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A programmer or software developer is someone who programs computers, that is, one who writes computer software. The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one area of computer programming or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software. One who practices or professes a formal approach to programming may also be known as a programmer analyst, software engineer, computer scientist, or software analyst. A programmer's primary computer language (Java, C++, etc.) is often prefixed to the above titles, and those who work in a web environment often prefix their titles with "web".

Ada Lovelace is considered history's first programmer. She was the first to express an algorithm intended for implementation on a computer, Charles Babbage's analytical engine, in October 1842.

Those proficient in computer programming skills may become famous, though this regard is normally limited to software engineering circles. Many of the most notable programmers are often labeled hackers. Programmers often have or project an image of individualist geekdom, resistance to "suits" (referring to both business suits literally and figuratively to the "Establishment"), controls, and unionization.

Professional programmers work in many settings, including corporate IT departments, big software companies, and small service firms. Many professional programmers also work for consulting companies at client sites.

[edit] Free trade controversy

Computer programming, offshore outsourcing, and Foreign Worker Visas became a controversial topic after the crash of the dot com bubble left many programmers without work or with lower wages. Programming was even mentioned in the 2004 U.S. Presidential debate on the topic of offshore outsourcing.

Large companies claim there is a skills shortage with regard to programming talent. However, U.S. programmers and unions counter that large companies are exaggerating their case in order to obtain cheaper programmers from developing countries and to avoid paying for training in very specific technologies. Objective studies on this debate that both sides accept have been hard to come by and a distrust has formed between large companies and programming trade groups.

Enrollment in computer-related degrees in U.S. has dropped recently due to lack of general interests in science & mathematics and also out of an apparent fear that programming will be subject to the same pressures as manufacturing and agriculture careers. This situation has resulted in confusion about whether the U.S. economy is entering a "post-information age" and the nature of U.S. comparative advantages. Technology and software jobs were supposed to be the replacement for factory and agriculture jobs lost to cheaper foreign labor, but if those are subject to free trade losses, then the nature of the next generation of replacement careers is not clear at this point.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

bs:Programmer cs:Programátor da:Programmør de:Programmierer es:Programador fr:Programmeur gl:Programador ko:프로그래머 it:Programmatore he:מתכנת nl:Programmeur ja:プログラマ pl:Programista pt:Programador ru:Программист sl:Programer ta:நிரலாளர் th:โปรแกรมเมอร์ vi:Lập trình viên tr:Bilgisayar programcılığı uk:Програміст zh:程序员


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