Canon (fiction)

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In the context of fiction, the canon of a fictional universe comprises those novels, stories, films, etc. that are considered to be genuine, and those events, characters, settings, etc. that are considered to have inarguable existence within the fictional universe. In order for the fictional universe to appear cohesive, especially in fictions that contain multiple parts, both creators and audiences sometimes find it useful to define what has and has not "actually happened" in that universe. Usually items that are considered canon come from the original source of the fictional universe while non-canon material comes from adaptations, spin-offs or unofficial items, often in different media.

The practice of defining a canon in fiction derived from the concept of a literary canon, a specified collection of works considered to be both representative and the best of a particular form, genre or culture. It appears to have originated amongst fans of the character Sherlock Holmes, as a way to distinguish between the original works of Arthur Conan Doyle and both adaptions of those works and original works by other writers utilising Holmes and related characters and settings. However, the most interest in and controversy over issues of canonicity have appeared in the fan followings of two science fiction franchises, Star Wars and Star Trek.


[edit] Nature of fictional canons

Canonicity of fiction is a distinctly modern idea. In addition to the modern concepts of genre fiction and fictional universes, the notion of intellectual property (IP) distinguishes between "official" and "unofficial" sources of stories. However, whereas IP laws are designed to dictate where the revenue generated by a story goes, they do not necessarily confer the right to determine canonicity.

No actual industry label exists for definitively designating published works as canon. Canon is largely a subjective notion, referring to a shared understanding that exists between the published works in a fictional series and the level of acceptance by a vocal but otherwise accepting wide audience. As such, canon can simultaneously refer to the considerations of the publishers of a fictional series as well as what the fanbase chooses to consider as authentic. Generally, "Expanded Universes" are not considered canon, though there are exceptions which are considered near-canon, or in the case of Star Wars, the Expanded Universe is considered full canon. By analogy with the idea of a canon of Scripture, things which are not canon are considered "apocryphal". (See Biblical canon.)

The fact that a majority of fans of a fictional setting view certain things as non-canonical, or even an official statement to that effect from its creators, does not oblige everyone to agree. In addition, a story can belong to two overlapping canons. The most obvious example of this is Philip José Farmer's Wold Newton family. Some (but not all) of the adventures of Sherlock Holmes, Tarzan, Doc Savage etc. are canonical in the Wold Newton setting. This does not mean that the events of Farmer's books are canonical from a Sherlockian perspective. Similarly, fans of Laurie R. King's novels of Sherlock Holmes and Mary Russell consider all the Holmes stories to be canonical in King's setting.

The difference can be even less clear cut than this. Current Star Trek novels maintain a tight continuity with each other, and avoid contradicting the television series. When a Lost Era novel set between the movies and The Next Generation features a younger version of a character introduced in a Deep Space Nine novel, it's obvious there's some sort of "canonical" novel-setting, even if the TV series is not obliged to conform to it. This is where fanon and canon often collide, especially when a TV series, movie or other officially canonical source contradicts it. An example is the Trek novel Starfleet Year One which appeared in print before the TV series Star Trek: Enterprise was announced, but was completely invalidated by the series; there are some Trek fans who prefer the Starfleet Year One version of events as canon, rejecting the TV series. Generally, though, in the case of televised fiction, only facts which appear in the as-originally-aired version of a program are considered canonical (including scenes cut from re-runs, but not including such things as deleted scenes and scenes from unaired pilots and other such material that 'leaks out' over the internet).

Furthermore, the issue is also complicated when the definition of canon changes well after the fictional universe is established. As an example, in the 1970s and 1980s, there were a number of reference works published by Franz Joseph and FASA Corporation for Star Trek. These books were considered canonical at the time (some even made with the explicit approval of Gene Roddenberry), and were used almost universally by novel and comic book authors, as well as the production staff of the earlier Star Trek movies (information from these manuals was read as background dialog in some scenes and diagrams were used as computer displays). However, in 1988, as part of the release of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Gene Roddenberry and Paramount Pictures changed their policies regarding canon and stripped these books of their canonical status, as the new series quickly made many changes and revelations which openly contradicted earlier canonical books. Thus, a book that would be considered completely canonical in 1985 like The Star Trek Star Fleet Technical Manual, would be considered non-canonical in 1995.

In some fictional universes, interviews and other communications from authors are also considered canon - like the letters of J. R. R. Tolkien with relation to Middle-earth; also items such as interviews, internet chat sessions, and Web sites (e.g., the Web site of J. K. Rowling in relation to Harry Potter). This usually only happens in cases where all works in the universe have the same author.

In almost all cases, fan fiction has never considered canon, as fan fiction is usually produced by amateurs. Sometimes, however, events or characterizations portrayed in fan fiction can become so influential that they are respected in fiction written by many different authors, and may be mistaken for canonical facts by fans. This is referred to as "fanon". The use of fan fiction to fill gaps or continuity errors in canon is derisively called "fanwanking," or "fanwank". (The terms fanon and fanwank can apply to officially licensed works as well.) A intentional inversion of the exclusion of fan fiction came in Eric Flint's 1632 Universe; in February 2000, fans and other established authors were invited on the internet forum Baen's Bar to shape the multiverse and the fan-fic, once vetted, is itself published in the various Grantville Gazettes, themselves under the direct editorial control of Flint and a 1632 editorial board. This is an ongoing process that apparently will continue indefinitely as the series continues to burgeon in popularity.

[edit] Examples of fictional canons

[edit] Alien/Predator

What is considered to be canon in this Universe are the movies, their scripts, the novelizations (not to be confused with the Dark Horse novels), some information from the DVD supplements (take with a grain of salt: writers have some priority over director's comments) and magazine interviews. Since the comic books and the Dark Horse novels contradict the events in the movies (and sometimes each other), they are not considered canon. Video games are also not canon for the same reason (whatever "information " that is "revealed" in them are to make them a bit more interesting; not to mention giving the players more difficult creatures to kill).

As a rule of thumb, all the information in the official 20th Century Fox made Alien and Predator movies take precedent over any other Alien or Predator information.

Some of the younger fans reject the novelizations as they feel that they cannot obtain any of them, as well as most of the information sources that were available when the first movie was released (which was before many of them were born). For this reason, they will readily accept the Dark Horse novels and video games out of availability, but in addition to the shortcomings mentioned above, the writers of the books and games have no connections to the movies, whatsoever.

