Coronation of the British monarch
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The Coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth Realms is formally crowned and invested with regalia. It corresponds to the coronation ceremonies which formerly occurred in other European countries which maintain or maintained monarchies; however, all other such countries -- including even the Roman Catholic city state of the Vatican -- have abandoned coronations in favour of more matter-of-fact inaugurations. The coronation usually takes place several months after the death of the previous monarch, for the coronation is considered a joyous occasion that would be inappropriate when mourning still continues. (It also gives planners enough time to complete the elaborate arrangements required.) For example, Elizabeth II was crowned on June 2, 1953, despite having acceded to the throne on February 6, 1952, the day of her father's death.
The timing of the coronation has varied throughout British history. The first Norman monarch, William I, was crowned on the day he became King—25 December 1066. Most of his successors were crowned within weeks, or even days, of their accession. Edward I was fighting in the Ninth Crusade when he ascended to the throne in 1272; he was crowned soon after his return in 1274. Edward II's coronation, similarly, was delayed by a campaign in Scotland in 1307. Henry VI was only a few months old when he succeeded in 1422; he was crowned in 1429, but did not officially assume the reins of government until he was deemed of sufficient age, in 1437. Under the Hanoverian monarchs in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it was deemed appropriate to extend the mourning period to several months. In addition, in the hope of good weather for the Coronation and its processions and other celebrations, it is almost always set for the spring or summer. In the case of every monarch since, and including, George IV, at least one year has passed between accession and coronation, with the exception of George VI, whose predecessor did not die but abdicated. The Coronation date had already been set; planning simply continued with a new monarch.
Since a period of time has often passed between accession and coronation, some monarchs were never crowned. Edward V and Jane were both deposed before they could be crowned, in 1483 and 1553, respectively. Edward VIII also went uncrowned, as he abdicated in 1936 before the customary year of mourning could conclude.
The Anglo-Saxon monarchs used various locations for their coronations, including Bath, Kingston-upon-Thames, London, Oxford and Winchester. The last Anglo-Saxon monarch, Harold II, was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1066; the location was preserved for all future coronations. When London was under the control of the French, Henry III was crowned at Gloucester in 1216; he later chose to have a second coronation at Westminster in 1220. Two hundred years later, Henry VI also had two coronations; as King of England in London during 1429, and as King of France in Paris during 1431.
Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953 was televised by the British Broadcasting Corporation. This was the first time that cameras were allowed to record the coronation. It was originally thought that cameras would breach the solemnity of the occasion; however, they were permitted after the personal intervention of the Queen, and panned away only for the anointing, as the most sacred moment of the ceremony. It is estimated that over twenty million individuals viewed the program in the United Kingdom, an audience unprecedented in television history. The coronation greatly increased public interest in televisions.
Hers was also the first coronation where the monarch was crowned as multiple sovereigns in one, being asked: "Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the Peoples of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon, and of your Possessions and other Territories to any of them belonging or pertaining, according to their respective laws and customs?" 
The Archbishop of Canterbury, who has precedence over all other clergymen and over all laymen except members of the Royal Family, traditionally officiates at coronations; during his absence, another bishop may take his place. There have, however, been several exceptions. William I was crowned by the Archbishop of York, since the Archbishop of Canterbury had been excommunicated by the Pope. Edward II was crowned by the Bishop of Winchester because the Archbishop of Canterbury was not in England at the time. Mary I, a Catholic, refused to be crowned by the Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury; the coronation was instead performed by the Bishop of Winchester. When Elizabeth I was crowned, the archbishopric of Canterbury was vacant; the Bishop of Carlisle performed the ceremony. Finally, when James II was deposed and replaced with William III and Mary II jointly, the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to recognise the new Sovereigns; he had to be replaced by the Bishop of London. Hence, in almost all cases where the Archbishop of Canterbury has failed to participate, his place has been taken by a senior cleric: the Archbishop of York is second in precedence, the Bishop of London third, the Bishop of Durham fourth, and the Bishop of Winchester fifth. Elizabeth I was crowned by the Bishop of Carlisle, to whose see is attached no special precedence, because the senior Catholic prelates objected to the Protestant Queen's religious reforms.
