Dependent territory

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A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a State.

There are varying degrees and forms of dependence, commonly distinguished from other subnational entities in that they are not considered to be part of the motherland or mainland of the governing State. In most cases they also represent a different order of separation. A subnational entity typically represents a division of the State proper, while a dependent territory might be an overseas territory that enjoys a greater degree of autonomy. For instance, many of them have more or less separate legal systems from the governing States. Varies among different legal and constitutional traditions, these territories may or may not be considered part of the States.

The areas separately referred to as non-independent are territories that are disputed, are occupied, have a government in exile or have a non-negligible independence movement.

Contents

[edit] Lists of dependent territories

Currently there are 66 territories on these lists, including four entities which have special positions recognised by international treaty or agreement (marked with asterisks (*)). Kosovo, not listed below, is an international protectorate under United Nations administration within the territory a sovereign state Serbia. It is not a dependent territories in the strict sense of the meaning, but is in some way similar.

As a result of the Antarctic Treaty, all claims south of 60 degrees south are not recognised or disputed. They are italicised. Uninhabited territories or territories with no permanent population are marked with hash keys (#).

The list below includes several territories that are not included in the list of non-self-governing territories [1] listed by the General Assembly of the United Nations (which also includes Western Sahara, since 1990, the General Assembly reaffirmed that the question of Western Sahara was a question of decolonization which remained to be completed by the people of Western Sahara).

Out of the list, Australian, British and New Zealand territories are part of the Commonwealth realm - their governing States are personal union under the same British monarch.

[edit] Australia

See also: States and territories of Australia
External territory Administration
Image:Flag of Australia.svg Ashmore and Cartier Islands # From Canberra by the Department of Transport and Regional Services.
Image:Flag of Christmas Island.svg Christmas Island From Canberra by the Department of Transport and Regional Services.
Image:Flag of Australia.svg Cocos (Keeling) Islands From Canberra by the Department of Transport and Regional Services.
Image:Flag of Australia.svg Coral Sea Islands # From Canberra by the Department of Transport and Regional Services.
Image:Flag of Australia.svg Heard Island and McDonald Islands # From Canberra by the Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment and Heritage.
Image:Flag of Norfolk Island.svg Norfolk Island Commonwealth responsibilities administered from Canberra through the Department of Transport and Regional Services.
Australian Antarctic Territory # From Canberra by the Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment and Heritage.

[edit] People's Republic of China

See also: special administrative region (People's Republic of China)
Special administrative region Administration
Image:Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong * special administrative region; after the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong was signed on December 19, 1984, the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to the PRC on July 1, 1997. It is now largely autonomous operating under the Basic Law of Hong Kong.
Image:Flag of Macau.svg Macao * (also commonly spelt Macau) special administrative region; after the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau was signed in 1987, the sovereignty of Macau was transferred to the PRC on December 20, 1999. It is now largely autonomous operating under the Basic Law of Macau.

Note: While the status of Hong Kong and Macau possesses characteristics of dependent territories, some people may not consider them as such as they are not external territories but "inalienable part[s] of the People's Republic of China".

[edit] Denmark

Division Administration
Image:Flag of the Faroe Islands (bordered).svg Faroe Islands Self-governing overseas administrative division since 1948. Part of the Kingdom of Denmark but not of the European Union.
Image:Flag of Greenland (bordered).svg Greenland Self-governing overseas administrative division since 1979. Part of the Kingdom of Denmark. Left the European Union in 1986.

[edit] Finland

Province Administration
Image:Flag of Aaland.svg Åland * neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland. It was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.

[edit] France

See also: French overseas territories
France includes also the overseas departments of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion; see #Notes.
Territory Administration
Bassas da India # Atoll administered by a high commissioner of the French Republic resident in Réunion. No permanent population.
Clipperton Island # Atoll administered by by a high commissioner of the French Republic from French Polynesia. No permanent population.
Europa Island # Island administered by a high commissioner of the French Republic resident in Réunion. No permanent population.
Image:Flag of French Polynesia.svg French Polynesia Overseas collectivity since 2003; Overseas country since 2004.
Image:Flag of France.svg French Southern Territories # Overseas territory since 1955, administered from Paris by an Administrateur Superieur (since May 2000, François Garde assisted by Secretary General Jean-Yves Hermoso). Includes Île Amsterdam, Île Saint-Paul, Îles Crozet and the Îles Kerguelen in the southern Indian Ocean, plus Adélie Land, the French-claimed sector of Antarctica. No permanent population.
Glorioso Islands # Islands administered by a high commissioner of the French Republic resident in Réunion. No permanent population.
Juan de Nova Island #
Mayotte Departmental collectivity since 2001; overseas collectivity since 2003.
New Caledonia "Sui generis" collectivity since 1999; appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Territorial collectivity since 1985; overseas collectivity since 2003.
Tromelin Island # Island administered by a high commissioner of the French Republic resident in Réunion. No permanent population.
Image:Flag of France.svg Wallis and Futuna Overseas territory since 1961; overseas collectivity since 2003.

