Learn more about FSB (Russia)
The FSB (ФСБ) is a state security organization in Russia, and is the domestic successor organization to the KGB. Its name is an acronym from the Russian Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности Росси́йской Федера́ции) (Federal'naya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti Rossiyskoi Federatsii). It is usually simply called the FSB in English-language sources. Its headquarters are located in Moscow.
The FSB played a major role in Chechnya but it had to fight organized crime, terrorism, drug smuggling and corruption across the whole Federation as well, according to the stated goals of this organization.
However, on November 17 1998, during the period that Vladimir Putin was the head of the FSB, five officers of FSB's Directorate for the Analysis of Criminal Organizations appeared at a press conference in the Russian news agency Interfax. Director of the Seventh Department, Lieutenant-Colonels Alexander Gusyk and Alexander Litvinenko, Major Andrey Ponkin, Colonel V. V. Shebalin and others accused the director of the Directorate for the Analysis of Criminal Organizations major-general Eugeny Hoholkhov and his deputy, 1st Rank Captain Alexander Kamishnikov of ordering them in November 1997 to assassinate Boris Berezovsky and Mikhail Trepashkin and to kidnap a brother of the businessman Umar Dzhabrailov. Several other FSB officers were also present to support the claims.<ref name="cp1-12">(Russian)Template:Cite web</ref><ref name=" Дело Литвиненко">(Russian)Template:Cite web</ref> The leader of the Democratic Russia party and proponent of lustration, Galina Starovoitova was murdered just three days later.<ref name="Galina">Template:Cite web</ref> Russian journalist Yuri Shchekochikhin also died under suspicious circumstances while investigating crimes allegedly committed by FSB officers.
Critics have also accused the FSB of involvement in the 1999 Russian apartment bombings following the arrest of three of the organisation's operatives who had planted a large bomb at the basement of an apartment complex in the town of Ryazan. <ref name="Satter">David Satter. Darkness at Dawn: The Rise of the Russian Criminal State. Yale University Press. 2003. ISBN 0-300-09892-8. </ref> The FSB declared that the incident was a training exercise forty-eight hours later. This is widely believed to have been a fumbled attempt by the FSB to blow up the apartment block. It has been speculated by these critics that the motive was to build up support in Chechnya, and called into question who had been responsible for the other Russian apartment bombings. Russian journalist Artyom Borovik died in a suspicious plane crash while trying to investigate this case. Vice chairmen of Sergei Kovalev commission created to investigate the bombings Sergei Yushenkov has been assassinated.
Former Russian member of the FSB, Alexander Litvinenko was poisoned on November 1, 2006, and later died on November 23, 2006 in the UK. The former critic of FSB said he felt ill after meeting two Russians at a hotel. Large quantities of the radioactive isotope polonium-210 was reportedly found in his urine by British health experts on November 24th. <ref>"Radioactive substance found in ex-spy's body", CTV, November 24, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-11-24. (in English)</ref> Litvinenko, then since October a British citizen, co-authored a book in 2002 entitled "Blowing up Russia: Terror from Within". in which he alleged FSB agents coordinated apartment block bombings in Russia that killed more than 300 people in 1999. Meanwhile FSB officials blamed the bombings on Chechen rebels. When poisoned he was in the midst of investigating the killing of Russian journalist Anna Politkovskaya who was gunned down at her Moscow flat on October 7, 2006.
On June 20, 1996, Yeltsin fired the Director, Mikhail Ivanovich Barsukov and appointed Nikolay Dmitrevich Kovalev, to Acting Director and later to Director of the FSB. Russian president Vladimir Putin was head of the FSB from July 1998 to August 1999.
On July 28, 2006 the FSB presented a list of 17 organizations, recognized as terrorist by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, to Rossiyskaya Gazeta newspaper, that published the list on that day. It was available previously, but only on individual requests. <ref>"17 particularly dangerous", Rossiyskaya Gazeta, July 28, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-13. (in Russian)</ref><ref>"‘Terror’ list out; Russia tags two Kuwaiti groups", Arab Times, August 13, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-13.</ref> Commenting the list, Yuri Sapunov, head of anti-terrorism at the FSB, named three main criteria necessary for organizations to be listed. <ref>"Russia names 'terrorist' groups", BBC News, July 28, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-13.</ref>
 1995: incorporating KGB successor
Following the attempted coup of 1991 against Mikhail Gorbachev, the KGB was dismantled and formally ceased to exist after November 1991.<ref>But see N. Gevorkian, The KGB: "They still need us", 49 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 36 (1993)).</ref> Its successor, the FSK (Federalnaya Sluzhba Kontrrazvedki (Федера́льная Слу́жба Контрразве́дки), Federal Counterintelligence Service) was reorganized into the FSB by the Federal Law of April 3, 1995, "On the Organs of the Federal Security Service in the Russian Federation", making the new FSB a more powerful organization.
