District

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This article is about local government areas. For electoral districts, see Constituencies.

Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries.

Contents

[edit] Austria

Main article: Districts of Austria

In Austria, a district or bezirk is an administrative subdivision normally encompassing several municipalities, roughly equivalent to the Landkreis in Germany. The administrative office of a district, the Bezirkshauptmannschaft is headed by the Bezirkshauptmann. It is in charge of the administration of all matters of federal and state administrative law and subject to orders from the higher instances, usually the Landeshauptmann (governor) in matters of federal law and the Landesregierung (state government) in state law. While there are matters of administrative law of which the municipalities themselves are in charge or where there are special bodies, the district is the basic unit of general administration in Austria. Officials on the district level are not elected, but appointed by the state government. There are also independent cities in Austria. They are called Statutarstadt in Austrian administrative law. These urban districts do have the same tasks as a normal district.

[edit] Vienna

Main article: Districts of Vienna

The State of Vienna, which is at the same time a municipality, is also subdivided in twenty-three districts, which, however, have a somewhat different function than in the rest of the country. Legally, the Magistratisches Bezirksamt (district office) is a local offices of the municipality's administration. However, representatives (Bezirksräte) on the district level are elected, and they in turn elect the head of the district, the Bezirksvorsteher. Those representative bodies are supposed to serve as immediate contacts for the locals on the political and administrative level. In practice, they have some power, e.g. concerning matters of traffic.

[edit] Azerbaijan

[edit] Belgium

The Belgian city of Antwerp is sub-divided into nine districts (Dutch: districten).

[edit] Canada

[edit] Alberta

In Alberta, the district (known as municipal districts) acts like a county or a city but not like the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and British Columbia, all districts and counties are part of census subdivisions of their respective census divisions.

[edit] British Columbia

In British Columbia has two types of districts. The first type of district is a municipality which the district acts like a city, town, or a village(probably deliverated from pre-consolidation of Philadelphia County, Philadelphia). Also British Columbia has some districts called Regional Districts, which the district acts like a county and like any counties in the U.S. (except in Connecticut and Rhode Island) and Canada (except in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Newfoundland), it compromise the district seat, the numbers of municipalities, and unincorporated areas.

[edit] Ontario

In Ontario, a district is a statutory subdivision of the province, but, unlike a county, a district is not incorporated. Most districts are comprised of unincorporated lands, mostly Crown land. Originally present-day Southern Ontario (then part of the Province of Quebec and after 1791, Upper Canada) was divided into districts in 1788[1]. Districts continued to operation until 1849 when they were replaced by counties by the Province of Canada.

The current Ontario districts such as Algoma and Nipissing were first created by the Province of Canada in 1858 prior to Confederation for the delivery of judicial and provincial government services to sparsely populated areas from the district seat (e.g. Sault Ste. Marie). Some districts may have District Social Service Administration Boards, which are designed to provide certain social services. The boundaries of a federal census division may correspond to those of a district.

[edit] Northwest Territories

In western and northern Canada, the federal government created districts as subdivisions of the Northwest Territories 1870-1905, partly on the model of the districts created in the Province of Canada. The first district created was the District of Keewatin in 1876 followed by four more districts in 1882. Gradually, these districts became separate territories (such as Yukon Territory, separate provinces (such as Alberta and Saskatchewan) or were absorbed into other provinces.

[edit] China

Main article: Districts of China

In China, the district or (市辖区, pinyin: shì xiá qū) is a subdivision of any of various city administrative units, including municipalities, sub-provincial cities and prefecture-level cities. Districts have county level status.

Modern districts are a recent innovation. In the context of pre-modern China, the English translation "district" is typically associated with xian, another Chinese administrative division. The xian is translated as "county" in the context of modern China.

[edit] Germany

  • In Germany, a district ("Kreis") is an administrative unit between the "Länder" (German federal states) and the local / municipal levels (Gemeinden). Most of the 439 German districts are "Landkreise", rural districts. 116 larger cities (usually with more than 100,000 inhabitants) do not belong to a district are considered as urban districts ("Kreisfreie Städte" or "Stadtkreise") themselves. See also: Districts of Germany.

