Learn more about Cambodia
Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea
Royaume du Cambodge
Kingdom of Cambodia
| Motto: Image:Kh-Motto.png|
(Khmer: "Nation, Religion, King")
(and largest city)
| Phnom Penh |
|Government||Democratic constitutional monarchy|
|- King||Norodom Sihamoni|
|- Prime Minister||Hun Sen|
|- Total|| 181,035 km² (89th)|
69,898 sq mi
|- Water (%)||2.5|
|- July 2005 estimate||14,071,000 (63rd)|
|- 1998 census||11,437,656|
|- Density|| 78/km² (111th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2005 estimate|
|- Total||$34.67 billion (89th)|
|- Per capita||$2,399 (133rd)|
|HDI (2004)||0.571 (medium) (130th)|
|Currency|| ៛ Riel1
currency_code = KHR (
|- Summer (DST)||(UTC+7)|
|1 Local currency, although US Dollars are widely used.|
The Kingdom of Cambodia (Khmer:Image:Cambodia5.png transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in Southeast Asia with a population of more than 13 million. Cambodia is the successor state of the once powerful Khmer Empire, which ruled most of the Indochinese Peninsula between the 11th and 14th centuries.
A citizen of Cambodia is usually identified as "Cambodian" or "Khmer", which strictly refers to ethnic Khmers. Most Cambodians are Theravada Buddhists of Khmer extraction, but the country also has a substantial number of predominantly Muslim Cham, as well as small hill tribes.
The country shares a border with Thailand to its west and northwest, with Laos to its northeast, and with Vietnam to its east and southeast. In the south it faces the Gulf of Thailand. The geography of Cambodia is dominated by the Mekong river (colloquial Khmer: Tonle Thom or "the great river") and the Tonlé Sap ("the fresh water river"), an important source of fish. Its low geography means much of the country sits near to below sea level, and its main source of water from the Mekong reverses its water flow in the wet season into the neighbouring Tonle Sap River.
Cambodia is the traditional English transliteration, taken from the French Cambodge, while Kampuchea is the direct transliteration, more faithful to the Khmer pronunciation. The Khmer Kampuchea is derived from the ancient Khmer kingdom of Kambuja (Kambujadesa). Kambuja or Kamboja is the ancient Sanskrit name of the Kambojas, an early tribe of north India, named after their founder Kambu Svayambhuva, believed to be a variant of Cambyses. See Etymology of Kamboja.
In the Khmer Mul script the official name of the country is Image:Cambodia5.png (regular script Image:Cambodia3.png), Preahreachanachâk Kampuchea, meaning "Kingdom of Cambodia". Etymologically, its components are: Preah- ("sacred"); -reach- ("king, royal, realm", from Sanskrit); -ana- (from Pāli āṇā, "authority, command, power", itself from Sanskrit ājñā, same meaning) -châk (from Sanskrit cakra, meaning "wheel", a symbol of power and rule).
The name used on formal occasions, such as political speeches and news programs, is Image:Cambodia4.png (regular script Image:Cambodia1.png), Prâteh Kampuchea, literally "the Country of Cambodia". Prâteh is a formal word meaning "country".
The colloquial name most used by Khmer people, is Image:Cambodia2.png, Srok Khmae, literally "the Khmer Land". Khmer is spelled with a final "r" in the Khmer alphabet, but this "r" is not pronounced in standard Khmer; word final "r" disappeared from most dialects of Khmer pronunciation in the 19th century. Srok is a Mon-Khmer word roughly equal in meaning to prâteh, but less formal.
Since independence, the official name of Cambodia has changed several times, following the troubled history of the country. The following names have been used in English and French since 1954.
- Kingdom of Cambodia/Royaume du Cambodge under the rule of the monarchy from 1953 through 1970;
- Khmer Republic/République Khmère (a calque of French Republic) under the Lon Nol led government from 1970 to 1975;
- Democratic Kampuchea/Kampuchea démocratique under the rule of the communist Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1979;
- People's Republic of Kampuchea/République populaire du Kampuchea (a calque of People's Republic of China) under the rule of the Vietnamese-sponsored government from 1979 to 1989;
- State of Cambodia/État du Cambodge (a neutral name, while deciding whether to return to monarchy) under the rule of the United Nations transitional authority from 1989 to 1993;
- Kingdom of Cambodia/Royaume du Cambodge reused after the restoration of the monarchy in 1994.
