Crimean War

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Crimean War
Detail of Franz Roubaud's panoramic painting The Siege of Sevastopol (1904).
Date 1854-56
Location Crimean Peninsula,
Black Sea,
Baltic Sea,
Pacific Ocean
Result Allied victory
Image:Flag of France.svg French Empire
Image:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
Image:Ottoman Flag.svg Ottoman Empire
Image:Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Kingdom of Sardinia
Image:Flag of Russia.svg Russian Empire
90,000 French
35,000 Turkish
17,500 British
2,050 Sardinian
killed, wounded and died of disease
killed, wounded and died of disease
Crimean War
SinopPetropavlovskAlmaSevastopolBalaclavaInkermanEupatoriaTaganrogChernaya RiverKarsMalakhoffKinburn

The Crimean War lasted from 1854 until 1 April 1856 and was fought between Imperial Russia on one side and an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The majority of the conflict took place on the Crimean peninsula in the Black Sea, with military conflicts also occurring in western Turkey, the Baltic Sea region and in the Pacific Ocean.

The war is generally seen as the first modern conflict and "introduced technical changes which affected the future course of warfare."<ref name=royle1>Royle. Preface</ref>


[edit] Buildup to war

[edit] Conflict over the Holy Land

The immediate root causes of the Crimean War can be traced back to the 1851 coup d'état in France which brought Louis Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, to power as dictator. Dissolving the National Assembly by the end of 1851, Bonaparte issued a plebiscite on a new constitution that allowed him to act as president of France for more than a single term. In the following year, he declared himself Napoleon III and began harnessing as much support as possible within France to make his rule legitimate. With the Roman Catholics being the largest group of possible supporters, Napoleon had his ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, Marquis de Lavalette, force the Ottomans to recognize France as the "sovereign authority" in the Holy Land.<ref name=royle2>Royle. Pg 19</ref>

Quickly, the Russians made counter-claims to this newest change in "authority" in the Holy Land. Pointing to two more recent treaties, one in 1757 and the other in 1774, the Ottomans reversed their earlier decision, renouncing the French treaty and insisting that Russia was the protector of the Christian faith in the Ottoman Empire. Napoleon III responded with a show of force, sending the warship Charlemagne to the Black Sea, a "clear violation" of the London Straits Convention.<ref name=royle2>Royle. Pg 19</ref> France's startling show of force, combined with aggressive diplomacy and money, changed Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid I's mind on the matter of the Holy Land and its protection. The newest treaty, between France and the Ottomans, confirmed France and the Catholic Church as the supreme Christian organization in the Holy Land, supreme control over the various Christian holy places, and gave the keys to the Church of the Nativity, previously in the hands of the Greek Orthodox Church, to the Catholic Church.<ref name=royle3>Royle. Pg 20</ref>

Due to his stunning diplomatic success in Istanbul, Napoleon III's support in France grew tremendously. However, Napoleon appeared to misjudge the religious convictions of Tsar Nicholas I. Angry over losing the diplomatic war to France in the Porte, the Russian tsar had his 4th and 5th Army Corps mobilized and deployed along the Danube River and had Count Karl Nesselrode, his foreign minister, begin a diplomatic war to regain Russian prestige with the Ottomans. As Nesselrode, a veteran diplomat, began forming his strategy for the tsar, he privately confided to the British ambassador in St. Petersburg, Sir George Seymour:

[The row over the Holy Places] had assumed a new character - that the acts of injustice towards the Greek church which it had been desired to prevent had been perpetrated and consequently that now the object must be to find a remedy for these wrongs. The success of French negotiations at Constantinople was to be ascribed solely to intrigue and violence - violence which had been supposed to be the ultima ratio of kings, being, it had been seen, the means which the present Ruler of France was in the habit of employing in the first instance.<ref name=royle4>Royle. Pg 21</ref>

Further, Nesselrode implied to Seymour that Russia would not hesitate to use its military to backup and enforce its diplomatic stance. Nesselrode believed war would be inevitable if France did not back down. On January 2, 1853, in a letter to the Russian ambassador in London, Nesselrode further confided that Russia would 'face the whole world alone and without allies,' and also noted that war with Britain was likely as well<ref name=royle4>Royle. Pg 21</ref>.

