Yekaterinburg

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Екатеринбург
Yekaterinburg
Image:Coat of Arms of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast) (1998).png
Coat of arms


Government
Russia
District
Subdivision
Russia
Urals Federal District
Sverdlovsk Oblast
Mayor Arkadiy Tchernetskiy
Geographical characteristics
Area
 - City

km²
Population
 - City (2006)

1 336 500
Coordinates 56°51′0″N, 60°36′0″E
Time zone
- Summer (DST)
YEKT (UTC+5)
YEKT (UTC+6)
Other Information
Postal Code 65401
Dialing Code +7 343
License plate 66
Website: http://www.ekburg.ru

Yekaterinburg (Russian: Екатеринбу́рг, also transliterated Ekaterinburg or Jekaterinburg or Sverdlovsk) is a major city in the central part of Russia, the administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast. Situated on the eastern side of the Ural mountain range, at 56°51′N 60°36′E, it is the main industrial and cultural center of the Urals Federal District. Its population of 1,293,537 (2002 Census) makes it Russia's fifth largest city. Between 1924 and 1991, the city was known as Sverdlovsk (Свердло́вск), after the Bolshevik leader Yakov Sverdlov.

Contents

[edit] History

The city was founded in 1723 by Vasily Tatischev and named after Saint Catherine, the namesake of tsar Peter the Great's wife Empress Catherine I (Yekaterina). It was renamed Sverdlovsk after the Bolshevik party leader and Soviet official Yakov Sverdlov from 1924 to 1991.

Soon after the Russian Revolution, on July 17, 1918, Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, Alexandra, and their children Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Tsarevich Alexei were executed by Bolsheviks at the Ipatiev House in this city.

In the 1920s Yekaterinburg became a large industrial center of Russia. The heavy machinery factory Uralmash, the biggest in Europe, was built.

During World War II, many government technical institutions and whole factories were evacuated to Yekaterinburg from the war-affected areas (mostly Moscow) and many remained in Yekaterinburg after the war was over.

In the 1960s, during the Khruschev government, many similar five-storey apartment blocks were built around Yekaterinburg. Most of them still remain today in Kirovsky, Chkalovsky, and other residential areas of Yekaterinburg.

On May 1, 1960, an American U-2 spy plane, piloted by Francis Gary Powers while under the employ of the CIA, was shot down over Sverdlovsk Oblast. The pilot was captured, put on trial, and found guilty of espionage. He was sentenced to seven years of hard labour, though he served only about a year before being exchanged for Rudolph Abel, a high-ranking KGB spy, who had been apprehended in the United States in 1957. The two spies were exchanged via the Glienicke Bridge in Potsdam, Germany, on February 10 1962. Since the end of World War II, the Glienicke Bridge was the most popular captive-trading place when the west and the east felt it necessary to negotiate.

There was an anthrax outbreak in Yekaterinburg (then Sverdlovsk) in April and May 1979, which was attributed by Soviet officials to the locals eating contaminated meat. However, American agencies believe that the locals inhaled spores accidentally released from an aerosol of pathogen at a military microbiology facility. Dr. Kanatjan Alibekov's account of the Sverdlovsk anthrax leak in his book Biohazard agrees with the American agencies' view. In 1994, a team of independent American researchers lead by Matthew Meselson concluded based on a number of sources of evidence that it was conclusive that the illnesses were a result of an anthrax release from the Sverdlovsk-19 military facility.<ref>Matthew S. Meselson, et al., "The Sverdlovsk Anthrax Outbreak of 1979", Science 266:5188 (18 November 1994): 1202-1208.</ref>

[edit] Geography and climate

Yekaterinburg is situated 1,667 km (1,036 miles) east of Moscow, on the east side of the Ural mountains on the Iset river. It is surrounded by forests, mainly taiga, and small lakes. The winter lasts for about 5 months - from November until the middle of April and the temperature may fall to minus 35-40 degrees Celsius (minus 30-40 degrees Fahrenheit). The summer on the Urals is short and lasts an average of 65-70 days with an average temperature of 20 degrees Celsius (70 degrees Fahrenheit). Due to the city's location and different winds the weather is very unstable from day to day and from year to year.

[edit] Economy

Image:Yekaterinburg UGTU UPI Frontside.JPG
Statue of Sverdlov in front of the Ural State University.

The city produces heavy machinery, steel, chemicals, tires, and petroleum. Gem cutting is a well-developed light industry.

[edit] Education

Urals Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (UB RAS) and numerous scientific research institutes and establishments are situated in Yekaterinburg. With its 16 state-owned universities and educational academies, as well as a number of private higher education institutions (2005), Yekaterinburg is considered the leading educational and scientific center of the Urals. Urals A.M. Gorky State University, Ural State Technical University, Urals State Pedagogical University,Urals State University of Forestry, Urals State University of Mines, Urals State University of the Railways, Russian State Vocational Pedagogics University, Urals State University of Economics, Military Institute of Artillery, Urals State Conservatory, Urals State Agricultural Academy, Urals State Academy of Law, Urals State Academy of Medicine, Urals State Academy of Performing Arts, Urals Academy of Public Service, and Urals Academy of Architecture are among them.