[edit] Netherlands

See also: Kingdom of the Netherlands
Country Administration
Image:Flag of Aruba.svg Aruba Full autonomy in internal affairs obtained upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986; Government of the Netherlands responsible for defense and foreign affairs. Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands but not of the European Union.
Image:Flag of the Netherlands Antilles (bordered).svg Netherlands Antilles Full autonomy in internal affairs granted in 1954; Government of the Netherlands responsible for defense and foreign affairs. Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, but not of the European Union.

[edit] New Zealand

See also: Realm of New Zealand
In free association Administration
Image:Flag of the Cook Islands.svg Cook Islands Self-governing in free association with New Zealand. The Cook Islands are fully responsible for their internal affairs; New Zealand, in consultation, retains some responsibility for external affairs and defense. As of 2005, the Cook Islands have diplomatic relations in their own name with eighteen countries.
Image:Flag of Niue.svg Niue Self-governing in free association with New Zealand since 1974. Niue is fully responsible for its internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs and defense. New Zealand's responsibilities confer no rights of control and are only exercised at the request of the Government of Niue.
Territory Administration
Image:Flag of New Zealand.svg Tokelau Self-administering territory of New Zealand. As it moves toward free association with New Zealand, Tokelau and New Zealand have agreed to a draft constitution. A UN-sponsored referendum on self-governance in February 2006 did not produce the two-thirds supermajority necessary for changing the current political status.
Image:Flag of New Zealand.svg Ross Dependency # New Zealand's Antarctic claim.

[edit] Norway

Territory Administration
Bouvet Island # Territory administered by the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo.
Peter I Island # Part of Norway's Antarctic claim.
Queen Maud Land # Part of Norway's Antarctic claim.

[edit] United Kingdom

[edit] British overseas territories
See also: British overseas territories

With the exception of Akrotiri and Dhekelia and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the following territories appear on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

Overseas territories Administration
Image:Flag of Anguilla.svg Anguilla British overseas territory.
Image:Flag of Bermuda.svg Bermuda British overseas territory or self-governing territory as defined by the UK.
Image:Flag of the British Antarctic Territory.png British Antarctic Territory # The UK's Antarctic claim.
Image:Flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg British Indian Ocean Territory # British overseas territory administered by a commissioner resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London.
Image:Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg British Virgin Islands British overseas territory with internal self-government.
Image:Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg Cayman Islands British overseas territory.
Image:Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg Falkland Islands British overseas territory, also claimed by Argentina.
Image:Flag of Gibraltar (bordered).svg Gibraltar British overseas territory, also claimed by Spain.
Image:Flag of Montserrat.svg Montserrat British overseas territory.
Image:Flag of the Pitcairn Islands.svg Pitcairn Islands British overseas territory.
Image:Flag of Saint Helena.svg St. Helena British overseas territory. St. Helena also administers Ascension Island and the island group of Tristan da Cunha.
Image:Flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.svg South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands # British overseas territory, also claimed by Argentina. Administered from the Falkland Islands by the Governor of the Falkland Islands as representative of the British monarch.
Image:Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Turks and Caicos Islands British overseas territory.
Sovereign Base Area Administration
Image:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Akrotiri British overseas territory administered by the Commander of British Forces, Cyprus.
Image:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Dhekelia British overseas territory administered by the Commander of British Forces, Cyprus.
[edit] Crown dependencies
See also: Crown dependency