Russo–Ottoman Wars

[edit] Diplomatic front

As conflict loomed over the question of the Holy Places, Nicholas I and Nesselrode began a diplomatic offensive which they hoped would prevent either Britain or France from interfering in any conflict between Russia and the Ottomans, as well as to prevent them from allying together. Nicholas believed that by playing on anti-French sentiments in England, he would be able to split France and Britain on the question of the Holy Places. Further, the Tsar was sure that neither Prussia nor Austria would enter the conflict, firstly because the question of German unification was in stalemate and secondly because the Tsar had kept the two countries from going to war in 1850.<ref name=royle5>Royle. Pg 23</ref>

In January 1853, Nicholas began courting Britain through Seymour. Nicholas insisted that he no longer wished to expand Imperial Russia further than they already were, but that he had an obligation to Christian communities in the Ottoman Empire. He further expanded on the belief that the Ottoman Empire was the "sick man of Europe" and that Russia and Britain should act in concert to parcel out the Ottoman lands when that Empire fell. It is here that Nicholas made a diplomatic blunder. Misreading Britain's position, Nicholas believed that the two countries had come to a common understanding on the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. The Tsar believed that in any conflict between him and the Sultan, Britain would not interfere. Unfortunately, this was not Britain's position. The British government feared any territorial gains by Russia that would increase its influence in the region of Turkey, as well as Russia gaining control of the Bosporus, would threaten British possessions in the Eastern Mediterranean and its possessions in India.

The Tsar next dispatched a diplomat, Prince Menshikov, on a special mission to the Porte. By previous treaties, the sultan was committed "to protect the Christian religion and its Churches", but Menshikov attempted to negotiate a new treaty, under which Russia would be allowed to interfere whenever it deemed the Sultan's protection inadequate. Further, this new synod, a religious convention, would allow Russia to control the Orthodox Church's hierarchy in the Ottoman Empire. Menshikov arrived at Constantinople on February 16 on the steam-powered warship Gromovnik. Menshikov wasted no time in breaking protocol at the Porte when, at his first meeting with the Sultan, he condemned the Ottoman's concessions to the French. Menshikov also began demanding the replacement of highly-placed Ottoman civil servants.

The British embassy at Istanbul at the time was being run by Hugh Rose, chargé d'affaires for the British. Using his considerable resources within the Ottoman Empire, Rose gathered intelligence on Russian troop movements along the Danube frontier, and became concerned about the extent of Menshikov's mission to the Porte. Rose, using his authority as the British representative to the Ottomans, ordered a British squadron of warships to depart early for an Eastern Mediterranean cruise and head for Istanbul. However, Rose's actions were not backed up by the British admiral in command of the squadron, Whitley Dundas, who resented the diplomat for believing he could interfere in the Admiralty's business. Within a week, Rose's actions were cancelled. Only the French sent a naval task force to support the Ottomans.

[edit] First hostilities

At the same time, however, the British government of Prime Minister Aberdeen sent Lord Stratford. Through skillful diplomacy, Lord Stratford convinced the Sultan to reject the treaty, which compromised the independence of the Turks. Benjamin Disraeli blamed Aberdeen and Stratford's actions for making war inevitable, thus starting the process by which Aberdeen would be forced to resign for his role in starting the war. Shortly after he learned of the failure of Menshikov's diplomacy, the Tsar marched his armies into Moldavia and Wallachia (Ottoman principalities in which Russia was acknowledged as a special guardian of the Orthodox Church), using the Sultan's failure to resolve the issue of the Holy Places as a pretext. Nicholas believed that the European powers, especially Austria, would not object strongly to the annexation of a few neighbouring Ottoman provinces, especially given Russian involvement in suppressing the Revolutions of 1848.