 Great Officers of State
The Great Officers of State traditionally participate during the ceremony. The offices of Lord High Steward and Lord High Constable have not been regularly filled since the 15th and 16th centuries, respectively; they are, however, revived for coronation ceremonies. The Lord Great Chamberlain enrobes the Sovereign with the ceremonial vestments, with the aid of the Groom of the Robes and the Master (in the case of a King) or Mistress (in the case of a Queen) of the Robes.
The Barons of the Cinque Ports also participated in the ceremony. Formerly, the Barons were the Members of the House of Commons representing the Cinque Ports. Reforms in the nineteenth century, however, integrated the Cinque Ports into a regular constituency system applied throughout the nation. At later coronations, Barons were specially designated from among the city councillors for the special purpose of attending coronations. Originally, the Barons were charged with bearing a ceremonial canopy over the Sovereign.1 The last time the Barons performed such a task was at the coronation of George IV in 1821. The Barons did not return for the coronations of William IV and Victoria. At coronations since Victoria's, the Barons have attended the ceremony, but they have not carried canopies.
 Other claims to attend the coronation
Many landowners and other persons have honorific "duties" or privileges at the coronation. Such rights are determined by a special Court of Claims, over which the Lord High Steward traditionally presided (though the Lord President of the Council performed the task in 1952). The first recorded Court of Claims was convened in 1377 for the coronation of Richard II. By the Tudor period, the hereditary post of Lord High Steward had merged with the Crown, and so Henry VIII began the modern tradition of naming a temporary Steward for the coronation only, with separate commissioners to carry out the actual work of the court.
In 1952, for example, the Court accepted the claim of the Dean of Westminster to advise the Queen on the proper procedure during the ceremony (for nearly a thousand years he and his predecessor abbots have kept an unpublished Red Book of practices), the claim of the Lord Bishop of Durham and the Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells to walk beside the Queen as she entered the Abbey, the claim of the Earl of Shrewsbury in his capacity as Lord High Steward of Ireland to carry a white staff, and the claim of the Queen's Scholars of Westminster School to be the first to acclaim the monarch on behalf of the common people (their shouts of "Vivat! Vivat Regina!" were incorporated into an anthem).
As many peers hold such rights, the allocation of roles in the next coronation may be a question of some interest, to be resolved between the Government and the Palace. Given the stress laid in the coronation on the constitutional role of the monarch, it may be thought anomalous to give significant roles to peers whose status is now entirely without rights or duties in the governing of the realm. On the other hand, an Act of Parliament would be required to abrogate the proprietary rights and privileges, and the monarchy itself depends on the maintenance of such rights.
 Sovereign's robes
The Sovereign wears a variety of different robes and other garments during the course of the ceremony:
- Crimson surcoat - the regular dress during most of the ceremony, worn under all other robes. In 1953, Elizabeth II wore a newly-made gown in place of a surcoat.
- Robe of State of crimson velvet or Parliament Robe - the first robe used at a coronation, worn on entry to the Abbey and later at State Openings of Parliament. It consists of an ermine cape and a long crimson velvet train lined with further ermine and decorated with gold lace.
- Anointing gown - a simple and austere garment worn during the anointing. It is plain white, bears no decoration and fastens at the back.
- Colobium sindonis ("shroud tunic") - the first robe with which the Sovereign is invested. It is a loose white undergarment of fine linen cloth edged with a lace border, open at the sides, sleeveless and cut low at the neck. It symbolises the derivation of Royal authority from the people and represents the divestment of vanity and material things.
- Supertunica - the second robe with which the Sovereign is invested. It is a long coat of gold silk which reaches to the ankles and has wide-flowing sleeves. It is lined with rose-coloured silk, trimmed with gold lace, woven with national symbols and fastened by a sword belt. It derives from the full dress uniform of a consul of the Byzantine Empire.
- Robe Royal or Pallium Regale - the main robe worn during the ceremony and used during the Crowning. It is a four-square mantle, lined in crimson silk and decorated with silver coronets, national symbols and silver imperial eagles in the four corners. It is lay, rather than liturgical, in nature.
- Stole Royal or armilla - a gold slik scarf which accompanies the Robe Royal, richly and heavily embroidered with gold and silver thread, set with jewels and lined with rose-coloured silk and gold fringing.