[edit] Hong Kong

Hong Kong is divided into eighteen districts, each with a district council.

[edit] India

Main article: Districts of India
See also: Subdivisions of India

India's districts (Hindi: ज़िला or जनपद; /zilɑː/ or /ɟənpəd/) are local administrative units inherited from the British Raj. They generally form the tier of local government immediately below that of India's subnational States and Territories. Where warranted, Districts may further be grouped into administrative Divisions, which form an intermediate level between the District and the subnational State (or union territory).

A District is headed by a Deputy Commissioner in most cases, responsible for the overall administration and the maintenance of law and order. The office of District Collector is also defined, who is the local controller of the district-level administrative staff officers (i.e., the "Public Service") of all the local departments under state government. The district collector is a person who belongs to IAS (Indian Administrative Services). Other key responsibilities include the collection of revenue, and for the Judiciary of the district and sessional courts. The roles of Deputy Commissioner and District Collector may be combined.

Districts are most frequently further sub-divided into smaller administrative units, called either tehsils or talukas, depending on the region. These units have specific local responsibilities, including in particular coordinating revenue collection.

An intermediate level (the Sub-Division) between District and tehsil/taluka may be formed by grouping these units under the oversight of Assistant Commissioners. Each district has well-defined boundaries, and includes one or two cities (or large towns), a few smaller towns and dozens of villages. Most of the Indian districts have the same name as the main town/city that it contains.

As of October 2005, a total of 602 Districts are defined in India.

[edit] Japan

A district (gun in Japanese) is a local administrative unit comprising towns and villages but not cities. See districts of Japan for more complete description. In 1923, its administrative role was abolished although it is still in use for addressing purposes. "District" is also a translation of chiku, defined by Japan's planning law.

[edit] Kenya

In Kenya, a district (wilayah) is a subdivision of a Province and is headed by a District Officer (DO).

[edit] Korea (South)

A district (gu) is a subdivision of larger cities in South Korea. Smaller cities have no districts, whereas districts in Seoul and six Metropolitan Cities are treated as a city in its own right.

[edit] Malaysia

In Malaysia, a district is a division of a state.

[edit] Nauru

The districts of Nauru are the only subdivisions of the whole state.

[edit] New Zealand

A district in New Zealand is a territorial authority (second-tier local government unit) that has not gained the distinction of being proclaimed a city. Districts tend to be less urbanised, tend to cover more than one population centre and a larger amount of rural area, and tend to have a smaller population than cities. While cities and districts are generally considered to be two different types of territorial authority, the area covered by a city is often known as its district—for example the term district plan is used equally in districts and cities. The Chatham Islands Territory is neither a district nor a city.

A district is not always a simple division of a region, some districts straddle regional boundaries.

[edit] Pakistan

Main article: Districts of Pakistan

Pakistan's districts are local administrative units inherited from the British Raj. Districts were generally grouped into administrative Divisions, which in turn formed Provinces. Pakistan has 130 districts (including seven in Azad Jammu and Kashmir). They comprise of villages, towns and cities. A District is headed by a District Nazim (Mayor), who is an elected official and the local controller of the district level officers of all the departments under provincial government. The District Nazim heads an elected District Council which is comprised to councilors, who represent various district level constituencies. The councils have a constitutional requirement to be comprised of a minimum of 33% women, there is no upper limit to that; so women can comprise 100% of these councils but men cannot.

[edit] Peru

Main article: Districts of Peru

[edit] Portugal

Districts (distritos) are administrative divisions of Portugal. They do not have an elected government; they are governed by a "civil governor" appointed by the central government. See Districts of Portugal.

[edit] Scotland

In Scotland, local government districts were use from 1975 to 1996.

[edit] Serbia

Main article: Districts of Serbia

Serbia is divided into twenty-nine districts (okrug) and the city of Belgrade, each of which is further divided into municipalities (opština)

[edit] Slovakia

Main article: Districts of Slovakia

In Slovakia, a district (okres) is a local administrative unit.