The first advanced civilizations in present day Cambodia appeared in the 1st millennium AD. During the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries, the Indianised states of Funan and Chenla coalesced in what is now present-day Cambodia and southwestern Vietnam. These states, which are assumed by most scholars to have been Khmer,<ref name="CS">Country-Studies.com. Country Studies Handbook; information taken from US Dept of the Army. Accessed July 25, 2006.</ref> had close relations with China and India.<ref name="BRIT">Britannica.com. History of Cambodia. Accessed July 25, 2006.</ref> Their collapse was followed by the rise of the Khmer Empire, a civilization which flourished in the area from the 9th century to the 13th century.
Though declining after this period, the Khmer Empire remained powerful in the region until the 15th century. The empire's center of power was Angkor, where a series of capitals was constructed during the empire's zenith. Angkor Wat, the main religious temple at the site, is a symbolic reminder of Cambodia's past as a major regional power.
After a long series of wars with neighbouring kingdoms, Angkor was sacked by the Thai and abandoned in 1432. The court moved the capital to Lovek where the kingdom sought to regain its glory through maritime trade. The attempt was short-lived, however, as continued wars with the Thai and Vietnamese resulted in the loss of more territory and the conquering of Lovek in 1594. During the next three centuries, The Khmer kingdom alternated as a vassal state of the Thai and Vietnamese kings, with short-lived periods of relative independence between.
| This article is part of|
the History of Cambodia series
|Early history of Cambodia|
|Migration of Kambojas|
|Funan (AD1 - AD630)|
|Chenla (AD630 - AD802)|
|Khmer Empire (AD802 - AD1432)|
|Rule over Isan|
|Dark ages of Cambodia (1432 - 1887)|
|The loss of the Mekong Delta|
|Colonial Cambodia (1887-1953)|
|Cambodian Civil War (1967-1975)|
|Coup of 1970|
|Khmer Rouge Regime (1975-1979)|
|People's Republic of Kampuchea (1979-1989)|
|Modern Cambodia (1989-present)|
|2003 Phnom Penh riots|
|[edit this box]|
In 1863 King Norodom, who had been installed by Thailand,<ref name="CHANDLER">Chandler, D.P. (1993). A history of Cambodia (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.</ref> sought the protection of France. In 1867, the Thai king signed a treaty with France, renouncing suzerainty over Cambodia in exchange for the control of Battambang and Siem Reap provinces which officially became part of Thailand. The provinces were ceded back to Cambodia by a border treaty between France and Thailand in 1906.
Cambodia continued as a protectorate of France from 1863 to 1953, administered as part of the French colony of Indochina. After war-time occupation by the Japanese empire from 1941 to 1945, Cambodia gained independence from France on November 9 1953. It became a constitutional monarchy under King Norodom Sihanouk.
In 1955, Sihanouk abdicated in favour of his father in order to be elected Prime Minister. Upon his father's death in 1960, Sihanouk again became head of state, taking the title of Prince. As the Vietnam War progressed, Sihanouk adopted an official policy of neutrality until ousted in 1970 by a military coup led by Prime Minister General Lon Nol and Prince Sisowath Sirik Matak, while on a trip abroad. From Beijing, Sihanouk realigned himself with the communist Khmer Rouge rebels who had been slowly gaining territory in the remote mountain regions and urged his followers to help in overthowing the pro-United States government of Lon Nol, hastening the onset of civil war.<ref name="SIHNK">Sihanouk, Norodom (1973). My War with the CIA, The Memoirs of Prince Norodom Sihanouk as related to Wilfred Burchett. Pantheon Books.</ref>
Operation Menu, a series of secret B-52 bombing raids by the United States on suspected Viet Cong bases and supply routes inside Cambodia, was acknowledged after Lon Nol assumed power; U.S. forces briefly invaded Cambodia in a further effort to disrupt the Viet Cong. The bombing continued and, as the Cambodian communists began gaining ground, eventually included strikes on suspected Khmer Rouge sites until halted in 1973. Estimates of the number of Cambodians killed during the bombing campaigns vary widely. <ref name="SIDESHOW">Shawcross, William (Revised edition (October 25, 2002)). Sideshow: Kissinger, Nixon and the destruction of Cambodia. United States: Cooper Square Press. ISBN 0-8154-1224-X.</ref> The Khmer Rouge reached Phnom Penh and took power in 1975, changing the official name of the country to Democratic Kampuchea, led by Pol Pot.