- Purple surcoat - the counterpart to the crimson surcoat, worn during the final part of the ceremony.
- Imperial Robe of purple velvet - the robe worn at the conclusion of the ceremony, on exit from the Abbey. It comprises an embroidered ermine cape with a train of purple silk velvet, trimmed with Canadian ermine and fully lined with pure silk English satin. The purple recalls the imperial robes of Roman Emperors.
In contrast to the history and tradition which surround the Regalia, it is customary for most coronation robes to be newly made for each monarch. The present exceptions are the supertunica and Robe Royal, which both date from the Coronation of George IV in 1821 (though he did not wear the supertunica). Both are kept at the Tower of London.
 Official costume
Several participants in the ceremony wear special costumes, uniforms or robes. Peers' robes comprise a full-length crimson velvet coat, and an ermine cape. Rows of sealskin spots on the cape designate the peer's rank; dukes use four rows, marquesses three and a half, earls three, viscounts two and a half, and barons and lords of Parliament two. Royal dukes use six rows of ermine, ermine on the front of the cape and long trains borne by pages. Peeresses' ranks are designated not by sealskin spots, but by the length of their trains and the width of the ermine edging on the same. For duchesses, the trains are two yards long, for marchionesses one and three-quarters yards, for countesses one and a half yards, for viscountesses one and a quarter yards, and for baronesses and ladies one yard. The ermine edgings are five inches in width for duchesses, four inches for marchionesses, three inches for countesses, and two inches for viscountesses, baronesses and ladies. The robes of peers and peeresses are used only during coronations.
 Crowns and coronets
Peers wear coronets, as do members of the Royal Family; such coronets display heraldic emblems based on rank or association to the monarch. The heir-apparent's coronet displays four crosses-pattée alternating with four fleurs-de-lis, surmounted by an arch. The same style, without the arch, is used for the children and siblings of Sovereigns. The coronets of children of the heir-apparent display four fleurs-de-lis, two crosses-pattée and two strawberry leaves. A fourth style, including four crosses-pattée and four strawberry leaves, is used for the children of the sons and brothers of Sovereigns. The aforementioned coronets are borne instead of any coronets based on peerage dignities. The coronets of dukes show eight strawberry leaves, those of marquesses four strawberry leaves alternating with four raised silver balls, those of earls eight strawberry leaves alternating with eight raised silver balls, those of viscounts sixteen silver balls and those of barons six silver balls. Peeresses use the same design, except that they appear on smaller circlets than the peers' coronets.
Aside from the monarch, the only individuals authorised to wear crowns are the three Kings of Arms, the senior officials of the College of Arms, the heraldic authority of England, Wales and Northern Ireland (Scotland has a separate authority, the Lyon Court). The Garter Principal King of Arms, the most senior King of Arms, wears a gold crown; the Clarenceaux King of Arms (who has authority over southern England) and the Norroy and Ulster King of Arms (who has authority over northern England and Northern Ireland) both wear silver gilt crowns. Their coronets consist of sixteen acanthus leaves alternating in height, and inscribed with the words Miserere mei Deus secundum magnum misericordiuan tuam. When this coronet is shown in pictorial representations, only nine leaves and the first three words are shown
 Other participants
Along with persons of nobility, the coronation ceremonies are also attended by a wide range of political figures, including all members of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, all Prime Ministers and Governors General of the Commonwealth Realms, all Governors of British Crown Colonies, as well as the Heads of State of other independent nations of the Commonwealth. Dignitaries and representatives from other nations are also customarily invited.
 Recognition and oath
The Sovereign enters Westminster Abbey wearing the crimson surcoat and the Robe of State of crimson velvet.
Once the Sovereign takes his or her seat on the Chair of Estate, the Garter Principal King of Arms, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Great Chamberlain, the Lord High Constable and the Earl Marshal go to the east, south, west and north of the Abbey. At each side, the Archbishop calls for the Recognition of the Sovereign, with the words, "Sirs, I here present unto you ..., your undoubted King. Wherefore all you who are come this day to do your homage and service, are you willing to do the same? " After the people acclaim the Sovereign at each side, the Archbishop administers an oath to the Sovereign. The oath has varied over the years; at Elizabeth II's coronation, the exchange between the Queen and the Archbishop was as follows:
- The Archbishop of Canterbury: "Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the Peoples of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon, and of your Possessions and other Territories to any of them belonging or pertaining, according to their respective laws and customs?"