[edit] South Africa

In South Africa, the district municipality forms the layer of government below the provinces. A district municipality is in turn divided into several local municipalities. This structure varies in the six largest urban areas (Cape Town, Durban, East Rand, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth and Pretoria), where a metropolitan municipality is both a district and a local municipality.

[edit] Sri Lanka

For purposes of local government, the country of Sri Lanka is divided into nine provinces: Western, Central, Southern, Northern, Eastern, North Western, North Central, Uva and Sabaragamuwa. (The Northern and Eastern Provinces, however, have been technically jointly administered since 1988.)

The provinces are subdivided into a total of twenty-five administrative districts [2]. The administrative districts are Colombo 642 km², Gampaha 1,393 km² and Kalutara 1,606 km² in the Western Province, Kandy 2,365 km², Matale 1,987 km² and Nuwara Eliya 1,228 km² in the Central Province, Galle 1,673 km², Matara 1,246 km², and Hambantota 2,593 km² in the Southern Province, Jaffna 1,114 km², Mannar 1,963 km², Mullaitivu 1,580 km², Vavuniya 2,642 km². and Kilinochchi 1,171 km² in the Northern Province, Batticaloa 2,463 km², Trincomalee 2,616 km² and Ampara 2,984 km² in the Eastern Province, Kurunegala 4,771 km² and Puttalam 2,976 km² in the North Western Province, Anuradhapura 7,128 km² and Polonnaruwa 3,403 km² in the North Central Province, Badulla 2,818 km² and Moneragala 7,133 km² in the Uva Province, and Ratnapura 3,237 km² and Kegalle 1,663 km² in the Sabaragamuwa Province. [3]

[edit] Switzerland

In Switzerland, some cantons organise themselves into districts, while others dispense with districts and govern themselves at the Wahlkreise (Constituency or electoral district) level.

[edit] Thailand

A district ("amphoe") is a subdivision of a Province ("changwat") in Thailand. Some provinces also contain sub-districts ("king amphoe"), which are smaller than the average district.

Districts are a form of local government in several countries.

[edit] United Kingdom

[edit] England

Main article: Districts of England

Districts are the most recognisable form of local government in large parts of England. For those areas which retain two-tier local government, districts usually form the lower tier of that arrangement, with counties forming the upper tier. Districts tend to have responsibility for a number of areas including:

Each district raises taxes from residents on behalf of itself, and the upper tier authority through the Council Tax. It also raises income from business through the Non-Domestic Rates system, which is co-ordinated nationally.

[edit] Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is divided into twenty-six districts for local government purposes. The councils do not carry out the same range of functions as those in the rest of the United Kingdom, e.g. they have no responsibility for education, for road building or for housing (though they do nominate members to the advisory Northern Ireland Housing Council).

Their functions do include waste and recycling services, leisure and community services, building control and local economic and cultural development. They are not planning authorities, but are consulted on some planning applications. Collection of rates (local tax) is handled by the Rate Collection Agency.

[edit] United States

Image:DC Landsat.jpg
Satellite photograph of the District of Columbia.

There are several types of district in the United States.

A constituency with a representative in Congress is a congressional district. Each state is organized into one or more such districts; the exact number within each state is based on the most recent census. Only voters within each district are allowed to vote in the election for the member of the House from that district. Overall, there are 435 congressional districts in the United States; each has roughly 630,000 people, with some variance.

A constituency with a representative in a state legislature is a legislative district; the territory over which a federal court has jurisdiction is a federal judicial district.

The District of Columbia is the only part of the United States, excluding territories, that is not located within any of the fifty states.

The United States also has many types of special-purpose districts with limited powers of local government. School districts are the most common, but other types of districts include college districts, hospital districts, utility districts, irrigation districts, port districts, and public transit districts.

Many cities in the late 20th century adopted names for non-governmental districts as a way of increasing recognition and identity of these distinct areas. In New York City, for example, there is the theatre district, the garment district, and districts with names like SoHo and TriBeCa.

Until 1854, the pre-consolidation of Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania had some districts acting like cities or towns.

[edit] Vietnam

A district (quận) is an administrative unit lying between a province (or lower province) and higher village.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links


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