Estimates vary as to how many people were killed by the Khmer Rouge regime. Depending on whether or not one includes deaths from starvation and subsequent deaths in refugee camps, estimates range anywhere from 1.7 million<ref> David Chandler, Voices From S21: Terror and History in Pol Pot's Secret Prison. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999</ref> to 3 million Cambodians.<ref> Craig Etcheson, Documentation Centre of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia http://www.mekong.net/cambodia/toll.htm</ref><ref>A figure of three million deaths between 1975 and 1979 was given by the Vietnamese-sponsored Phnom Penh regime, the PRK. Father Ponchaud suggested 2.3 million; the Yale Cambodian autogenocide Project estimates 1.7 million; Amnesty International estimated 1.4 million ; and the United States Department of State, 1.2 million. Khieu Samphan and Pol Pot cited figures of 1 million and 800,000, respectively</ref> Many were in some way deemed to be "enemies of the state", whether they were linked to the previous regime, civil servants, people of education or of religion, critics of the Khmer Rouge or Marxism, or simply offered resistance to the brutal treatment of the cadres. Hundreds of thousands more fled across the border into neighbouring Thailand.
In November 1978, Vietnam invaded Cambodia to stop Khmer Rouge incursions across the border and the genocide of Vietnamese in Cambodia.<ref name="CGG">CambodianGenocide.org.A Brief History of the Cambodian Genocide. Accessed July 25, 2006.</ref> Violent occupation and warfare between the Vietnamese and Khmer Rouge holdouts continued throughout the 1980s. Peace efforts began in Paris in 1989, culminating two years later in October 1991 in a comprehensive peace settlement. The United Nations was given a mandate to enforce a ceasefire, and deal with refugees and disarmament.<ref name="USDOS3">US Department of State. Country Profile of Cambodia. Accessed July 26, 2006.</ref>
After the brutality of the 1970s and the 1980s, and the destruction of the cultural, economic, social and political life of Cambodia, it is only in recent years that reconstruction efforts have begun and some political stability has finally returned to Cambodia. The democracy established following conflict was shaken in 1997 by factional fighting, but has otherwise remained in place.
The politics of Cambodia formally take place, according to the nation's constitution of 1993, in the framework of a parliamentary, representative democratic monarchy. The Prime Minister of Cambodia is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system, while the king is the head of state. The Prime Minister is appointed by the King, on the advice and with the approval of the National Assembly; the Prime Minister and his or her ministerial appointees exercise executive power in government. Legislative power is vested in both the executive and the two chambers of parliament, the National Assembly of Cambodia and the Senate.
On October 14 2004, King Norodom Sihamoni was selected by a special nine-member throne council, part of a selection process that was quickly put in place after the surprise abdication of King Norodom Sihanouk a week before. Sihamoni's selection was endorsed by Prime Minister Hun Sen and National Assembly Speaker Prince Norodom Ranariddh (the new king's brother), both members of the throne council. He was crowned in Phnom Penh on October 29. The monarchy is symbolic and does not exercise political power. Norodom Sihamoni was trained in Cambodian classical dance and is unmarried.
The BBC reports that corruption is rampant in the Cambodian political arena<ref name="BBC3">BBC Asia-Pacific News (September 19, 2005). Corruption dents Cambodia democracy. Accessed July 24, 2006.</ref> with international aid from the U.S. and other countries being illegally transferred into private accounts.<ref name="REUT">Reuters AlertNet (May 29, 2006). World Bank threatens $64 mln Cambodia aid freeze. Accessed July 24, 2006.</ref> Corruption has also added to the wide income disparity within the population.<ref name="BBCBUIS">BBC News (29 May 2006). 'Corruption' curbs Cambodia cash. Accessed July 24, 2006.</ref>
 Administrative divisions
Cambodia is divided into 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and four municipalities (krong, singular and plural). There are further subdivisions into districts (srok), communions (khum), great districts (khett), and islands (koh).
- Municipalities (Krong):
- Provinces (Khett):
- Islands (Koh):
Phnom Penh is the largest population center, with 1 million of Cambodia's 13 million people. Mondulkiri, hill country in the northeast bordering Vietnam, is the largest province by area but ranks lowest in population density.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
 Foreign relations
Cambodia is a member of the United Nations and its specialized agencies such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. It is an Asian Development Bank (ADB) member, a member of ASEAN, and joined the WTO on 13 October 2004. In 2005 Cambodia attended the inaugural East Asia Summit.