- The Queen: "I solemnly promise so to do."
- The Archbishop of Canterbury: "Will you to your power cause Law and Justice, in Mercy, to be executed in all your judgments?"
- The Queen: "I will."
- The Archbishop of Canterbury: "Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel? Will you to the utmost of your power maintain in the United Kingdom the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law? Will you maintain and preserve inviolably the settlement of the Church of England, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, as by law established in England? And will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of England, and to the Churches there committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges, as by law do or shall appertain to them or any of them?"
- The Queen: "All this I promise to do. The things which I have here promised, I will perform, and keep. So help me God."
Once the taking of the oath concludes, an ecclesiastic presents a Bible to the Sovereign, saying "Here is Wisdom; This is the royal Law; These are the lively Oracles of God." At Elizabeth II's coronation, the Bible was presented by the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Once the Bible is presented, the Holy Communion is celebrated, but the service is interrupted after the Nicene Creed.
 Anointing and crowning
After the Communion service is interrupted, the Sovereign removes the crimson robe, puts on the anointing gown and processes to King Edward's Chair, which has been set in a most prominent position. (In 1953 it stood atop a dais of several steps.) This ancient medieval chair has a slot in the base into which the Stone of Scone is fitted for the ceremony. Also known as the "stone of destiny," it was used for ancient Scottish coronations until brought to England by Edward I. It has been used for every coronation at Westminster Abbey since. Until 1996 the stone was kept with the chair in Westminster Abbey between coronations; but it was returned that year to Scotland, where it will remain on display in Edinburgh Castle until it is needed for a coronation.
- 1831: The Duke of Leeds, The Duke of Dorset, The Marquess Camden and The Marquess of Exeter.
- 1838: The Duke of Rutland, The Duke of Buccleuch, The Marquess of Anglesey and The Marquess of Exeter again.
- 1902: The Earl Cadogan, The Earl of Derby, The Earl of Rosebery and The Earl Spencer.
- 1911: The Earl Cadogan again, The Earl of Crewe, The Earl of Minto and The Earl of Rosebery again.
- 1937: The Duke of Abercorn, The Marquess of Londonderry, The Earl of Lytton and The Earl Stanhope.
- 1953: The Duke of Wellington, The Duke of Portland, The Earl Fortescue and The Viscount Allendale.
This element of the coronation service was considered so sacred in 1953 that it was not televised. 2 The Dean of Westminster pours consecrated oil into a spoon; the Archbishop of Canterbury then anoints the Sovereign on the hands, breast, and head. The eagle-shaped ampulla holding the oil and the filagreed spoon with which it is poured are the only parts of the mediæval crown jewels which survived the commonwealth. The Archbishop concludes by stating a blessing.
The Sovereign is then enrobed in the colobium sindonis, over which is placed the supertunica.
The Lord Great Chamberlain presents the spurs, which represent chivalry. The Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by other bishops, then presents the Sword of State to the Sovereign. The Sovereign is then further robed, this time putting the Robe Royal and Stole Royal on top of the supertunica. The Archbishop then delivers several Crown Jewels to the Sovereign. First, he delivers the Orb, a hollow golden sphere set with numerous precious and semi-precious stones. The Orb is surmounted by a cross, representing the rule of Jesus over the world; it is returned to the Altar immediately after being received. Next, the Sovereign receives a ring representing the "marriage" between him or her and the nation. The Sceptre with the Dove (so called because it is surmounted by a dove representing the Holy Spirit) and the Sceptre with the Cross (which incorporates Cullinan I, the largest cut diamond in the world) are delivered to the Sovereign. As the Sovereign holds the two sceptres, the Archbishop of Canterbury places St Edward's Crown (brought to him by the Lord High Steward) on his or her head. All cry "God Save the King [Queen]," placing their coronets and caps on their heads. Cannon are fired from the Tower of London.