[edit] United States

See also: Unincorporated territory
The smallest island entities belong to the United States Minor Outlying Islands.
Territory Administration
Image:Flag of American Samoa.svg American Samoa Unincorporated and unorganized territory administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
Baker Island # Unincorporated territory of the U.S. administered from Washington, D.C. as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
Howland Island # Unincorporated territory of the U.S. administered from Washington, D.C. as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
Jarvis Island # Unincorporated territory of the U.S. administered from Washington, D.C. as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
Johnston Atoll # Unincorporated territory of the U.S. administered from Washington, D.C. as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
Kingman Reef # Unincorporated territory of the U.S. administered from Washington, D.C. as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
Midway Atoll # Unincorporated territory of the U.S. administered from Washington, D.C. as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
Image:Flag of Guam.svg Guam Unincorporated organized territory; policy relations between Guam and the U.S. conducted under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
Navassa Island # Unincorporated territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior from the Caribbean Islands National Wildlife Refuge in Boqueron, Puerto Rico. Also claimed by Haiti and privately via the Guano Islands Act.
Image:Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth in political union with the U.S.; federal funding administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior.
Palmyra Atoll # Incorporated territory of the U.S., partly privately and partly federally owned. Administered from Washington, D.C. by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior; the Office of Insular Affairs of the U.S. Department of the Interior continues to administer nine excluded areas comprising certain tidal and submerged lands within the lagoon and 12 nm of surrounding sea.
Image:Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S. with commonwealth status; policy relations between Puerto Rico and the U.S. conducted under the jurisdiction of the Office of the President.
Image:Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg U.S. Virgin Islands Unincorporated organized territory; policy relations between the Virgin Islands and the U.S. conducted under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
Wake Island # Unincorporated territory supervised by the U.S. Air Force and administered from Washington, D.C. by the U.S. Department of the Interior. Also claimed by the Marshall Islands.

[edit] Notes

[edit] France

French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion are regions (first-order administrative units) of France (they are simultaneous departments, the second-order units), and are therefore not dependencies or areas of special sovereignty, similar to how the island state of Hawaii is a first-order political unit of the United States. The Department of Guadeloupe includes the islands of Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante, La Desirade, and the Iles des Saintes, as well as Saint Barthelemy and the northern three-fifths of Saint Martin (the rest of which belongs to Netherlands Antilles).

The uninhabited islands of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island are administered from Réunion; all these islands are claimed by Madagascar, and Tromelin Island is claimed by Mauritius. However, they are not legally part of the Réunion but part of the French Republic (and grouped together as an entity formally named "Dispersed islands", or îles Éparses), as well as the French Southern Territories (a group of islands in the Far Southern Indian Ocean, near the Antarctic, and that previously included the French claims in the Antarctic), or the small island of Clipperton, administered for the French Republic from French Polynesia, but claimed by Mexico.

France has no formal colonies since the 1960s. All citizens of the listed territorial entities enjoy full French (and European Union) citizenship rights, including the right to vote for national or European elections (including those living in areas out of the European Union, for the election of French deputies at the European Parlement). All the inhabited entities, whatever their status, are represented by deputies and senators to the national parliament. French citizens living abroad can also vote in the French embassies and consulates worldwide for their own senators.

French Polynesia (overseas country), New Caledonia (collectivity sui generis), and Wallis and Futuna (overseas territorial collectivity) enjoy some substantial legislative autonomy and have a separate currency (the CFP Franc). These territories are not in the economical area of the European Union, and have a legal personality allowing them to be members of other regional organizations. Whether they will choose independence in the future is an open question, and the local governments of these territories have considered to replace the Franc CFP by the Euro (but to keep their independent financial autonomy).

See also: Islands controlled by France in the Indian and Pacific oceans

[edit] United States

Citizens of the U.S. overseas possessions, including Puerto Rico, do not have the right to vote in U.S. federal elections. The U.S. Department of State uses the term Insular areas to refer to the areas listed above (with the exception of Guantanamo Bay). Although the U.S. state of Hawaii is an island and is technically overseas from the rest of the U.S., it is fully a state of the Union and shares equal status under the U.S. constitution with all of the other states.

The U.S. does not claim sovereignty on Guantanamo Bay, but exercises permanent control and pays rent under terms of treaties with Cuba.

The Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia and Palau, formerly part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, have not been U.S. territory ever since each became a sovereign state and entered into a Compact of Free Association with the United States. However, some still treated them as U.S. dependencies until they were admitted to the United Nations in the 1990s as full member States.

The Native American tribal governments are sometimes called "dependencies", but in a broader sense they are really subnational entities; their territories, whether recognized as reservations or not, are an integral part of the United States in every territorial and geographic sense, as well as legally for most purposes. Their status as a "nation" is merely official recognition of their historic tribal sovereignty, which under U.S. law usually displaces state sovereignty but not Federal sovereignty (including foreign affairs). Native Americans are full citizens of the United States and of the state in which they reside, regardless of their tribal membership or place of residence.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain.an:Territorios dependiens zh-min-nan:I-lāi-tē bg:Списък на зависими територии cs:Seznam závislých území cy:Rhestr tiriogaethau dibynnol de:Liste abhängiger Gebiete es:Territorio dependiente fr:Liste des dépendances et territoires à souveraineté spéciale id:Wilayah dependensi ia:Territorios dependente o disputate is:Hjálenda it:Elenco dei territori dipendenti li:Aafhenkelike gebejer no:Biland pl:Terytorium zależne pt:Lista de territórios dependentes simple:List of dependent territories uk:Залежні території zh:境外領

Dependent territory

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