Following a return to political normalcy, Cambodia has established diplomatic relations with numerous countries; the government reports twenty embassies in the country<ref> Royal Government of Cambodia.Foreign Embassies.</ref> including many of its Asian neighbours and those of important players during the Paris peace negotiations, including the US, Australia, Canada, China, the European Union (EU), Japan, and Russia.<ref>Catharin E. Dalpino and David G. Timberman. "Cambodia's Political Future: Issues for U.S. Policy," Asia Society, March 26, 1998.</ref>
While the violent ruptures of the 1970s and 80s have passed, several border disputes between Cambodia and its neighbours persist. There are disagreements over some offshore islands and sections of the boundary with Vietnam, and undefined maritime boundaries and border areas with Thailand.
In January 2003, there were riots in Phnom Penh prompted by rumored comments about Angkor Wat by a Thai actress wrongly attributed by Reaksmei Angkor, a Cambodian newspaper, and later quoted by Prime Minister Hun Sen.<ref name="USDOS2">Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs of the US Department of State.Report to the Congress on the Anti-Thai Riots in Cambodia on January 29, 2003.</ref> The Thai government sent military aircraft to evacuate Thai nationals and closed its border with Cambodia while Thais demonstrated outside the Cambodian embassy in Bangkok. The border was re-opened on March 21, after the Cambodian government paid $6 million USD in compensation for the destruction of the Thai embassy and agreed to compensate individual Thai businesses for their losses.
Cambodia has an area of about 181,040 square kilometres (69,900 sq. mi), sharing an 800 kilometre (500 mi) border with Thailand in the north and west, a 541 kilometre (336 mi) border with Laos in the northeast, and a 1,228 kilometre (763 mi) border with Vietnam in the east and southeast. It has 443 kilometres (275 mi) of coastline along the Gulf of Thailand.
The most distinctive geographical feature is the lacustrine plain, formed by the inundations of the Tonle Sap (Great Lake), measuring about 2,590 square kilometres (1,000 sq. mi) during the dry season and expanding to about 24,605 square kilometres (9,500 sq. mi) during the rainy season. This densely populated plain, which is devoted to wet rice cultivation, is the heartland of Cambodia. Most (about 75%) of the country lies at elevations of less than 100 metres (330 ft) above sea level, the exceptions being the Cardamom Mountains (highest elevation 1,813 m / 5,948 ft) and their southeast extension the Dâmrei Mountains ("Elephant Mountains") (elevation range 500–1,000 m or 1,640–3,280 ft), as well the steep escarpment of the Dângrêk Mountains (average elevation 500 m / 1,640 ft) along the border with Thailand's Isan region. The highest elevation of Cambodia is Phnom Aoral, near Pursat in the centre of the country, at 1,813 metres (5,948 feet).
Temperatures range from 10°–38°C (50°–100°F) and Cambodia experiences tropical monsoons. Southwest monsoons blow inland bringing moisture-laden winds from the Gulf of Thailand and Indian Ocean from May to October, and the country experiences the heaviest precipitation from September to October. The northeast monsoon ushers in the dry season, which lasts from November to March, with the driest period from January to February.
Despite recent progress, the Cambodian economy continues to suffer from the effects of decades of civil war, internal strife and rampant corruption. The per capita income is rapidly increasing, but is low compared with other countries in the region. Most rural households depend on agriculture and its related sub-sectors. Rice, fish, timber, garments and rubber are Cambodia's major exports, and the US, Singapore, Japan, Thailand, China, Indonesia and Malaysia are its major export partners.<ref name="USDOS3"/>
War and brutal totalitarianism in the 1970s created famine in Cambodia. Desperate farm families consumed their rice seeds and many traditional varieties became difficult to find. In the 1980s the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) reintroduced more than 750 traditional rice varieties to Cambodia from its rice seed bank in the Philippines. These varieties had been collected in the 1960s. In 1987, the Australian government funded IRRI to assist Cambodia to improve its rice production. By 2000, Cambodia was once again self-sufficient in rice (Puckridge 2004, Fredenburg and Hill 2006).