One of the reasons why the comics, video games and novels are not canon is because they do not have any “quality control”. This means that pretty much anyone who wants to can make one and put anything they like in it, and then the product is just simply licensed by 20th Century Fox studios, even if these creators have absolutely no connections with to the original creators of the movies, or any guidance by 20th Century Fox. This is opposed to the movies which are almost totally under 20th Century Fox studios control, as they choose what is allowed to go into a movie and what is not.

Although not all of the information found in the novelizations can be relied upon, there is a wealth of information can be found, as they were based on the most recent script drafts that were available. Not all of the information can be relied upon, but, conversely, none of it should be shunned. For example, the novelization states that the occupants of the derelict ship had discovered the alien eggs on the planet where the first two movies take place. In the second movie, the main character, Ripley, after hearing that there was no indigenous life on that planet, answers that the derelict ship had brought the eggs to that planet. This can be assumed in that she hadn't visited the ship and those who had did not check the ship's manifest to see if the eggs were on board before the ship had landed there.

To reconcile the two sides, it could very well be that the crew of the alien derelict had visited the planet many millennia ago, discovered the eggs of a dying race, stored them aboard their ship, were infected, and sent out a signal warning other ships to stay away. Time passes, the planet deteriorates further, leaving the only life available on that planet in the stasis field of the derelict ship.

Another contradiction that had been resolved is that the "Cocoon Scene" in Alien, where Ripley discovers her cocooned shipmates, Dallas and Kane. In this scene, she finds that Brett is being transformed into an alien egg with Dallas, having been cocooned, either waiting to become a host for the alien egg's larva (the face hugger) or was in the process of becoming an egg himself. Since this scene was excised for pacing issues, James Cameron used its omission to create his "queen alien" concept. This method of reproduction would replace the old concept of an adult alien transforming its victims to eggs. However, to reconcile this, it has been suggested by many that if a lone adult alien should be operating on its own and there is no queen available, it would be able to reproduce by altering the genetic makeup of a host to make a new egg.

Another issue that has caused some confusion is the "Bishop II" character seen at the end of Alien^3. A few people were under the impression that he was an android. This could be written off simply as ignorance of basic medical knowledge and not doing simple research. The DVD commentary track (which features effects people Alec Gillis and Tom Woodruff, Jr. and "Bishop II" actor Lance Henriksen) has the aforementioned people all declaring that the "Bishop II" character is human (not to mention that one of the effects people mentions how the director wanted everyone to know that "Bishop II" was human and that the script even points to his humanity). Years later, Lance Henriksen had reversed his statement in order to lend some continuity to the movie Alien Vs. Predator, as in that movie, he appeared as another character by the same name, despite the fact the movie takes place hundreds of years before Alien^3. Unfortunately, since the writers and directors of Alien Vs. Predator had nothing to do with the making of Alien^3, the character is still considered human as it was the movie where he was established.

[edit] Babylon 5

The canon consists of the television series Babylon 5 and its later TV movies, the TV series Crusade, novels published by Dell and Del Rey/Ballantine, various short stories, and the Babylon 5 comic book published by DC Comics. This was decided by J. Michael Straczynski, who maintained a tight control on the expanded universe to ensure that nearly everything was canonical: going so far as to pen elaborate story-outlines hundreds of pages long for the novels' authors based upon his personal historical notes for the B5 universe, and in general seeking to safeguard the spin off works' reputations for being every bit as legitimate and sophisticated as the television series.

The Babylon 5 novels have a number of major elements that are considered canon by series creator Straczynski. However, the later ones published by Del Rey are generally regarded as being more canonical than some of the early Dell books, which were published with less storyline oversight by Straczynski than he would later exercise.

The seventh and ninth Dell novels — The Shadow Within by Jeanne Cavelos and To Dream in the City of Sorrows by Kathryn M. Drennan — are the only two books from this run which are considered to be canonical in their entirety, whereas all of the Del Rey novels are fully endorsed by the series' creator, along with the DC comic books and short fiction.

In addition to all this, J. Michael Straczynski is himself (as of early 2006) putting the finishing touches on the manuscript for a 100-page Babylon 5 graphic novel to be published by Wildstorm Productions sometime in the middle to late period of the year. The premise, characters, and plot line of the book are as yet unknown.

On May 21, 2006, in an internet post [1], J. Michael Straczynski explicitly declared a series of upcoming Babylon 5 novels from Mongoose Publishing to be non-canonical. Mongoose Publishing had been advertising the novels as "100% Canon," and declaring them to be based upon "Straczynski's notes and story outlines," but in actuality without his direct consultation. Straczynski's reaction was to publicly state that the contents of those novels did not reflect the Babylon 5 universe as he viewed it, and were to him mere "licensed fan-fiction."

[edit] Beauty and the Beast

Most fans of the CBS television series consider all episodes of the first season, and at least all Season 2 episodes through "The Hollow Men," to be canonical. Opinions diverge at this point, as the writing of the series took a much darker turn, in an attempt to increase the series' Nielsen ratings beyond its narrow fan niche; and the final three Season 2 episodes, focusing on Vincent's madness, do not appeal to many fans, who focus on the romantic or literary aspects of the characters.

The sharpest divergence of opinion comes when Season 3 is considered. Fan groups divide into two camps, between those who accept or reject the death of Catherine Chandler and the introduction of Diana Bennett. It has been noted by some that those who accept Season 3 as canonical usually refer to the series as B&B, while the opposite side uses BATB. The opinion divided the fan community enough that an audience round table discussion on "Healing the Rift in Fandom" was organized at the 1991 South of Oz fan convention in Orlando, Florida.

[edit] Buffyverse

The Buffyverse canon consists of the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel as well as the comics Fray, Tales of the Vampires, and Tales of the Slayers. All of the tie-in novels and video-games, along with most of the comics are largely considered either non-canon or Apocrypha. Some of the comics are written by members of Mutant Enemy writing staff; the canonical status of these materials is unclear.

[edit] DC Universe

[edit] DC Universe (comics)

Most, but not all, comic books published by DC Comics take place in a shared world known as the DC Universe. The canon of this world comprises all the post-Crisis comics not stated to be set in an alternate universe, except those specifically contradicted by later stories following Zero Hour (most notably, Batman: Year Two, Batman: Son of the Demon and the Action Comics Weekly strip featuring Captain Marvel). The events may not have occurred exactly as shown, however, owing to the floating time line.