 End of the ceremony
The Sovereign is then borne into the Throne. The Archbishops and Bishops swear their fealty, saying "I, N., Archbishop [Bishop] of N., will be faithful and true, and faith and truth will bear unto you, our Sovereign Lord [Lady], King [Queen] of this Realm and Defender of the Faith, and unto your heirs and successors according to law. So help me God." The peers then proceed to pay their homage, saying "I, N., Duke [Marquess, Earl, Viscount, Baron or Lord] of N., do become your liege man of life and limb, and of earthly worship; and faith and truth will I bear unto you, to live and die, against all manner of folks. So help me God." Formerly, each peer paid homage individually, but Edward VII abbreviated the ceremony. Now, the clergy pay homage together, led by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Next, members of the Royal Family pay homage individually. The peers are led by the premier peers of their rank: the Dukes by the Premier Duke, the Marquesses by the Premier Marquess, and so forth.
If there is a Queen Consort, she is crowned in a very simple ceremony immediately before homage is paid.3 A Queen Regnant's husband, however, is not separately crowned. The Communion ceremony interrupted earlier is resumed and completed.
The Sovereign then exits the Coronation Theatre, entering St Edward's Chapel (also within the Abbey), preceded by the bearers of the Sword of State, the Sword of Spiritual Justice, the Sword of Temporal Justice and the Sword of Mercy (the last has a blunt tip). The Crown and Sceptres worn by the Sovereign, as well as all other regalia, are laid at the Altar; the Sovereign removes the Robe Royal and Stole Royal, swaps the crimson surcoat for the purple surcoat and is enrobed in the Imperial Robe of purple velvet. He or she then wears the Imperial State Crown and takes into his or her hands the Sceptre with the Cross and the Orb and leaves the chapel while all present sing the National Anthem.
Music played at coronations is primarily classical and religiously inspired. The most oft-used piece is Zadok the Priest, a religious composition by George Frideric Handel based on texts from the Bible. The work was commissioned for George II's coronation in 1727, and has featured in every coronation since, an achievement unparalleled by any other piece. Hubert Parry's I Was Glad was written as the entrance anthem for the coronation of Edward VII, and contains a bridge section partway through so that the King's or Queen's Scholars of Westminster School can exercise their right to be the first commoners to acclaim the sovereign, shouting their traditional "vivat"s as he or she enters the coronation theatre. This anthem and Charles Villiers Stanford's Gloria in Excelsis have also been used regularly in recent coronations, as has the national anthem, God Save the Queen (or King). Other composers whose music featured in Elizabeth II's coronation include Sir George Dyson, Gordon Jacob, Sir William Henry Harris, Herbert Howells, Sir William Walton, Samuel Sebastian Wesley, Ralph Vaughan Williams and the Canadian-resident but English-born Healey Willan. It was the determined wish of Queen Elizabeth II that there be greater congregational participation in the service than at previous coronations, consistent with the decision that the service be televised. Accordingly, Ralph Vaughan Williams recast his 1928 setting of the English metrical version of Psalm 100, the Jubilate Deo ("All people that on earth do dwell") for congregation, organ and orchestra: the setting has become ubiquitous at festal occasions in the anglophone world.
 Coronation banquet
Traditionally, the coronation was immediately followed by a banquet, held in Westminster Hall in the Palace of Westminster (which also serves as the home to the Houses of Parliament). The King's Champion (the office being held by the Dymoke family in connection with the Manor of Scrivelsby) would ride into the hall on horseback, wearing a knight's armour, with the Lord High Constable riding to his right and the Earl Marshal riding to his left. A herald would then proclaim,
- "If any person, of what degree soever, high or low, shall deny or gainsay our Sovereign Lord ..., King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, son and next heir unto our Sovereign Lord the last King deceased, to be the right heir to the Imperial Crown of this Realm of Great Britain and Ireland, or that he ought not to enjoy the same; here is his Champion, who saith that he lieth, and is a false traitor, being ready in person to combat with him; and in this quarrel will adventure his life against him, on what day soever he shall be appointed."
The King's Champion would then throw down the gauntlet; the ceremony would be repeated at the centre of the hall and at the High Table (where the Sovereign would be seated). The Sovereign would then drink to the Champion from a gold cup, which he would then present to the latter. The bishops and peers would then cheer the Sovereign, and would proceed to eat numerous dishes. Their families, however, did not participate, instead just looking on from the side galleries.
