Ethiopian calendar

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The Ethiopian calendar (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር ye'Ītyōṗṗyā zemen āḳoṭaṭer) or Ethiopic calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and is also the liturgical year of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church where it is known as the Ge'ez calendar. It is based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar, which is based on the even older Egyptian calendar, but like the Julian calendar, it adds a leap day every four years without exception, and begins the year on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar.

Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopian calendar has twelve months of 30 days each plus five or six epagomenal days (usually called a thirteenth month). Furthermore, its months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but they have different names, that are in Ge'ez. The sixth epagomenal day is added every four years without exception on August 29 in the Julian calendar, six months before the Julian leap day. Thus the first day of the Ethiopian year, 1 Mäskäräm, for years between 1901 and 2099 (inclusive), is usually September 11 (Gregorian), but falls on September 12 (Gregorian), in years before the Gregorian leap year.


[edit] Current year

The current year according to the Ethiopian calendar is 1999.

[edit] New Year's Day

Enkutatash is the word for the Ethiopian new year in the official language of Ethiopia: Amharic, while it is called Ri'se Awde Amet (Head Anniversary) in Ge'ez in Eritrea. It occurs on September 11 in the Gregorian calendar, except for leap years when it occurs on September 12. The Ethiopian calendar year 1998 ˈAmätä Məhrät ("Year of Mercy") began on 11 September, 2005. However, the Ethiopian years 1996 and 1992 AM began on 12 September 2003 and 1999, respectively.

The new years begin on September 11 or 12 as described above from Gregorian 1900 to 2099, but differently in other Gregorian centuries, because every fourth Ethiopian year is a leap year without exception.

[edit] Eras

To indicate the year, Ethiopians and followers of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church today use the Incarnation Era, which dates from the Annunciation or Incarnation of Jesus on 25 March, 9 (Julian), as calculated by Annianus of Alexandria in c. 400 AD; thus its first civil year began seven months earlier on 29 August, 8 (Julian). Meanwhile, Europeans eventually adopted the calculations made by Dionysius Exiguus in 525 AD instead, which placed the Annunciation exactly eight years earlier than had Annianus. This causes the Ethiopian year number to be eight years less than the Gregorian year number from January 1 until September 10 or 11, then seven years less for the remainder of the Gregorian year.

In the past, a number of other eras for numbering years were also widely used in Ethiopia:

[edit] Era of Martyrs

The most imporant era – once widely used by the Eastern Churches, and still used by the Coptic Church - was the Era of Martyrs, also known as the Diocletian Era, whose first year began on 29 August 284.

Respectively to the western and Julian New Year's Days about three months later, the difference between the Era of Martyrs and the Anni Domini is 285 (= 15x19) years. This is because in AD 525, Dionysius Exiguus decided to add 15 Metonic cycles to the existing 13 Metonic cycles of the Diocletian Era (15x19 + 13x19 = 532) to obtain an entire 532-year medieval Easter cycle, whose first cycle ended with the year Era of Martyrs 247 (= 13x19) equal to year DXXXI. It is also because 532 is the product of the Metonic cycle of 19 years and the Solar cycle of 28 years.

[edit] Anno Mundi according to Panodoros

Around 400 AD, an Alexandrine monk called Panodoros fixed the Alexandrian Era (Anno Mundi = in the year of the world), the date of creation, on 29 August 5493 BC. After the 6th century AD, the era was used by Egyptian and Ethiopian chronologists. The twelfth 532-year-cycle of this era began on 29 August 360 AD, and so 4x19 years after the Era of Martyrs.

[edit] Anno Mundi according to Anianos

Bishop Anianos preferred the Annunciation style as New Year's Day, the 25 March (see above). Thus he shifted the Panodoros era by about six months, to begin on 25 March 5492 BC.

[edit] Leap year cycle

The four year leap-year cycle is associated with the four Evangelists: the first year after an Ethiopian leap year is named in honour of John, followed by the Matthew-year and then the Mark-year. The year with the sixth epagomenal day is traditionally designated as the Luke-year.

There are no exceptions to the four year leap-year cycle, unlike the Gregorian calendar.

[edit] Months

Amharic Coptic Gregorian start date Start date in year after
sixth epagomenal day
Mäskäräm Tut September 11 September 12
Teqemt Babah October 11 October 12
Hedar Hatur November 10 November 11
Tahsas Kiyahk December 10 December 11
T'er Tubah January 9 January 10
Yäkatit Amshir February 8 February 9
Mägabit Baramhat March 10 March 10
Miyazya Baramundah April 9 April 9
Genbot Bashans May 9 May 9
Säne Ba'unah June 8 June 8
Hamle Abib July 8 July 8
Nähase Misra August 7 August 7
Pagumän Nasi September 6 September 6

Note that these dates are valid only from March 1900 to February 2100.

[edit] Sources

  • "The Ethiopian Calendar", Appendix IV, C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, The Prester John of the Indies (Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1961).
  • Ginzel, Friedrich Karl, "Handbuch der matematischen und technischen Chronologie", Leipzig, 3 vol., 1906-1914

[edit] External links

bg:Етиопски календар de:Äthiopischer Kalender fr:Calendrier éthiopien ko:에티오피아력 nl:Ethiopische kalender

Ethiopian calendar

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