Appearances of the DC Comics characters in other media are not considered canon, however, the appearance of a Marvel Comics character, Jigsaw, during a Marvel/DC comics publishing crossover, is apparently considered a piece of canon for the adventures of Jean-Paul Valley, aka Azrael, who at one point took up the role of The Batman. Jigsaw was an enemy of Frank Castle, a Marvel Comics character called The Punisher.

Some discrepancies in the DC Universe's canon may be accounted for by the concept of Hypertime. Others may be addressed in an anticipated continuity revision stemming from the current crossover series Infinite Crisis.

[edit] DC Animated Universe

Many of the DC animated television series of the 1990s and 2000s comprise their own canon, distinct from that of the comic books that spawned them (as well as previous animated series based on the same properties). This "DC Animated Universe" includes Batman: The Animated Series; The New Batman Adventures (considered by most to be an extension of Batman: The Animated Series); Superman: The Animated Series; Batman Beyond; The Zeta Project; Static Shock (loosely); Justice League; and Justice League Unlimited, as well as the animated movies Batman: Mask of the Phantasm; World's Finest; Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero; Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker; and Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman.

As is typical with all secondary information sources, fans are divided upon whether to consider the various comic books based on the animated series part of the official canon. However, when the Justice League series contradicted the Superman Adventures comic book (by showing the animated Supergirl as vulnerable to Kryptonite), Dwayne McDuffie stated on Usenet "We don't follow the comic book continuity, even the "Adventures" line"[2].

The Teen Titans animated series, although based on DC comics, is its own continuity with no real ties to the main "DCAU", but there is a reference to it in Static Shock. The current Batman animated series, The Batman, is also unrelated to the DCAU.

[edit] Discworld

According to comments made by Terry Pratchett on Usenet, all the Discworld novels, including the ones aimed at younger readers, are canonical, as are the "peripheral" books such as Nanny Ogg's Cookbook and the Mapps. Spin-off media, such as the computer games and GURPS Discworld, are not, although he usually has a strong influence on them to ensure they remain true to the spirit of the books.

[edit] Doctor Who

Main article: Whoniverse

There has never been an "official" statement on what is canonical Doctor Who. Doctor Who has never had a single author or authority and it is apparent that the BBC, which owns the series, has generally not cared about the matter. The many creators of Doctor Who have always treated the concept of continuity loosely. Fans run a spectrum between those who consider only the television series canonical and those who consider all Doctor Who canonical. Within that spectrum many view the licensed novels and audio plays as at least near-canonical, and some of those would also include the Doctor Who Magazine comic strips. It is generally assumed that all televised Doctor Who episodes from 1963 to 1989, the 1981 spin-off K-9 and Company, the 1996 telemovie and the new series, which started in 2005, are canonical, including a 1965 episode in which the First Doctor breaks the fourth wall to wish viewers a Merry Christmas ("The Feast of Steven", episode 7 of The Daleks' Master Plan).

Generally, the canonical status of all Doctor Who spin-off media outside of what has been presented on screen (bar obvious spoofs) is debatable, including the BBC radio dramas and webcasts based upon the show. There have also been several professionally produced films featuring characters and alien races created for Doctor Who that have been licensed directly from the writers who originated them, a loophole that allows the creation of Doctor Who spin-offs that do not reference the Doctor; the canonicity of these productions also falls into a "grey area" in terms of canon.

The two theatrical films based upon the series in the 1960s, starring Peter Cushing, are not generally considered canonical due to their fundamental differences from the TV series continuity, nor is the considerable background information contained in the role-playing game produced by FASA in the 1980s, considered canon due to the many contradictions therein.

Many of the short stories in the BBC anthology Short Trips and Side Steps have settings generally considered non-canonical; for instance, one story features the Cushing Doctor, while another is set between the Children in Need EastEnders crossover Dimensions in Time and the Doctor's appearance in the schools' programme Search Out Science.

The comic strips (Ground Zero, DWM #238-242), Eighth Doctor Adventures (Sometime Never... by Justin Richards) and the Big Finish Productions audio plays (Zagreus) have all attempted to provide an in-continuity explanation for discrepancies by suggesting that their respective continuities take place in separate parallel universes.

A new series of novels based upon the current Doctor Who series is in release. The television series has referred to these (most notably in Boom Town, in which Rose Tyler mentioned a trip to the planet Justicia, depicted in the New Series Adventures novel The Monsters Inside). Other episodes also made oblique references to the Doctor Who Magazine comic strip ("kronkburgers" in The Long Game) and the Virgin New Adventures (the planet Lucifer, mentioned in Bad Wolf, and the Doctor's title "The Oncoming Storm", mentioned in The Parting Of The Ways), but these are most likely playful tributes rather than deliberate attempts to dictate a Doctor Who canon. Still, these references are innovations peculiar to the 2005 series; the original 1963–1989 series never referred to adventures published in other media.

[edit] Donald Duck universe

As Don Rosa wrote the Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck he considered the published works of Carl Barks as canonic.

[edit] Dune Universe

The question of what is and what is not canon within the Dune universe raises interesting questions abouts who can label something as 'canon'.

Some years after the death of Frank Herbert (the author of the original Dune novels), his son Brian Herbert, in conjunction with Kevin J. Anderson, wrote a series of prequels and sequels to the Dune novels, based on notes left by Frank Herbert (the original series was unfinished). These new works are widely considered to be inferior to the original series, yet have been labelled as 'canon' by the publishers and Brian Herbert, who own the rights to Dune.

However, it is not possible to know whether Frank Herbert would have considered the new Dune books to be canon or not. Some fans doubt that he would have, given the dislike of the new books by some fans of the originals.

The question that arises is simply, does owning the publishing rights to the works of a deceased author also confer the right to declare subsequent works as 'canon' or not.

[edit] Dungeons & Dragons

The concept of canon plays an important role in the fantasy role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons (D&D). Over the years, a number of campaign settings have been published for D&D, each detailing a world or worlds that provide a setting in which the game can be played. There are two types of canon issues that arise from this situation.