When the Tsar sent his troops into Moldavia and Wallachia (the "Danubian Principalities"), Great Britain, seeking to maintain the security of the Ottoman Empire, sent a fleet to the Dardanelles, where it was joined by another fleet sent by France. At the same time, however, the European powers hoped for a diplomatic compromise. The representatives of the four neutral Great Powers—Great Britain, France, Austria and Prussia—met in Vienna, where they drafted a note which they hoped would be acceptable to Russia and Turkey. The note met with the approval of Nicholas I; it was, however, rejected by Abd-ul-Mejid I, who felt that the document's poor phrasing left it open to many different interpretations. Great Britain, France and Austria were united in proposing amendments to mollify the Sultan, but their suggestions were ignored in the Court of Saint Petersburg.

Great Britain and France set aside the idea of continuing negotiations, but Austria and Prussia did not believe that the rejection of the proposed amendments justified the abandonment of the diplomatic process. The Sultan proceeded to war, his armies attacking the Russian army near the Danube. Nicholas responded by dispatching warships, which destroyed a squadron of the Ottoman fleet at the battle of Sinop on 30 November, 1853. The destruction of the Turkish fleet and heavy Ottoman casualties alarmed both Great Britain and France, who stepped forth in defence of the Ottoman Empire. In 1853, after Russia ignored an Anglo-French ultimatum to withdraw from the Danubian principalities, Great Britain and France declared war.

[edit] Peace attempts

Nicholas presumed that in return for the support rendered during the Revolutions of 1848, Austria would side with him, or at the very least remain neutral. Austria, however, felt threatened by the Russian troops in the nearby Danubian Principalities. When Great Britain and France demanded the withdrawal of Russian forces from the Principalities, Austria supported them; and, though it did not immediately declare war on Russia, it refused to guarantee its neutrality. When, in the summer of 1854, Austria made another demand for the withdrawal of troops, Russia feared that Austria would enter the war.

Though the original grounds for war were lost when Russia withdrew its troops from the Danubian Principalities, Great Britain and France failed to cease hostilities. Determined to address the Eastern Question by putting an end to the Russian threat to the Ottoman Empire, the allies proposed several conditions for the cessation of hostilities, including:

  1. a demand that Russia was to give up its protectorate over the Danubian Principalities
  2. it was to abandon any claim granting it the right to interfere in Ottoman affairs on the behalf of the Orthodox Christians;
  3. the Straits Convention of 1841 was to be revised;
  4. all nations were to be granted access to the Danube River.

When the Tsar refused to comply with the Four Points, the Crimean War commenced.

[edit] Crimean War begins

[edit] Siege of Sevastopol

Image:Fall of Sevastopol.jpg
French zouaves and Russian soldiers engaged in hand-to-hand combat at Malakhov Kurgan

The following month, though the immediate cause of war was withdrawn, allied troops landed in the Crimea and besieged the city of Sevastopol, home of the Tsar's Black Sea fleet and the associated threat of potential Russian penetration into the Mediterranean.

The Russians had to scuttle their ships and used the naval cannons as additional artillery, and the ships' crews as marines. During the siege the Russians lost four 110- or 120-gun 3-decker ships of the line, twelve 84-gun 2-deckers and four 60-gun frigates in the Black Sea, plus a large number of smaller vessels. Admiral Nakhimov was mortally wounded in the head by a sniper shot, and died on 30 June 1855. The city was captured in September 1855.

In the same year, the Russians besieged and occupied the Turkish fortress of Kars.

[edit] Azov Campaign and the siege of Taganrog

Main article: Siege of Taganrog

In spring 1855, the allied British-French commanders decided to send an expedition corps into the Azov Sea to undermine Russian communications and supplies to besieged Sevastopol. On May 12, 1855 British-French war ships entered the Kerch Strait and destroyed the coast battery of the Kamishevaya Bay. On May 21, 1855 the gunboats and armed steamers attacked the seaport of Taganrog, the most important hub in terms of its proximity to Rostov on Don and due to vast resources of food, especially bread, wheat, barley and rye that were amassed in the city after the breakout of Crimean War that put an end to its exportation.

