Foreign relations of Sudan

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Sudan
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Sudan's administrative boundary with Kenya does not coincide with international boundary, and Egypt asserts its claim to the "Hala'ib Triangle", a barren area of 20,580 km² under partial Sudanese administration that is defined by an administrative boundary which supersedes the treaty boundary of 1899.

Solidarity with other Arab countries has been a feature of Sudan’s foreign policy. When the Arab-Israeli war began in June 1967, Sudan declared war on Israel. However, in the early 1970s, Sudan gradually shifted its stance and was supportive of the Camp David Accords.

Relations between Sudan and Libya deteriorated in the early 1970s and reached a low in October 1981, when Libya began a policy of crossborder raids into western Sudan. After the 1985 coup, the military government resumed diplomatic relations with Libya, as part of a policy of improving relations with neighboring Arab states. In early 1990, Libya and the Sudan announced that they would seek “unity.” This unity was never implemented.

During the 1990s, Sudan sought to steer a nonaligned course, courting Western aid and seeking rapprochement with Arab states, while maintaining cooperative ties with Libya, Syria, North Korea, Iran, and Iraq. Sudan’s support for regional insurgencies such as Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Eritrean Islamic Jihad, Ethiopian Islamic Jihad, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas, Hezbollah, and the Lord's Resistance Army generated great concern about their contribution to regional instability. Allegations of the government’s complicity in the assassination attempt against the Egyptian president in Ethiopia in 1995 led to UN Security Council sanctions against the Sudan. By the late 1990s, Sudan experienced strained or broken diplomatic relations with most of its nine neighboring countries.

On November 3, 1997, the U.S. government imposed a trade embargo against Sudan and a total asset freeze against the Government of Sudan under Executive Order 13067. The U.S. believed the Government of Sudan gave support to international terrorism, destabilized neighboring governments, and permitted human rights violations, creating an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. [1]

Since 2000, Sudan has actively sought regional rapprochement that has rehabilitated most of these regional relations. Joint Ministerial Councils have been set up between Sudan and Ethiopia and Sudan and Egypt. Relations with Chad have remained strong in spite of the influx of Sudanese refugees into Chad due to the Darfur crisis. Relations with Uganda are also good in spite of the death of former Vice-President Dr John Garang de Mabior whilst on a Ugandan Presidential Helicopter.

On December 23, 2005 Chad, Sudan's neighbor to the west, declared a 'state of belligerency' with Sudan and accused the country of being the "common enemy of the nation (Chad)." This happened after the December 18 attack on Adre, which left about 100 people dead. A statement issued by Chadian government on December 23, accused Sudanese militias of making daily incursions into Chad, stealing cattle, killing innocent people and burning villages on the Chadian border. The statement went on to call for Chadians to form a patriotic front against Sudan. [2] (See also: Chadian-Sudanese conflict)

Sudan is one of the states that recognize Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. [3]


<tr><th colspan="2">
Image:Flag of Chad.svg  Image:Flag of Sudan.svg Chadian-Sudanese conflict
</th></tr> <tr><th>Places</th><td>Chad Sudan N'Djamena Adré Geneina Abéché</td></tr> <tr><th>People</th><td>Idriss Déby Omar al-Bashir Muammar al-Qaddafi Mohammed Nour Abdelkerim Yaya Dillo Djérou Abdelwahit About Ahmed Aboul Gheit Baba Gana Kingibe Fur people Zaghawa</td></tr> <tr><th>Non-militant
organizations</th><td>Chadian Association for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees African Union Mission in Sudan Organization for Community Supported Sustainable Agriculture in Chad Petroleum Revenue Oversight and Control Committee</td></tr> <tr><th>Rebel groups </th><td>Union of Forces for Democracy United Front for Democratic Change Platform for Change, Unity and Democracy Alliance of Revolutionary Forces of West Sudan Rally for Democracy and Liberty Rally of Democratic Forces National Movement for Reform and Development Janjaweed</td></tr> <tr><th>Military</th><td>Military of Chad Military of Sudan Chad Air Force</td></tr> <tr><th>History and events</th><td>History of Chad History of Sudan Darfur conflict Second Battle of Adré Battle of Borota Tripoli Agreement Battle of Amdjereme Dalola raid Chadian presidential election, 2006 Battle of N'Djamena 2006 Chadian coup d'état attempt Mediation of the Chadian-Sudanese conflict Dakar Accord</td></tr>
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