Banquets have not been held since the coronation of George IV in 1821. George IV's coronation was the most elaborate in history; his brother and successor William IV eliminated the banquet, and William's desire to eliminate the costly banquet has now apparently become the custom. A banquet was considered in 1902 for Edward VII but his sudden illness put a stop to the plans. Nevertheless, the well known recipe for Coronation Chicken was created as the informal meal served to the guests in 1953.
 Dates of recent coronations
 Enthronement as Emperor
Victoria assumed the title Empress of India in 1877. Neither she nor her successor, Edward VII, were specifically crowned with this title. George V, however, visited India to be enthroned along with his wife in 1911. The Durbar, or Imperial Court, was for political reasons held not at the capital, Calcutta, but in Delhi. Since it was deemed inappropriate for the Christian anointing and coronation to take place in a Hindu nation, George V was not crowned in India; instead, he wore a crown as he entered the Durbar. British law prohibited the removal of the British Crown Jewels from the nation; therefore, a separate crown, known as the Imperial Crown of India, was created for George V. The Emperor was enthroned, and the Indian princes paid homage to him. Thereafter, certain political decisions, such as the decision to move the capital from Calcutta to Delhi, were announced at the Durbar. The Durbar was in reality held in order to announce these political changes, and to display the power of the Emperor, rather than to celebrate George V's accession. The ceremony was not repeated, and the imperial title was abandoned by George VI in 1948 (though India had become independent a year earlier). Pictures and text from a book published for the ceremony are available at Coronation Durbar of 1911.
- 1. At George IV's coronation, however, the Barons bore the canopy behind the King rather than over him; various accounts explain the irregularity. Henry Rivington Hill writes, "His Majesty's reason for walking before the canopy appears to have been that the people at the top of the houses might be able to see him, as he frequently looked up almost perpendicularly." One anonymous account suggests, "At first all seems to have gone well, but on returning to Westminster Hall, the elderly bearers began to tire at their task, causing the canopy to sway from side to side. The King feeling nervous that it would descend on his head, thought it safer to walk slightly in front of it. This however, did not suit the stout hearts, though weak bodies, of the Barons, whose privilege and duty it was to bear the canopy exactly over the King, so they hastened their steps, the canopy swaying more and more with the increased pace. The King now became genuinely alarmed, and though of portly habits quickened his pace, and, as the canopy surged after him, at last broke into a somewhat unseemly jog trot, and in this manner they all arrived at Westminster Hall."
- 2. According to one popular legend associated with the anointing, the Virgin Mary miraculously appeared before St. Thomas à Becket and gave him a vessel of holy oil to be used for anointing. The myth was most likely invented to rival a similar French legend that the Holy Spirit descended from Heaven, bringing a vessel containing anointing oil for a coronation.
- 3. George IV was estranged from his wife, Queen Caroline, at the time of his coronation. He not only refused to allow her to be crowned at the ceremony, but also excluded her from the entire coronation itself. She appeared at the doors, demanding to be let in. According to contemporary accounts, she could have entered as a spectator, but she demanded to be crowned with her husband and was excluded
 See also
- British monarchy
- Monarchy in Australia
- Monarchy in Canada
- Commonwealth realms
- Civil religion
- Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom
- Dates of coronations of British monarchs
- UK topics
 External links
- A short video of the coronation in 1953, from Encarta encyclopedia.
- Forty-minute RealPlayer video of excerpts from the coronation in 1953.
- Brighton Museum & Art Gallery. (2004). "George IV's coronation."
- "Coronation." (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
- "Coronation of George IV." (2003).
- "The Coronation and Parliamentary Robes of the British Peerage." Arma. (Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 289–293).
- Cox, N. (1999). "The Coronation Robes of the Sovereign." Arma. (Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 271–280).
- Cox, N. (1999). "The Coronets of Members of the Royal Family and of the Peerage." The Double Tressure. (No. 22, pp. 8–13).
- Kershaw, S. (2002). "The Form and Order of Service that is to be performed and the Ceremonies that are to be observed in The Coronation of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in the Abbey Church of St Peter, Westminster, on Tuesday, the second day of June, 1953."
- "Lord High Steward." (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
- Westminster Abbey (Home Page). (2004).
- Anglo-Saxon Consecrations: 871-1066