, Vietnam.
The Charte de la Francophonie defines the role and missions of the organisation. The current charter was adopted at Antananarivo, on November 23, 2005. The last summit held at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso on 26-27 November 2004 saw the adoption of a strategic framework for the period 2004-2014.
 French language, cultural and linguistic diversity
The primary mission of the organisation is the promotion of the French language as an international language and the promotion of worldwide cultural and linguistic diversity in the era of economic globalisation. In this regard, countries that are members of the Francophonie have contributed largely to the adoption by the UNESCO of the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (October 20, 2005).
 Peace, democracy and human rights
Similar to organisations such as the Commonwealth of Nations, the Francophonie have in its stated aims the promotion of democracy and human rights. Following the Novembre 3rd 2000 Déclaration de Bamako <ref>http://www.droitshumains.org/Francophonie/Bama_declar.htm</ref>, the Francophonie has given itself the financial means to attain a number of set objectives in that regard.
In recent years, some participating governments, notably the government of Quebec and Canada, pushed for the adoption of a Charter in order for the organisation to sanction member States that are known to have poor records when it comes to the protection of human rights and the practice of democracy. Such a measure was debated at least twice but was never approved.
The official list of members is available at the Francophonie website.
|Albania||member||1999||Albanian official language|
|Andorra||member||2004||Catalan official language||president of France is co-prince of Andorra|
|Armenia||observer||2004||Armenian official language|
|Austria||observer||2004||German official language|
|Belgium||member||1970||officially trilingual||Belgium's French community is also member separately|
|Belgium - French Community||member||1980||French official language||a community of Belgium|
|Benin||member||1970||French official language||former French colony|
|Bulgaria||member||1993||Bulgarian official language|
|Burkina Faso||member||1970||French official language||former French colony|
|Burundi||member||1970||French official language||former Belgian colony|
|Cambodia||member||1993||Khmer official language||former French colony|
|Cameroon||member||1991||officially bilingual||former French colony|
|Canada||member||1970||Officially bilingual||Quebec and New Brunswick are participating government|
|Canada - New Brunswick||participating government||1977||officially bilingual||province of Canada;|
|Canada - Quebec||participating government||1971||French official language||province of Canada; former French colony|
|Cape Verde||member||1996||Portuguese official language||former Portuguese colony|
|Central African Republic||member||1973||officially bilingual||former French colony|
|Chad||member||1970||French official language||former French colony|
|Comoros||member||1977||officially trilingual||former French colony|
|Congo (DRC)||member||1977||French official language||former Belgian colony|
|Congo (ROC)||member||1981||French official language||former French colony|
|Côte d'Ivoire||member||1970||French official language||former French colony|
|Croatia||observer||2004||Croatian official language|
|Cyprus||associated member||2006||Greek and Turkish official languages|
|Czech Republic||observer||1999||Czech official language|
|Djibouti||member||1977||officially bilingual||former French colony|
|Dominica||member||1979||English official language||former French colony|
|Egypt||member||1983|| Arabic official language |
historical Francophone elite
|former French colony (first empire)|
|Equatorial Guinea||member||1989||officially bilingual||former Spanish colony|
|Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia||member||2001||Macedonian official language|
|France||member||1970||French official language|
|Gabon||member||1970||French official language||former French colony|
|Georgia||observer||2004||Georgian official language|
|Ghana||associate member||2006||English official language|
|Greece||member||2004||Greek official language|
|Guinea||member||1981||French official language||former French colony|
|Guinea-Bissau||member||1979||Portuguese official language||former Portuguese colony|
|Haiti||member||1970||officially bilingual||former French colony|
|Hungary||observer||2004||Hungarian official language|
|Laos||member||1991||Lao official language||former French colony|
|Lebanon||member||1973||Arabic official language||former French colony|
|Lithuania||observer||1999||Lithuanian official language|
|Madagascar||member|| 1970-1977 |
|French official language||former French colony|
|Mali||member||1970||French official language||former French colony|
|Mauretania||member||1980||French official language||former French colony|
|Mauritius||member||1970||English official language||former French colony (first empire), later British colony|
|Moldova||member||1996||Romanian official language|
|Monaco||member||1970||French official language||former French protectorate|
|Morocco||member||1981||Arabic official language||former French colony|
|Mozambique||observer||2006||Portuguese official language||former Portuguese colony|
|Niger||member||1970||French official language||former French colony|
|Poland||observer||1996||Polish official language|
|Romania||member||1993||Romanian official language|
|Rwanda||member||1970||officially trilingual||former Belgian colony|
|Saint Lucia||member||1981||English official language||Former French colony|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||member||1999||Portuguese official language|
|Senegal||member||1970||French official language||former French colony|
|Serbia||observer||2006||Serbian official language|
|Seychelles||member||1976||officially trilingual||former French colony|
|Slovakia||observer||2002||Slovak official language|
|Slovenia||observer||1999||Slovenian official language|
|Togo||member||1970||French official language||former French colony|
|Tunisia||member||1970||Arabic official language||former French colony|
|Ukraine||observer||2006||Ukrainian official language|
|Vanuatu||member||1979||officially trilingual||former French colony|
|Vietnam||member||1970||Vietnamese official language||former French colony|
 See also
- French colonial empire
- Agence de coopération culturelle et technique
- Minister responsible for La Francophonie (Canada)
- Jeux de la Francophonie
- Community of Portuguese Language Countries
- the Latin Union
- Commonwealth of Nations
- French in the United States
- Franco-Canadian relations
 External links
- La Francophonie Website (in French)
- Agence intergouvernementale de la Francophonie (in French)
- Flags of French America (Canada, Québec, Louisiana, Haiti...) in the website of Association Frontenac-Amériques
- News from Francophonie (in French)