The first issue is intra-setting canon, which deals with the backstory, locations and gameplay dynamics considered to be canon within a specific setting. Because D&D generally falls into the fantasy sub-genre of sword and sorcery, canon discrepancies can arise beyond just the typical issues in fiction of history, plot and character. For example, debates regarding canon within a given setting may include such arcana as the source of various magical powers and how they operate within the setting. Theological issues related to the various deities that may exist within the setting occur, as do disagreements regarding the canon cosmology of the setting's universe.

The second type of canon problem that arises in D&D is inter-setting canon, concerned primarily with the relationships between different settings. Many D&D publications have discussed how the various settings are related to each other within the D&D multiverse of various planes of existence, although these relationships are debated or even denied by some fans of the game.

There is no single "official" canon for D&D. From the very beginnings of the game in the 1970s through to the present, the issue of canon has been left up to each individual Dungeon Master, who runs the game session for the other players. The Dungeon Master is free to determine which published materials (adventure modules, novels, sourcebooks, video games, comic books, etc.) are canonical in his or her own campaign, and how the various D&D rules apply to that campaign.

Nevertheless, D&D players often move between games managed by different Dungeon Masters, and many also congregate for gaming tournaments, play in shared living campaigns, or play the game on-line with different participants than in their normal gaming sessions. In order to achieve even a basic level of continuity among these various game instances, D&D fans must therefore confront the issue of canon.

To achieve the desired level of continuity, various mechanisms are employed to manage D&D "canon." The organizers of gaming tournaments, for example, will often specify which sets of rules and conventions are "in force" for tournament gameplay. Living campaigns may attempt to develop a more comprehensive set of canon materials and sourcebooks, such as the Living Greyhawk Gazetteer for the Living Greyhawk campaign. And for individually-run games, it is common for Dungeon Masters to briefly discuss their own vision of D&D canon with each new player who joins his or her campaign.

Finally, following the emergence of the World Wide Web, a number of Web sites have arisen that enable players to discuss canon issues and work toward (or reject) canonical norms. These include the Web site of Wizards of the Coast[3], the intellectual property rightsholder and publisher for D&D, as well as fan-run sites such as EN World[4] and Canonfire![5].

[edit] Firefly/Serenity

Firefly canonicity is based on the involvement of the series creator, Joss Whedon; for example, the novelization of the film is not considered canon due to the fact that Whedon had very little to do with its content. The canon of Firefly includes (in chronological order):

  • The R. Tam sessions
  • The fourteen episodes of the TV show
  • The three-issue comic book series Serenity: Those Left Behind
  • The feature film Serenity.
  • An upcoming three-issue comic book series sequel, yet to be titled, which was recently announced as in-progress on Whedonesque[6].

[edit] Gundam

As an extremely prominent franchise that has lasted almost thirty years, the continuity of the Mobile Suit Gundam franchise has been filled by countless works. In addition to the television series, OVAs, and movies, there are a number of spinoffs of more debatable canon, including comics, video games, novels, and other such media. Fans generally consider the animated works to be of primary relevance when dealing with canon, looking to the spinoffs on a case-by-case basis. For example, the popular manga Crossbone Gundam was penned by Gundam creator Yoshiyuki Tomino himself, and is generally accepted as full canon. The status of other spinoffs is debated, but there seem to be a number of works that draw confusion. A prime example is the novel Hathaway's Flash; though also penned by Tomino, it draws upon the novelization of Char's Counterattack for continuity, rather than the animated movie upon which it is based. Despite this, many fans continue to view Hathaway's Flash as being canon. Similarly, the novelization of the original Mobile Suit Gundam is viewed as simply an alternate version of the animated work, as the novel includes the death of protagonist Amuro Ray, who would play a pivotal role in stories set for the next 14 years within the time frame.

One major source of confusion is the production of compilation movies. Such movies were originally produced for Mobile Suit Gundam, and cut several scenes and storylines from the television version for time. Later works have alternately referenced the TV and movie version, leaving the question of which is official up in the air. Similarly, the series Zeta Gundam received compilation movies in the 2000s, directed by Tomino himself. Though the movies change many events, all named character death is retained (even though the circumstances of said deaths are often changed). The end result is that, following the movie's continuity, the sequel series Gundam ZZ is completely invalidated. Fans tend to accept that the television series is the canon, while the movies represent how Tomino would have handled the series with a more positive outlook. Though compilation movies exist for the alternate universe spinoffs Gundam Seed and Gundam Seed Destiny, these do not raise any major canon issues.

Another interesting matter is the subject of the timeline for Gundam Wing, another popular alternate universe spinoff. Though the animated timeline consists of only the TV show and its movie sequel, Endless Waltz, a number of comic sequels were produced, including three set between the animations, all of which attempt to resolve minor discrepancies between them. However, out of these three comics, two of them (Blind Target and Battlefield of Pacifists) were written by members of the show's writing staff, and are generally accepted to be official, while the third (Ground Zero) is not. In a similar vein, the manga Episode Zero is accepted as full canon, as an author's note explains that the backstories presented in the book were intended to be animated into the Gundam Wing TV show, but were cut following scheduling conflicts. As with Mobile Suit Gundam, Gundam Wing and Endless Waltz have novel versions, but due to relative unknown these are generally disregarded; this comes despite the fact that the Endless Waltz novel solves one of the major mysteries regarding the character Trowa Barton.

Recently, Sunrise, the company which owns the rights to Gundam, has attempted to resolve continuity issues generated by the many Gundam video games produced by Bandai. These games often introduce new mobile suits, usually without Sunrise's input. As a result, the military history of the One Year War (a popular setting for said games), has become mired and uncertain. In 2006, Sunrise launched an initiative called "Harmony of Gundam", with the stated purpose of cleaning up continuity by doing away with a large number of these machines, replacing them with ones specifically created by Sunrise's staff and designed to fit into the existing Gundam universe.

[edit] Harry Potter

While there is no official statement on what is considered to be Harry Potter canon, the majority of fans generally accept it to be the works which come straight from J. K. Rowling herself. These include the six novels and the two "textbooks", Quidditch through the Ages and Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. Many fans will also consider any fact about the series that she has stated on her site, to be canon. Although Rowling is consulted at the writing stage, the Warner Bros. movie adaptations are generally not considered to be canon, and often contain fundamental contradictions with Rowling's works. The only exception is the Godric's Hollow flashback scene in Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, which was written by Rowling. The HP Lexicon, a respected Harry Potter encyclopedia on the internet, proposes this set of canon rules: "It can be said that the movies have their own canon, independent of but similar to that of the books."