[edit] Transport and accommodation

Yekaterinburg, still called by its Soviet name Sverdlovsk in rail timetables, is an important railway junction on Trans-Siberian Railway, with lines radiating to all parts of the Urals and the rest of Russia. As the economic slump subsided, several European airlines started or resumed flying to the city's Koltsovo International Airport (SVX). These include Lufthansa, British Airways, Austrian Airlines, Turkish Airlines and Czech Airlines.

Yekaterinburg's public transit network includes the Yekaterinburg Metro which was opened in 1991, and many streetcar (tram), bus, and trolleybus routes.

[edit] Culture

Image:House Zotov Tarasov.jpg
Palace of the Governor of Sverdlovsk Oblast in Yekaterinburg

The city has several dozens of libraries including the V. G. Belinsky Scientific Library, the largest public library in the Urals.

Yekaterinburg is famous for its theaters among which there are some very popular theater companies: Yekaterinburg Academic Ballet and Opera Company, Sverdlovsk Academic Theater of Musical Comedy (legendary company known in Russia and in ex-soviet republics as Свердловская музкомедия - Sverdlovskaya muzkomedia), Yekaterinburg Academic Dramatic Theater, Yekaterinburg Theater for Young Spectators, Volkhonka (popular chamber theater), Kolyada Theater (chamber theater founded by russian playwright, producer and actor Nikolai Kolyada). Yekaterinburg is the center of New Drama - movement of contemporary russian playwrighs: Nikolai Kolyada, Vasily Sigarev, Konstantin Kostenko, Presnyakov brothers, Oleg Bogayev. Yekaterinburg is also often called capital of contemporary dance for a number of famous contemporary dance companies residing in the city: Kipling, Provincial Dances, Tantstrest with a special department of contemporary dance at the Yekaterinburg University of Humanities.

A number of popular Russian rock bands, such as Urfin Dzhyus, Chaif, Chicherina, Nautilus Pompilius, Nastya, Trek, Agata Kristi and Smyslovye Gallucinacii, were originally formed in Yekaterinburg (Ural Rock is often considered as a particular variety of the rock music, Yekaterinburg and St. Petersburg are considered to be the main centers of rock music in Russia). Besides some famous opera singers - Boris Shtokolov, Yury Gulyayev, Vera Bayeva - graduated from the Urals State Conservatory. The Ural Philharmonic Orchestra (current conductor - Dmitry Liss) founded by Mark Paverman and located in Yekaterinburg is also very popular in Russia and in Europe as well as the Ural Academic Popular Chorus - famous folklor singigng and dance ensemble.

In Yekaterinburg there are more than 30 museums, among which: several museums of ural minerlas and jewelleries, some art galleries, one of the largest collections of Kasli mouldings (traditional kind of cast-iron sculpture in the Urals), the famous Shigirskaya Kladovaya (Шигирская кладовая) - Shigir Collection including the oldest wood sculpture in the world - the Shigir Idol found near Nevyansk and estimated to be made about 9,000 years ago).

[edit] International relations

The largest city in the Urals and one of the top five in Russia, Yekaterinburg has a number of consulates of major countries. For people wishing to make a visa application and needing to attend interview, this can easily take a half-week off the travelling time to get to the interview (in the event that there are internal flights to Yekaterinburg, they may only be once per week).

[edit] Consulates

[edit] Twin cities

Yekaterinburg is a sister city of

[edit] Notable citizens

The following people were either born in Yekaterinburg or made names for themselves while residing there. Note that many of the ice hockey players listed play in North America's National Hockey League.

[edit] Honorary citizens

This is a short list of the most notable honorary citizens of Yekaterinburg (title conferred every year on the Day of the City):

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

<references/>

[edit] External links and sources


Image:Coat of Arms of Sverdlovsk oblast (2005).png Cities and towns in Sverdlovsk Oblast Image:Flag of Russia.svg
Administrative center: Yekaterinburg

Alapayevsk | Aramil | Artyomovsky | Asbest | Beryozovsky | Bogdanovich | Degtyarsk | Irbit | Ivdel | Lesnoy | Kachkanar | Kamensk-Uralsky | Kamyshlov | Karpinsk | Kirovgrad | Krasnoturyinsk | Krasnoufimsk | Krasnouralsk | Kushva | Mikhaylovsk | Nevyansk | Nizhniye Sergi | Novaya Lyalya | Nizhny Tagil | Nizhnyaya Salda | Nizhnyaya Tura | Novouralsk | Pervouralsk | Polevskoy | Revda | Rezh | Serov | Severouralsk | Sredneuralsk | Sukhoy Log | Sysert | Talitsa | Tavda | Turinsk | Verkhnyaya Pyshma | Verkhnyaya Salda | Verkhnyaya Tura | Verkhny Tagil | Verkhoturye | Volchansk | Zarechny

bg:Екатеринбург

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Yekaterinburg

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