Francophonie

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Francophonie
Image:Flag of La Francophonie.svg

Proposed by Niger and adopted in 1987, the Francophonie flag symbolizes the five continents of French influence.

Official language French
Executive Secretariat Abdou Diouf (since 2002)
Established 1970.
Member states 53
(plus 2 associate members and 13 observers)
Headquarters Paris, France
Official site Official site of La Francophonie
(in French)

The Francophonie is an international organisation of French-speaking countries and governments. Formally known as the "Organisation internationale de la Francophonie" (in English, "International Organisation of French-speaking Communities"[1]), fifty-three states and governments are members of the organisation, four others are associate members, and ten additional states are invited observers of its Summits. The prerequisite for admission is not the degree of French usage in the member countries, but a prevalent presence of french culture and French language in the member country's identity stemming from France's interaction with other nations in its history. Few of the member states are majority French-speaking aside from France, its overseas possessions and sub-national members. French functions in several other member states as a common language while having little current presence in the other members, being that the links are mainly historical and cultural .

French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, coined the french portmanteau "Franconphonie" in 1880 to refer to the community of people and countries using French. In addition to referring to the international organisation, Francophonie may also be used to reference the worldwide community of those people whose native language or second language is French (i.e., the French Sprachraum).

The modern Francophonie was created in 1970. Its motto is égalité, complémentarité, solidarité (equality, complementarity, and solidarity), alluding to France's motto. Started as a small club of Northern French-speaking countries, it has since evolved into an important international organisation whose numerous branches cooperate with the organisation's member states in the fields of culture, science, economy, justice, and peace.

Contents

[edit] Structure

Image:Map-Francophonie organisation 2006.png
World map of the Francophonie members and participants. In addition to applicable countries, subnational memberships (in Belgium and Canada) are represented.

The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie has an observer status at the UN General Assembly.

  • 20 Mar 1970: Agency for Cultural and Technical Co-operation (ACCT)(Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique).
  • 4 Dec 1995: Intergovernmental Agency of the Francophonie(Agence Intergouvernementale de la Francphonie).
  • Dec 1998: International Organisation of the Francophonie (OIF) (Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie).

[edit] Executive Secretariat (Secretaries-general)

[edit] Summits

Summits of the Francophonie are held every two years, at which time the leaders of the member states have an opportunity to meet and develop strategies and goals for the organisation.

Past Summits:


[edit] Ministerial conferences

[edit] Permanent council

The Permanent Council of the Francophonie consists of Ambassadors of the member countries, and, like the ministers conferences, its main task is to plan future summits and also to supervise the implementation of summit decisions on a day-to-day basis.

[edit] Intergovernmental agency

The Intergovernmental Agency of the Francophonie is the main operator of the cultural, scientific, technical, economic and legal cooperation programs decided at the Summits. The Agency's headquarters are in Paris and it has three regional branches in Libreville, Gabon; Lomé, Togo; and Hanoi, Vietnam.

[edit] Missions

The Charte de la Francophonie defines the role and missions of the organisation. The current charter was adopted at Antananarivo, on November 23, 2005. The last summit held at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso on 26-27 November 2004 saw the adoption of a strategic framework for the period 2004-2014.

[edit] French language, cultural and linguistic diversity

The primary mission of the organisation is the promotion of the French language as an international language and the promotion of worldwide cultural and linguistic diversity in the era of economic globalisation. In this regard, countries that are members of the Francophonie have contributed largely to the adoption by the UNESCO of the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (October 20, 2005).

[edit] Peace, democracy and human rights

Similar to organisations such as the Commonwealth of Nations, the Francophonie have in its stated aims the promotion of democracy and human rights. Following the Novembre 3rd 2000 Déclaration de Bamako <ref>http://www.droitshumains.org/Francophonie/Bama_declar.htm</ref>, the Francophonie has given itself the financial means to attain a number of set objectives in that regard.