[edit] Highlander

Many fans of Highlander consider only the first film to be canon (reciting "there can be only one"). Others distinguish the first three films as belonging to one continuity (the "Connor Universe") and the television series and Highlander: Endgame as belonging to another (the "Duncan Universe"). The producers of Highlander III stated in an interview that their movie was not a continuation of Highlander II.

[edit] James Bond

Fans of Ian Fleming's superspy are divided over what is considered official canon. There is little argument that all of Fleming's original short stories and novels are canon, and some include the Kingsley Amis Bond novel, Colonel Sun in this canon as well. The status of the John Gardner and Raymond Benson Bond novels in canon is less certain, since both book series have been updated and feature elements and characters created for the movie series. Benson's novels are particularly controversial as they appear to be based upon the Bond movie universe, rather than the literary Bond. The various Bond film novelizations are generally considered apocryphal, as is a 1970s "authorized biography" of Bond by John Pearson.

A new series of novels featuring a teenage Bond written by Charlie Higson was released in the beginning of 2005. It remains to be seen if this series will be considered official canon. The TV series James Bond Jr., while officially licensed, is not considered canonical.

The Bond movies, meanwhile, appear to exist somewhat outside of any canon. Although there is some between-films continuity (e.g. references to the death of Bond's wife), the ever-changing cast has rendered any sort of canon determination virtually impossible. However, as some of the films take place over such a short space of time (the film GoldenEye only covers 2 days), some aspects, such as Bond's apparent inability to age, can be accepted without too many questions.

Major changes in a character's age and appearance are taken in stride by comic book fans; a similar approach could create one continuity for the movies, though still independent of the books. This appears to be the approach taken by the book James Bond: The Secret World of 007. It presents a Bond who looks like Pierce Brosnan (except in an appendix giving production information on the movies, all other actors playing Bond are only shown from the back) who remembers the events of Dr. No. The year each story takes place in is not given, based on the "rolling timeline" concept.

[edit] Lancers Canon

Covers Starlancer and Freelancer. The canon was originally developed by Digital Anvil and later bought up by Microsoft just prior to Freelancer's release. The canon details can be found on the articles for each of those games. What really defines it as a canon is the sheer length and depth of the storyline. The canon implementation in the individual games is a bit weak but is heavily expanded in fan fiction. The Lancers canon will also be featured in Openlancer.

[edit] The Legend of Zelda

The canonicity of the CD-i games and older editions of games that are riddled with translation errors is often debated, which in itself often excludes them from the assumed canon of the series. Generally, remakes of games in this saga are considered canonical over their previous versions, as translation corrections are often made in the cross-over: The Legend of Zelda and The Adventure of Link featured on Game Boy Advance and GameCube, the remake of A Link to the Past in A Link to the Past/Four Swords, and Link's Awakening DX are all re-releases that are considered canonical. Thereafter, all games that were released after Ocarina of Time are also canonical except for Ocarina of Time: Master Quest and any games which feature Link outside of The Legend of Zelda series, such as Soul Calibur II. The manga series emulating the storylines of particular games are not generally considered canon. Quotes from Shigeru Miyamoto the series creator or Series Producer/Directer Eiji Aonuma are sometimes considered canon, however fans differ in their beliefs. Finally, it must be noted that some fans consider every Zelda media to be canon.

[edit] Macross

The Macross story chronology consists of projects developed by the original creators at Studio Nue. Those include two animated TV series (The Super Dimension Fortress Macross and its distant sequel, Macross 7), a movie which is treated as a historical drama produced in the "Macross universe" (The Super Dimension Fortress Macross: Do You Remember Love?) and three original animation videos projects (two sequels, The Super Dimension Fortress Macross: Flash Back 2012 and Macross Plus, and a prequel, Macross Zero), and various related audio dramas, novels, short stories, manga, and games. The story chronology sets The Super Dimension Fortress Macross II: Lovers, Again (the only animated Macross project without Studio Nue's direct involvement) in a "parallel world" from the other animated projects.

[edit] Marvel Universe

Most, but not all, comic books published by Marvel Comics are set in a shared world known as the Marvel Universe. The canon for this world comprises all the comics not stated to be set in an alternate universe, except those specifically contradicted by later stories. The events may not have occurred exactly as shown, however, owing to the floating timeline (For instance, during the 1960s, Ben Grimm said he had fought in World War II alongisde Nick Fury; during the 2000s, Grimm himself considered that the idea of him fighting in World War II was ridiculous, as he would be much older).

Alternate universes in Marvel Comics include, for example, the "Ultimate" line of Marvel comics, which have their own canon independent of the core Marvel universe.

Appearances of the Marvel Comics characters in other media are not considered canon.

[edit] Mega Man

The Mega Man or Rockman canon is a source of much debate, due to confusing information that may have resulted from plotholes in the games.

According to official sources from Capcom (such as the Rockman Perfect Memories book), the series' continuity starts with the original "Classic" series and proceeds to (in order) Mega Man X, Mega Man Zero, Mega Man ZX and Mega Man Legends. The Mega Man Battle Network is set in an alternative universe from the other series and is not part of the franchise's main canon.

Mega Man & Bass, Mega Man: Power Battle and Mega Man: Power Fighters are generally accepted as canonical as well. However, the canonical status of some of the other spinoffs, particularly Game Boy versions of Mega Man I through V. has not been officially established. The Rockman & Forte game for Wonderswan is non-canonical, due to the fact that it was only a licensed product made by Bandai and not developed internally by Capcom.

[edit] Metal Gear

The Metal Gear canon is comprised for the first two games in the series that were originally released for the MSX2 and the later sequels released under the Metal Gear Solid title. Metal Gear: Ghost Babel (which contained several discrenpancies between it and the main games) and the Metal Gear Acid series are considered side-stories set outside the main canon. Snake's Revenge, an early Metal Gear sequel released only for the western market, is the only game not officially recognized by Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 2: Substance, an expanded version of Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, contains a series of side-stories titled "Snake Tales" (set in environments recycled from the main game), which are considered uncanonical due to various contradicting details and overall recycled nature of them.