Bombardment of Taganrog from a British raft during the first siege attempt

The Governor of Taganrog, Yegor Tolstoy and lieutenant-general Ivan Krasnov refused the ultimatum, responding that Russians never surrender their cities. The British-French squadron began bombardment of Taganrog during 6.5 hours and landed 300 troops near the Old Stairway in the downtown Taganrog, who were thrown back by Don Cossacks and volunteer corps.

In July 1855, the allied squadron tried to go past Taganrog to Rostov on Don, entering the Don River through the Mius River. On July 12, 1855 H.M.S. Jasper grounded near Taganrog thanks to a fisherman, who repositioned the buoys into shallow waters. The cossacks captured the gunboat with all of its guns and blew it up. The third siege attempt was made August 19-31, 1855, but the city was already fortified and the squadron could not approach close enough for landing operations. The allied fleet left the Gulf of Taganrog on September 2, 1855, with minor military operations along Azov Sea coast continuing until late Autumn 1855.

[edit] Baltic theatre

The Baltic was a forgotten theatre of the war. The popularisation of events elsewhere has overshadowed the overarching significance of this theatre, which was close to the Russian capital. From the beginning the Baltic campaign turned into a stalemate. The outnumbered Russian Baltic Fleet confined its movements to the areas around fortifications. At the same time British and French commanders Sir Charles Napier and Parseval-Deschènes, although they led the largest fleet assembled since the Napoleonic wars, considered Russian coastal fortifications, especially the Kronstadt fortress, too well defended to engage and limited their actions to blockade of Russian trade and small raids on less protected parts of the Finnish coast.

Image:Sveaborg bombed.jpg
Bombardment of Sveaborg during the Crimean War

Russia was dependent on imports for both the domestic economy and the supply of her military forces and the blockade seriously undermined the Russian economy. Raiding by allied British and French fleets destroyed forts on the Finnish coast including Bomarsund on the Åland Islands and Fort Slava. Other such attacks were not so successful, and the poorly planned attempts to take Hanko, Tammisaari, Kokkola and Turku were repulsed.

The burning of tar warehouses and ships in Oulu and Raahe led to international criticism, and in Britain, a Mr Gibson demanded in the House of Commons that the First Lord of the Admiralty explain a system which carried on a great war by plundering and destroying the property of defenceless villagers. By autumn, the Allies' fleet left the Baltic for the White Sea, where they shelled Kola and the Solovki. Their attempt to storm Arkhangelsk proved abortive, as was the siege of Petropavlovsk in Kamchatka.

In 1855, the Western Allied Baltic Fleet tried to destroy heavily defended Russian dockyards at Sveaborg outside Helsinki. More than 1,000 enemy guns tested the strength of the fortress for two days. Despite the shelling, the sailors of the 120-gun ship Rossiya, led by Captain Viktor Poplonsky, defended the entrance to the harbour. The Allies fired over twenty thousand shells but were unable to defeat the Russian batteries. A massive new fleet of more than 350 gunboats and mortar vessels was prepared, but before the attack was launched, the war ended.

Part of the Russian resistance was credited to the deployment of newly created blockade mines. Modern naval mining is said to date from the Crimean War: "Torpedo mines, if I may use this name given by Fulton to self-acting mines underwater, were among the novelties attempted by the Russians in their defenses about Cronstadt and Sebastopol", as one American officer put it in 1860 [1].

[edit] Pacific

Minor naval skirmishes also occurred in the Far East, where a strong British and French Allied squadron under Rear Admiral David Price and Contre-amiral Febrier-Despointes besieged a smaller Russian force under Rear Admiral Yevfimy Putyatin at Petropavlovsk on the Kamchatka Peninsula. An Allied landing force was beaten back with heavy casualties in September 1854, and the Allies withdrew. The Russians escaped under snow in early 1855 after Allied reinforcements arrived in the region.