This law described the FSB role in the regions:
- Clarified the FSB role in the Armed Forces
- Gave the FSB director ministerial status and the rank of army general
- Allowed it to conduct intelligence work and to protect Russian citizens and enterprises abroad
- Obliged the FSB to inform the president and the prime minister about national threats
- Gave the FSB powers of detention and the right to enter any premises or property "if there is sufficient evidence to suppose that a crime is being been perpetrated there" without a warrant
- Permitted the FSB to set up special units, carrying firearms, and to train security personnel in private companies
- Established the control structures over the FSB.
The FSB reforms were rounded out by Edict 633, signed by Boris Yeltsin on June 23, 1995. The edict made the tasks of the FSB more specific, giving the FSB substantial rights to conduct cryptographic work, and described the powers of the FSB director. The number of deputy directors was increased to 8: 2 first deputies, 5 deputies responsible for departments and directorates and 1 deputy director heading the Moscow City and Moscow regional directorate. Yeltsin appointed Colonel-General Mikhail Ivanovich Barsukov as the new director of the FSB.
In May 1997, the FSB was reorganized again following a political power struggle. The FSB structure was changed into five departments and six directorates:
- Counterintelligence Department
- Anti terrorist Department
- Analysis, Forecasts and Strategic Planning Department
- Personnel and Management Department
- Operational Support Department
- Directorate of Analysis and Suppression of the Activity of Criminal Organizations
- Investigation Directorate
- Operational-Search Directorate
- Operational-Technical Measures Directorate
- Internal Security Directorate
- Administration Directorate
- Scientific-Technical centre
The FSB was not to recruit civilian personnel and the number of places offered by the FSB Academy was cut back.
In mid-2004, the FSB was restructured by order of President Putin, as follows:
- Director: General Nikolai Patrushev
- Press/Public Relations Service:
- Executive Directorate:
- First Deputy Director - Border Service: Viktor Pronichev
- First Deputy Director: Sergei Smirnov
- Deputy Director: Vyacheslav Ushakov
- Deputy Director: Vladimir Anisimov
- Investigation Directorate: Yuri Anisimov
- Military Counter Intelligence Directorate: Aleksandr Bezverkhny
- FSB Border Service: Viktor Pronichev
- Counter Intelligence Service: Oleg Syromolotov
- Service For The Protection Of The Constitutional System & The Fight Against Terror: Aleksandr Bragin
- Economic Security Service: Aleksandr Bortnikov
- Organizational & Personnel Service: Yevgeniy Lovyrev
- Analysis, Forecasting & Strategic Planning Service: Viktor Komogorov
- Control Service: Aleksandr Zhdankov
- Science & Technology Service: Nikolai Klimashin
- FSB Academy:
- National Cryptology Academy:
 Heads of the FSB or equivalent
- Viktor Pavlovich Barannikov January 1992 - July 1993
- Nikolai Mikhailovich Golushko July 1993 - February 1994
- Sergei Vadimovich Stepashin February 1994 - June 1995
- Mikhail Ivanovich Barsukov July 1995 - June 1996
- Nikolai Dmitrievich Kovalev July 1996 - July 1998
- Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin July 1998 - August 1999
- Nikolai Platonovich Patrushev since August 1999
 Recent Developments
On November 23 2006, Alexander Litvinenko was poisoned in London, using radioactive polonium-210. The FSB has been widely suspected of involvement in the Western media, as Litvinenko had previously published a book accusing the FSB of bombing apartments in Moscow and blaming Chechen terrorists, to legitimise reprisals using military force in Chechnya.
In the beginning of 2006 the Italian news agency ANSA reported the publication on the FSB website of an offer, open to Russian citizens working as spies for a foreign country, to work as double agents.
 See also
- Numbers station
- Federal Protective Service
- Russian apartment bombings
 Geographical relationship
|West: N/A||FSB (Russia)||East: N/A|
|South:People's Armed Police - People's Republic of China, Hong Kong Police, Macau Security Force|
 External links
- Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, official homepage in Russian
- Poison pins, rocks and fake logs: the secret arsenal of a long, silent war by Jeremy Page, The Times, March 02, 2006
- Slaves of KGB. 20th Century. The religion of betrayal (Рабы ГБ. XX век. Религия предательства), Moscow, 1999.
 Further reading
- Yuri Felshtinsky, Alexander Litvinenko, and Geoffrey Andrews. Blowing up Russia : Terror from within. 2002. ISBN 1-561-71938-2
- Yevgenia Albats and Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia--Past, Present, and Future. 1994. ISBN 0-374-52738-5.
- David Satter. Darkness at Dawn: The Rise of the Russian Criminal State. Yale University Press. 2003. ISBN 0-300-09892-8.af:FSB
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