The original Metal Gear Solid features two different endings, depending on the player's actions during the "torture event". In the first ending, Meryl Silverburgh survives the events of the game after Snake successfully resists Revolver Ocelot's torture; however, if the player submits to the torture event, then an alternate ending is shown where Snake finds Meryl dead. The subsequent game (Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty) makes no specific reference to either ending within the actual storyline, though many hints, such as Snake's Infinite Ammo bandanna have been stated.. As well, the fictional publication In the Darkness of Shadow Moses featured in the game as a bonus, alludes to Meryl's survival. Also, Meryl is shown to be part of the cast of Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots, which continues after Metal Gear Solid 2.

[edit] Middle-earth

Main article: Middle-earth canon

Defining the Middle-earth canon is difficult, because many key writings were not published by J. R. R. Tolkien before his death. A considerable number of Tolkien fans do not believe that a canon can be defined at all, preferring to observe the evolution of Tolkien's stories in the many versions and drafts published posthumously in The History of Middle-earth series. Most, however, agree that The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are canon, and also include a substantial amount of material published in The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales, and other posthumous books, as well as information from Tolkien's letters. Works outside of canon include art books (except for the collections of Tolkien's own art) and video games; the Lord of the Rings movies by Ralph Bakshi and Peter Jackson are generally considered non-canonical as well.

[edit] The Matrix

The three Matrix films, The Matrix, The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions are the main portion of the Matrix canon. Spin-offs such as The Animatrix and Enter The Matrix are often considered canon due to the involvement of the creators, the Wachowski Brothers; however there are certain comics whose canon status is questionable. The Matrix: Path of Neo holds some canonical information but is mostly considered non-canon since it merely rehashes the stories from the main three films while adding in scenes that benefit gameplay, furthermore the ending to the game was altered and is strictly non-canon, as stated by the Wachowski Brothers in their speech before the end starts.

[edit] Mortal Kombat

The Mortal Kombat series has an especially intriguing and complex plot canon. Every game in the series features a different ending for each character. Often, the endings in a single game will contradict each other (with a few exceptions, such as Baraka's ending only happening if Mileena's does, which in turn, relies on Bo' Rai Cho's ending, all in Mortal Kombat: Deception). Fans tend to speculate about which endings are canon from whatever game has most recently been released, however the "true" endings are never officially known until the plot of the next game is revealed. Because not every ending from a game can be true, the majority of the endings from each game are non-canon. Additionally, portions of some endings may be considered canon while the rest of the ending is ignored.

An interesting trend associated with this line of canon plot is that nearly every game assumes the "good guys" (typically, the Earthrealm kombatants) prevailed over the "bad guys." In fact, this trend has only recently been broken, with the release of 2004's Mortal Kombat: Deception, which assumes that Earthrealm's warriors lost and died at the hands of the Deadly Alliance.

The latest game in the franchise Mortal Kombat: Armageddon has caused an uproar among fans, mainly due to the fact that the overall premise of the game revolves around every character ever coming together in battle. The game effectively retcons the fate of every character ever in the Mortal Kombat franchise, with no acknowledgment of previous events. Characters who have quite clearly died in previous games return with no explanation, despite their deaths being part of the lore of those same games. For example, Shang Tsung and Quan Chi, who both seem to die in the opening cinema of Mortal Kombat: Deception are not only alive, well and allied with Shao Kahn, but they are also allied with Onaga, whom they desperately united to fight against in the previous game. Onaga's premise of being the force that will destroy all realms is abandoned, as well as the concept of The One Being which was said to be be the true force at work. Individual character biographies are abandoned, and each character has the same, generic ending which involves them defeating the main boss Blaze, gaining his power and either becoming a God or dying in the process. This game retcons virtually the entire Mortal Kombat established universe, which has angered many of the series' long-time fans. Younger fans however tend to appreciate the game's larger roster of characters in lieu of cohesive story, since the younger fans typically don't pay attention to the story. The more cynical veteran players have labeled Armageddon as "Mortal Kombat Trilogy 2".

Ironically enough, fan backlash to the story of Mortal Kombat: Armageddon was so strong that series creator Ed Boon indicated that individual character biographies would now be created and posted on the official Mortal Kombat: Armageddon website. Ed Boon claims that the individual bios will clear up all of the questions that arose concerning the events and subsequent conclusion of Mortal Kombat: Deception, as well as clearing up the elapsed time(storywise) between the two games.

The Mortal Kombat canon concerns itself solely with the videogames, and the three comic books created by John Tobias. Ventures such as the television shows, movies, and Malibu Comics' series, as well as Jeff Rovin's novel, are not considered part of the storyline.

[edit] Nightmare On Elm Street

Canon for the Nightmare On Elm Street series only includes what was/is approved by New Line Cinema. Confusion began with this series when licensing deals were given to various comic book and book publishers in the 1980s. New Line Cinema did not take an active role in the approval process until 1990.

Considered canon would be the following releases:

  • The films released in theatres.
  • Nightmares On Elm Street comic book series by (defunct) Innovation Comics.
  • Freddy Krueger’s: Tales of Terror novel series by Tor Books.
  • A Nightmare On Elm Street comic series by Avatar Press.
  • A Nightmare On Elm Street novel series by Black Flame.
  • A Nightmare On Elm Street comic series by Wildstorm Comics.

The short lived television series Freddy's Nightmares is loosely considered canon. Some episodes present altered backstories/dates from that of the given films. Though most episodes do not interfere with the film events and can fit nicely in the given timeline, the backstories/dates presented in the TV series should not be favored over the films. [7]

Works that are not canon would include: Freddy Krueger’s: A Nightmare on Elm Street by Marvel Comics, novel: Freddy Krueger’s Seven Sweetest Dreams, and the short story: “The Life & Death of Freddy Krueger”.

[edit] Peanuts

The comic strip "Peanuts" by Charles M. Schulz spawned a series of very successful animated TV specials featuring Charlie Brown and his friends, most of which were faithful to original source material; however, there are a few discrepancies from the "official" Peanuts universe of the comics, mostly in additional information about characters. In the special It's Your First Kiss, Charlie Brown, the Little Red-Haired Girl is shown and named Heather. In the comic strips she remained unseen and unnamed. The special Snoopy's Reunion portrays two of Snoopy's siblings, Molly and Rover, who never appear in the comic strip. You're in the Super Bowl, Charlie Brown establishes Marcie's surname as Johnson and Franklin's as Armstrong. Neither character is ever given a surname in the comics. [8]

[edit] Pokémon

Pokémon media, including the mangas and anime, generally keeps the minimal geography of the video game. New cities, characters, and places not found in the games are in other media. While the Special manga and the anime follow the basic storyline found in the games, they add "filler" events and change minor details. There is no official canon definition for Pokémon, although fans consider the games to provide basic canon ideas.