In recent years, some participating governments, notably the government of Quebec and Canada, pushed for the adoption of a Charter in order for the organisation to sanction member States that are known to have poor records when it comes to the protection of human rights and the practice of democracy. Such a measure was debated at least twice but was never approved.

[edit] Members

The official list of members is available at the Francophonie website.

Country Status Year joined Language Notes
Albania member 1999 Albanian official language
Andorra member 2004 Catalan official language president of France is co-prince of Andorra
Armenia observer 2004 Armenian official language
Austria observer 2004 German official language
Belgium member 1970 officially trilingual Belgium's French community is also member separately
Belgium - French Community member 1980 French official language a community of Belgium
Benin member 1970 French official language former French colony
Bulgaria member 1993 Bulgarian official language
Burkina Faso member 1970 French official language former French colony
Burundi member 1970 French official language former Belgian colony
Cambodia member 1993 Khmer official language former French colony
Cameroon member 1991 officially bilingual former French colony
Canada member 1970 Officially bilingual Quebec and New Brunswick are participating government
Canada - New Brunswick participating government 1977 officially bilingual province of Canada;
Canada - Quebec participating government 1971 French official language province of Canada; former French colony
Cape Verde member 1996 Portuguese official language former Portuguese colony
Central African Republic member 1973 officially bilingual former French colony
Chad member 1970 French official language former French colony
Comoros member 1977 officially trilingual former French colony
Congo (DRC) member 1977 French official language former Belgian colony
Congo (ROC) member 1981 French official language former French colony
Côte d'Ivoire member 1970 French official language former French colony
Croatia observer 2004 Croatian official language
Cyprus associated member 2006 Greek and Turkish official languages
Czech Republic observer 1999 Czech official language
Djibouti member 1977 officially bilingual former French colony
Dominica member 1979 English official language former French colony
Egypt member 1983 Arabic official language
historical Francophone elite
former French colony (first empire)
Equatorial Guinea member 1989 officially bilingual former Spanish colony
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia member 2001 Macedonian official language
France member 1970 French official language
Gabon member 1970 French official language former French colony
Georgia observer 2004 Georgian official language
Ghana associate member 2006 English official language
Greece member 2004 Greek official language
Guinea member 1981 French official language former French colony
Guinea-Bissau member 1979 Portuguese official language former Portuguese colony
Haiti member 1970 officially bilingual former French colony
Hungary observer 2004 Hungarian official language
Laos member 1991 Lao official language former French colony
Lebanon member 1973 Arabic official language former French colony
Lithuania observer 1999 Lithuanian official language
Luxembourg member 1970 Officially trilingual
Madagascar member 1970-1977
1989
French official language former French colony
Mali member 1970 French official language former French colony
Mauretania member 1980 French official language former French colony
Mauritius member 1970 English official language former French colony (first empire), later British colony
Moldova member 1996 Romanian official language
Monaco member 1970 French official language former French protectorate
Morocco member 1981 Arabic official language former French colony
Mozambique observer 2006 Portuguese official language former Portuguese colony
Niger member 1970 French official language former French colony
Poland observer 1996 Polish official language
Romania member 1993 Romanian official language
Rwanda member 1970 officially trilingual former Belgian colony
Saint Lucia member 1981 English official language Former French colony
São Tomé and Príncipe member 1999 Portuguese official language
Senegal member 1970 French official language former French colony
Serbia observer 2006 Serbian official language
Seychelles member 1976 officially trilingual former French colony
Slovakia observer 2002 Slovak official language
Slovenia observer 1999 Slovenian official language
Switzerland member 1996 Officially quadrilingual
Togo member 1970 French official language former French colony
Tunisia member 1970 Arabic official language former French colony
Ukraine observer 2006 Ukrainian official language
Vanuatu member 1979 officially trilingual former French colony
Vietnam member 1970 Vietnamese official language former French colony

[edit] Notes

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[edit] See also


[edit] External links


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