[edit] Final phase and peace

Ottoman losses after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 (in yellow)

Peace negotiations began in 1856 under Nicholas I's successor, Alexander II. Under the ensuing Treaty of Paris, the "Four Points" plan proposed earlier was largely adhered to; most notably, Russia's special privileges relating to the Danubian Principalities were transferred to the Great Powers as a group. In addition, warships of all nations were perpetually excluded from the Black Sea, once the home to the Russian fleet (which, however, had been destroyed in the course of the war). Furthermore, the Tsar and the Sultan agreed not to establish any naval or military arsenal on the coast of that sea. The Black Sea clauses came at a tremendous disadvantage to Russia, for it greatly diminished the naval threat it posed to the Turks. Moreover, all the Great Powers pledged to respect the independence and territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire.

The Treaty of Paris stood until 1871, when France was crushed by Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. Whilst Prussia and several other German states united to form a powerful German Empire, the Emperor of the French, Napoleon III, was deposed to permit the formation of a French Republic. During his reign (which began in 1852), Napoleon III, eager for the support of Great Britain, had opposed Russia over the Eastern Question. Russian interference in the Ottoman Empire, however, did not in any significant manner threaten the interests of France. Thus, France abandoned its opposition to Russia after the establishment of a Republic. Encouraged by the decision of the French, and supported by the German minister Otto, Fürst von Bismarck, Russia denounced the Black Sea clauses of the treaty agreed to in 1856. As Great Britain alone could not enforce the clauses, Russia once again established a fleet in the Black Sea.

The Crimean War caused a mass exodus of Crimean Tatars towards the Ottoman lands, resulting in massive depopulation in the peninsula.

Having abandoned its alliance with Russia, Austria was diplomatically isolated following the war. This led to its defeat in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War and loss of influence in most German-speaking lands. Soon after, Austria would ally with Prussia as it became the new state of Germany, creating the conditions that would lead to World War I.

[edit] Characteristics of the war

Photograph of an army camp at Balaklava during the Crimean War. Albumen silver print by "Robertson & Beato", 1855.

The war became infamously known for military and logistical incompetence, epitomised by the Charge of the Light Brigade which was immortalised in Tennyson's poem. Cholera undercut French preparations for the siege of Sevastopol, and a violent storm on the night of 14 November 1854 wrecked nearly thirty vessels with their precious cargoes of medical supplies, food, clothing, and other necessities. The scandalous treatment of wounded soldiers in the desperate winter that followed was reported by war correspondents for newspapers, prompting the work of Florence Nightingale and introducing modern nursing methods.

Amongst the new techniques used to treat wounded soldiers, a primitive form of ambulances were used for the first time during this conflict.

The Crimean War also introduced the first tactical use of railways and other modern inventions such as the telegraph. The Crimean War is also credited by many as being the first modern war, employing trenches and blind artillery fire (gunners often relied on spotters rather than actually being on the battlefield). The use of the Minié ball for shot coupled with the rifling of barrels greatly increased Allied rifle range and damage.

The Crimean War occasioned the introduction of hand rolled "paper cigars" — cigarettes — to French and British troops, who copied their Turkish comrades in using old newspaper for rolling when their cigar-leaf rolling tobacco ran out or dried and crumbled.

It has been suggested that the Russian defeat in the Crimean War may have been a factor in the emancipation of Russian serfs by the Czar, Alexander II, in 1861.

The British army abolished Sale of commissions as a direct result of the disaster at the Battle of Balaclava, which saw the ill-fated Charge of the Light Brigade.

[edit] Major events of the war

  • It was the first war where the electric telegraph started to have a significant effect, with the first 'live' war reporting to The Times by William Howard Russell, and British generals' reduced independence of action from London due to such rapid communications. Newspaper readership informed public opinion in the United Kingdom and France as never before.
  • Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole came to prominence for their contributions in the field of nursing during the war.