[edit] The Prisoner

The official canon of the 1960s TV series The Prisoner, at present, consists of only the 17 broadcast episodes. The alternate versions of the episodes "Arrival" and "Chimes of Big Ben" which include additional scenes (including one sequence in "Chimes" that reveals The Prisoner is capable of determining the location of The Village, rendering one ongoing subplot of the series moot) is not considered canon. The argument over whether Number Six is John Drake has led to debate over whether the Danger Man TV series should be considered part of The Prisoner canon; officially, it is not. Three original novels based on the series written during the 1960s (two of which identify No. 6 as John Drake) are not considered canon; the canon status of a new series of novels launched in 2005 is unclear.

[edit] Resident Evil

In the Resident Evil series, the main "numbered" games (which includes Resident Evil Code: Veronica) are all considered canonical by Capcom. However, Capcom has yet to classify the canonical status for many of the side-games, namely the Gun Survivor series and Resident Evil Outbreak games. Some fans consider them to be canonical due to several factors, such as an allusion to the Sheena Island incident (the events of Resident Evil: Survivor) in the beginning of Resident Evil 0. The only game that is generally seen as uncanonical is Resident Evil Gaiden, due to an unexplored cliffhanger ending. The films and novelizations (as well as other sanctioned adaptations) are not canonical due to several discrepancies between them and the games.

There has also been debate as to how the events of the earlier games actually transpired due to multiple endings and alternate scenarios of the same storyline. This is best exemplified with the original Resident Evil. In the games that followed, it is stated that S.T.A.R.S. members Chris Redfield and Jill Valentine survived the mansion incident (the events of the original game) along with their respective supporting characters, Rebecca Chambers and Barry Burton. However, this is impossible to do in the game itself, due to the fact that the best possible ending for each character only features three of the four surviving S.T.A.R.S. members (Barry and Rebecca are never in the same game together).

[edit] Sherlock Holmes

The Sherlock Holmes canon consists of the stories and novels written by Arthur Conan Doyle. This was decided by the Baker Street Irregulars, a group of Holmes enthusiasts, to distinguish the original stories from the pastiches that followed Holmes' retirement, and is probably the first use of the word in this context. However certain Conan Doyle items were disregarded for other reasons and additions to the current canon of sixty mysteries has been discussed.

[edit] The Simpsons

In The Simpsons, most episodes are considered to be canon, though some may not be able to match others exactly. There is one episode that parodies this: Ned Flanders gives Homer a football ticket and they become friends by the end of the episode. [9]

Lisa: Don't worry, Bart. It seems like every week something odd happens to the Simpsons. My advice is to ride it out, make the occasional smart-aleck quip, and by next week we'll be back to where we started from, ready for another wacky adventure.
Bart: Ay, caramba!
Lisa: That's the spirit.

In the last scene of the episode, it is like none of it ever happened. This is actually something of a recurring joke; in several episodes this idea of a "status quo" is mentioned, which basically decrees that any change in the Simpsons universe will revert before the episode ends. There is a similar episode involving the past of Principal Skinner which ends in the same fashion, where the Springfield Judge rules that the events of the episode should not be spoken of again. In a later episode, Lisa calls Skinner by his real name when he questions her naming her new cat, identical to Snowball II, Snowball II after the original Snowball II, as well as several other pet cats, die.

Some episodes contain references to others, such as mentions of the Simpson family having travelled to all of the continents in the world, save Antarctica; other times, when things don't revert to the status quo at the end of an episode, whatever happened is canon and can thus be referenced in other episodes (for example, Maude Flanders' death, or Apu being married and having children, Maggie shooting Mr Burns etc.) One issue of continuity that is unlikely to be definitively decided is the question of where the Simpsons' home town of Springfield is. Most clues about Springfield's location are contradictory, which is completely intentional. In one episode, Springfield is shown on a map as being in north-west Tennessee, but other episodes contradict this.

Some special episodes, such as the Treehouse of Horror specials, clip shows, and "Behind the Laughter", are not considered to be canon.

Simpsons cartoons, books, video games and the original Shorts, which appeared as filler material in The Tracey Ullman Show and featured what could be considered prototypes of the Simpsons characters are not considered canonical.

[edit] Sonic the Hedgehog

Initially, Sega began two different storylines to localize Sonic as a product, as described in the Japanese and the western game manuals, respectively. For example, although "Dr Eggman" has always been the antagonist's name in Japan, he was originally called "Doctor Ivo Robotnik" in North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Also, in the Japanese manuals it is said that the games are set on Earth, specifically, on islands in the Pacific; however, according to some English manuals printed before 1999, the games are set on a different planet called Mobius. So there are in fact two storylines/canons recognized by the fanbase in its entirety, and many storylines that have expanded on them.

However, at the beginning of the Dreamcast era, Sonic Team chose what storyline they wanted to expand on with the newer generation games, and they chose the Japanese one, making it the international canon while discontinuing the old western canon.

The games Sonic 1, Sonic 2, Sonic 3, Sonic & Knuckles, Sonic Adventure, Sonic Adventure 2, Sonic Heroes, Shadow The Hedgehog, Sonic Riders and Sonic the Hedgehog are absolute canon to this japanese/current day continuity, since they were directly created by Sonic Team. Sonic CD, the Sonic Advance series, Sonic Battle and Sonic Rush are also absolute canon, since some events in these game has been referred to in the aforementioned Sonic Team made games. However, most other games are usually considered canonical too, unless they somehow explicitly contradict the Sonic Team made games; however, this is a moot point as those games rarely have any influence on the main series in comparison.

The various Sonic comics and cartoons are not considered canonical to the games, and are instead presumed to take place in their own induvidual continuities.

[edit] Soul Calibur

In the Soul series of fighting games, it can be difficult to determine which storyline is canon, as each character has his or her own storyline, usually ending with that character possessing Soul Edge or Soul Calibur. Since this cannot logically be the case, the actual story of the Soul Calibur series must be pieced together by obtaining various profiles available within the games. It is also notable that usually only one or so endings involving the magical swords ends up being canon, as it is referenced in later volumes.

