Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby
Learn more about Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby
- Edward Smith-Stanley redirects here; for other persons with that name, see Edward Stanley, Lord Stanley
|The Earl of Derby|
| Image:14th Earl of Derby.jpg|
| In office|
23 February 1852 – December 19 1852
20 February 1858 – 12 June 1859
28 June 1866 – 27 February 1868
|Preceded by|| The Lord John Russell|
The Viscount Palmerston
The Earl Russell
|Succeeded by|| The Earl of Aberdeen|
The Viscount Palmerston
|Born|| March 29, 1799|
Knowsley Park, Lancashire, England
|Died|| October 23, 1869|
Knowsley Park, Prescot, Lancashire, England
Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799 – 23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was known before 1834 as Edward Stanley, and from 1834 to 1851 as Lord Stanley.
Stanley was born to Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby and Charlotte Margaret Hornby, daughter of Reverend Geoffrey Hornby, and was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. He was elected to Parliament as a Whig in 1820. When the Whigs returned to power in 1830, Stanley became Chief Secretary for Ireland in Lord Grey's Government, and entered the Cabinet in 1831. In 1833, Stanley moved up to the more important position of Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. Stanley, a conservative Whig, broke with the ministry over the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland in 1834, and resigned from the government.
Joining the Conservatives, Stanley again served as Colonial Secretary in Sir Robert Peel's second government in 1841. In 1844 he was summoned to the House of Lords in his father's Baron of Stanley by Writ of Acceleration. In 1845, he again broke with his Prime Minister, this time over the repeal of the Corn Laws, and managed to bring the majority of the Conservative party with him, (including, among others, the young Benjamin Disraeli). He thereafter led the protectionist rump of the Conservative Party. In 1851 he succeeded his father as Earl of Derby.
In February 1852, following the collapse of the Whig Government of Lord John Russell, Derby formed a minority Government, the member of which who would gain most future prominence was Disraeli as Chancellor of the Exchequer. With many former Conservative ministers having followed Peel, Derby was forced to appoint many new men to office — of the Cabinet only three were pre-existing Privy Counsellors. It is said that when the aged Duke of Wellington heard the list of ministers being read out in the House of Lords he kept asking "Who? Who?" and this has led the government to be labelled the "Who? Who? Ministry".
Traditionally Derby is regarded as a weak Prime Minister whose ministries were dominated by Disraeli, however recent research suggests that this was not always the case. In the area of foreign policy, Disraeli proved highly marginal, with Derby and his Foreign Secretaries Lord Malmesbury and later his son Lord Stanley between them pursuing a course of action that was aimed at building up power through financial strength, seeking to avoid wars at all costs, cooperating with any other powers as needs be and working through the Concert of Europe to resolve problems. This contrasted heavily with the policy of military strength and prestige that Disraeli would later pursue, but during the Derby ministries it was the driving thinking on foreign policy and could be argued to be the precursor of the "splendid isolation" and the diplomatic settlement of Europe pursued by later Conservatives in the late 19th century and the 1930s respectively.
In 1858, Derby formed another minority government upon the collapse of Lord Palmerston's first government, with Disraeli again at the Exchequer and Leader of the Commons. Among the notable achievements of this administration were the end of the British East India Company following the Sepoy Mutiny, which brought India under direct British control for the first time. Once again, the government was short-lived, collapsing after only a year.
Derby returned to power for the last time in 1866, following the collapse of Lord Russell's second government. Once again, Disraeli was the leading figure. This administration was particularly notable for the passage of the Reform Act of 1867, which greatly expanded the suffrage. In early 1868, Derby retired from political life, leaving Disraeli to succeed him.
Although noted as a great orator, Derby was frequently criticized for his languid leadership. Nevertheless, he had many significant achievements, both as minister and Prime Minister, and is considered to be the father of the modern Conservative Party. His tenure as undisputed leader of the party lasted for 22 years - to date the all time record for the party.
His first son was Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby.
 Derby's Governments
| Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom
<td style="vertical-align: middle; width: 1px" rowspan="2"> Image:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg </td>
|Walpole, Wilmington, Pelham, Newcastle, Devonshire, Newcastle, Bute, G Grenville, Rockingham, Chatham (Pitt the Elder), Grafton, North, Rockingham, Shelburne, Portland, Pitt the Younger, Addington, Pitt the Younger, W Grenville, Portland, Perceval, Liverpool, Canning, Goderich, Wellington, Grey, Melbourne, Peel, Melbourne, Peel, Russell, Derby, Aberdeen, Palmerston, Derby, Palmerston, Russell, Derby, Disraeli, Gladstone, Disraeli, Gladstone, Salisbury, Gladstone, Salisbury, Gladstone, Rosebery, Salisbury, Balfour, Campbell-Bannerman, Asquith, Lloyd George, Bonar Law, Baldwin, MacDonald, Baldwin, MacDonald, Baldwin, Chamberlain, Churchill, Attlee, Churchill, Eden, Macmillan, Douglas-Home, Wilson, Heath, Wilson, Callaghan, Thatcher, Major, Blair|
de:Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley, 14. Earl of Derby
fr:Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley it:Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley ja:ダービー伯エドワード・ジョフリー・スミス・スタンレー pl:Edward Stanley, 14. hrabia Derby fi:Edward Smith-Stanley sv:Edward Smith-Stanley, 14:e earl av Derby zh:愛德華·史密斯-斯坦利，德比伯爵十四世