[edit] Prominent military commanders

[edit] Berwick-upon-Tweed

Main article: Berwick-upon-Tweed

There is a rather charming but apocryphal story, recently repeated on the BBC comedy programme, QI, that goes that when the UK joined the war, Great Britain, Ireland, Berwick-upon-Tweed and all British Dominions declared war. Berwick-upon-Tweed had been long disputed by England and Scotland, and hence was often treated as a separate entity. When the war ended, Berwick was accidentally left out of the text of the peace treaty. The Mayor of Berwick-upon-Tweed was subsequently visited by an official of the Soviet Union in 1966 to negotiate a peace settlement, declaring that "Russians can now sleep safely in their beds".

[edit] Crimean War in fiction

  • The Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson depicted a disastrous but brave cavalry charge during the Battle of Balaclava.
  • Leo Tolstoy wrote a few short sketches on the Siege of Sevastopol, collected in The Sebastopol Sketches. The stories detail the lives of the Russian soldiers and citizens in Sevastopol during the siege. Because of this work, Tolstoy has been called the world's first war correspondent.
  • In the Thursday Next series of novels by Jasper Fforde, which are set in an alternative reality, the Crimean war lasts 132 years from 1853 to 1985, and creates sour relations between Imperial Russia and England. The protagonist of the series, Thursday Next, fought in the conflict.
  • Beryl Bainbridge's novel Master Georgie is set in the Crimean War.
  • George MacDonald Fraser's novel Flashman at the Charge (1986) is also set in the Crimean War.
  • Stephen Baxter's novel Anti-Ice starts with the siege of Sebastopol, which is shortened dramatically by a new Anti-Ice weapon. The book asks the question - what if nuclear weapons had existed in Victorian times?
  • The song Abdul Abulbul Amir by Irish music hall performer Percy French was inspired by the Crimean War and reduces it to two fighters, The Turk Abdul and the Russian soldier Ivan Skavinsky Skivar, who duel over a triviality and both die, accomplishing nothing.
  • "Luck", by Mark Twain, mentions the Crimean War in connection with a celebrated war hero.
  • "The Great Stink" by Clare Clark, debut novel published 2006, tells the story of a traumatized veteran of the Crimean War and contains a number of references and flashbacks to this conflict.
  • The irish music song "The Kerry Recruit" deals with the experiences of a young man from Kerry who fights in the war.
  • The song The Trooper by english metal band Iron Maiden is about the Crimean war.

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes


[edit] References

  • Bamgart, Winfried (2000). The Crimean War, 1853-1856, Arnold Publishers. ISBN 0-340-61465-X
  • Ponting, Clive (2004). The Crimean War, Chatto and Windus. ISBN 0-7011-7390-4
  • Pottinger Saab, Anne (1977). The Origins of the Crimean Alliance, University of Virginia Press. ISBN 0-8139-0699-7
  • Rich, Norman (1985). Why the Crimean War: A Cautionary Tale, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-052255-3
  • Royle, Trevor (2000). Crimea: The Great Crimean War, 1854-1856, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6416-5
  • Schroeder, Paul W. (1972). Austria, Great Britain, and the Crimean War: The Destruction of the European Concert, Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0742-7
  • Wetzel, David. (1985). The Crimean War: A Diplomatic History, Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-88033-086-4

[edit] Further reading

  • Hamley, The War in the Crimea, (London, 1891)
  • Kinglake, The Invasion of the Crimea, (nine volumes, London, 1863-87)
  • Russell, The War in the Crimea, 1854-56, (London, 1855-56)
  • Marx, The Eastern Question, 1853-56, (translated by E. M. and E. Aveling, London, 1897)
  • Lodomir, La guerre de 1853-56, (Paris, 1857)
  • Kovalevski, Der Krieg Russlands mit der Türkei in den Jahren 1853-54, (Leipzig, 1869)
  • Rein, Die Teilnahme Sardiniens am Krimkrieg und de öffentliche Meinung in Italien, (Leipzig, 1910)

[edit] External links

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Crimean War

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