[edit] Stargate

Main article: Stargate

The Stargate fictional universe canon consists of:

  • An original 1994 movie entitled Stargate, which was intended to be the first of at least three, but was left to stand alone by its producers as Roland Emmerich moved on to Independence Day.
  • Subsequent novels by Bill McCay which carried on the story based on Emmerich's notes (not considered canon after the addition of the next bullet). However, considering Emmerich's and Devlin's penchant for action, it is disputed how much these books resemble anything that would have been filmed.
  • A spin-off TV series by Brad Wright and Jonathan Glassner called Stargate SG-1 which carried on one year after the story of the film Stargate, and followed different developments from those described in the novels. This is generally considered canon over the books.
  • A further spin-off called Stargate Atlantis which develops a strand of the plot of Stargate SG-1. There was also an animated series named Stargate Infinity which was acknowledged by its producers strictly not to be canon.

Some fans consider Stargate SG-1 to be incompatible with the movie due to a few minor changes in small details of the film's plot when carried into the television series. However, most fans and even the producers pass over these details as insignificant. Also, the writers have made comments that could be interpreted as making the SG-1 episode "Hathor" non-canonical.

[edit] Star Trek

Main article: Star Trek canon

The Star Trek canon consists of the television series Star Trek (the original series), Star Trek: The Next Generation, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, Star Trek: Enterprise, and the ten Star Trek movies. Originally, there was little official policy on canon, and Star Trek: The Animated Series and some books like The Star Trek Star Fleet Technical Manual were apparently canonical (and excerpts from them were even used on-screen in the early movies). However, circa 1987, when Star Trek: The Next Generation was debuting, Gene Roddenberry and Paramount Pictures agreed on a new canon policy that made Star Trek: The Animated Series non-canonical as well as removing the canon status of all technical manuals and novels. Gene Roddenberry further stated that some elements from the films Star Trek V: The Final Frontier and Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country were "slightly apocryphal". The writers and production staff of Star Trek have also said in interviews and DVD commentaries that they unofficially struck the episode of Star Trek: Voyager "Threshold" from canon, and made no references to the events of that episode after it was made; officially, however, being an on-screen, televised story, it remains officially canonical.

The canonicity of the various reference books such as The Star Trek Encyclopedia and various companions accompanying the series is still debated. Many consider such reference works to be canon, while others do not; there is currently no clear answer solving this problem. It should be noted that most of the information from the The Star Trek Encyclopedia and The Star Trek Chronology comes directly from the television series and movies, which themselves are canon, and the books were written by people who worked on the production staff, and sometimes were used as internal references. A similar problem exists with trading cards cataloging information from the series.

Paramount has made a formal comment on its website about precisely what items are considered canon.

[edit] Star Wars

Main article: Star Wars canon

The Star Wars canon is a complex issue, and Lucas Licensing has devised a four-level system called the "Holocron continuity database" to keep track of the Star Wars canon. The purpose of this database is to chronicle all Star Wars stories, and settle any disputes that may arise within the various productions. The basic rule, however, is that the Star Wars canon comprises the six Star Wars films, along with all officially licensed Star Wars stories not contradicting the films.

The DK Guide to the entire universe utilizes many spin-offs to help describe the six films. Derivative works such as the Star Wars books have aimed to be completely in continuity with each other and with the Star Wars movies.

[edit] South Park

Another notable animation series in this context is South Park. It follows the misbehavings of a group of four friends. At the end of most early episodes, the character of Kenny dies, but at the start of each new episode, he's found to be alive again. Whilst this was originally "explained" when he inexplicably faded back into existence at the beginning of "Cartman's Mom Is Still A Dirty Slut", it was later revealed that Kenny's mother gives birth to a new 'Kenny' immediately after the passing of the old one, and names him Kenny as an homage for the previous, deceased son. The 'Kenny' born when this explanation was made was the 52nd. However, this was primarily a joke lampooning the show's lack of continuity on the matter, and as such, isn't canon. Other issues---for example, whether or not Terrance and Phillip is animated or how Saddam Hussein died---the show has a loose continuity.

[edit] Transformers

The Transformers universe is often depicted divergently depending on the writer and media. Even at the birth of the Transformers property in 1984, there were always multiple and mutually exclusive storylines, with the most prominent two being Marvel Productions' cartoon series and Marvel Comics' comic series. Since then, Transformers has been an unending surge of new universes, making any discussion of Transformers "canon" difficult. If the term is to be applied at all to Transformers, it must be either in the sense of a single multiversal canon which incorporates all officially-produced Transformers fiction, or as a set of separate but equally "true" (although not equally known or popular) canons which likewise covers all licensed Transformers stories. This is supported by Hasbro in the Transformers: Universe storyline and the concept of Primus and Unicron as universe travelling entities as presented in Dorling Kindersley's Transformers: The Ultimate Guide.

[edit] Warhammer 40,000

The canon of Games Workshop's Warhammer 40,000 universe is officially held to be extended to all works produced under an official Games Workshop licence: this means that all works produced by Games Workshop since Warhammer 40,000: Rogue Trader are canonical until superseded, and no works produced without official blessing are considered canon at all (although increasingly in the last ten years since the Internet enabled fans to widely disseminate their own works such material has later been subsumed into official Games Workshop publications). However, the very far-reaching changes in game background and tone over the first three revisions of the core rulebook and background sourcebooks have invalidated very large parts of a history once considered canon (although the original Rogue Trader deliberately avoided establishing too many solid universal details for the sake of ensuring the game could be expanded by gamesmasters according to the prevailing logic in the science fiction gaming community at the late 1980s).

Almost all current consumers of Games Workshop material hold material to be canon only until superseded by more recent publications. Isolated communities of gamers who reject recent changes in game history and rules by the company exist, connected either locally by gaming groups or globally via Internet message boards ([10]); these groups commonly either reject the widespread changes made to the core rules and background in the third revision of the rulebook and supporting material or reject all material which contradicts the original 1987 Rogue Trader publication (as almost all work released after the original book introduced specific timeline items which sought to direct the Gamesmaster in ways which seemingly contradicted the extremely open-ended Science Fantasy background of the original book).

[edit] See also

[edit] Canonical terms in fiction

fr:Canon (fiction) it:Canone (fiction)

Canon (fiction)

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