The recovery of Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997–98, due to the regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political infighting. Foreign investment and tourism also fell off drastically. Since then however, growth has been steady. In 1999, the first full year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and growth resumed at 5.0%. Despite severe flooding, GDP grew at 5.0% in 2000, 6.3% in 2001, and 5.2% in 2002. Tourism was Cambodia's fastest growing industry, with arrivals increasing from 219,000 in 1997 to 1,055,000 in 2004. During 2003 and 2004 the growth rate remained steady at 5.0%, while in 2004 inflation was at 1.7% and exports at $1.6 billion US dollars. As of 2005, GDP per capita was $2,200, which ranked 178th (out of 233) countries.<ref name="CIARANK">CIA Factbook. GDP per Capita rankings. Accessed July 24, 2006.</ref>
The population often lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from a lack of basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability and corruption within the government discourage foreign investment and delay foreign aid, although there has been significant assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors. Donors pledged $504m to the country in 2004<ref name="CIACB">CIA FactBook. Accessed September 9, 2006.</ref>, while the Asian Development Bank alone has provided $850m in loans, grants, and technical assistance.<ref name=ADB>A Fact Sheet: Cambodia and ADB, Asian Development Bank. Accessed September 9, 2006.</ref>
The tourism industry is the country's second-greatest source of hard currency after the textile industry.<ref name="USDOS3"/> More than 60% of visitor arrivals are to Angkor, and most of the remainder to Phnom Penh.<ref name="CAGOV">Royal Government of Cambodia.Tourist statistics. Accessed July 24, 2006.</ref> Other tourist hotspots include Sihanoukville in the southeast which has several popular beaches, and the nearby area around Kampot including the Bokor Hill Station. The BBC reports that Cambodia is also a major destination for sex tourism, and there is particular concern over child sex and forced prostitution.<ref name="BBC2">BBC (November 2000).Asia-Pacific Report. Accessed July 24, 2006.</ref>
Cambodia is ethnically homogeneous. More than 90% of its population is of Khmer origin and speaks the Khmer language, the country's official language. The remainder include Chinese, Vietnamese, Cham, Khmer Loeu, and Indians.
The Khmer language is a member of the Mon-Khmer subfamily of the Austroasiatic language group. French, once the lingua franca of Indochina and still spoken by some, mostly older Cambodians as a second language, remains the language of instruction in various schools and universities that are often funded by the government of France. Cambodian French, a remnant of the country's colonial past, is a dialect found in Cambodia and is frequently used in government. However, in recent decades, many younger Cambodians and those in the business-class, have favoured learning English, which is gradually becoming more widely spoken.
Theravada Buddhism, once suppressed by the Khmer Rouge but now experiencing a revival, is the dominant religion, but Islam (5%) and Christianity (2%) are also practiced.<ref name="USDOS">Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labour of the US Department of State. International Religious Freedom Report 2005. Accessed July 24, 2006.</ref>
Civil war and its aftermath have had a marked effect on the Cambodian population. The median age is a low 20.6 years, with 35.6% younger than 15. At 0.95 males/female, Cambodia has the most female-biased sex ratio in the Greater Mekong Subregion . In the Cambodian population over 65, the female to male ratio is 1.6:1.<ref name="CIACB"/> UNICEF has designated Cambodia the third most mined country in the world,<ref name="UNICEF">UNICEF. "The Legacy of Landmines". Accessed July 25, 2006.</ref> attributing over 60,000 civilian deaths and thousands more maimed or injured since 1970 to the unexploded landmines left behind in rural areas.<ref name="PBSORG">PBS.org (July 25, 2003). Cambodia Land Mines. Accessed July 24, 2006.</ref> The majority of the victims are children herding animals or playing in the fields.<ref name="UNICEF"/> Adults that survive landmines often require amputation of one or more limbs and have to resort to begging for survival.<ref name="PBSORG"/>
 Culture and sport
Khmer culture, as developed and spread by the Khmer empire, has distinctive styles of dance, architecture and sculpture, which have strongly influenced neighbouring Laos and Thailand. Angkor Wat (Angkor means "city" and Wat "temple") is the best preserved example of Khmer architecture from the Angkorian era and hundreds of other temples have been discovered in and around the region. The Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum, the infamous prison of the Khmer Rouge, and Choeung Ek, one of the main Killing Fields are other important historic sites.
Bonn Om Teuk (Festival of Boat Racing), the annual boat rowing contest, is the most attended Cambodian national festival. Held at the end of the rainy season when the Mekong river begins to sink back to its normal levels allowing the Tonle Sap River to reverse flow, approximately 10% of Cambodia's population attends this event each year to play games, give thanks to the moon, watch fireworks, and attend the boat race in a carnival-type atmosphere.<ref name="KMGOV">Government of Cambodia Webpage, Bonn Om Touk, the Water and Moon Festivals; accessed July 24, 2006</ref> Popular games include cockfighting, soccer, and kicking a sey, which is similar to a hacky sack. Notable recent artistic figures include the singers Sinn Sisamouth, who introduced new musical styles to the country, and later Meng Keo Pichenda.
Rice, as in other South East Asian countries, is the staple grain, while fish from the Mekong and Tonle Sap also form an important part of the diet. The Cambodian per capita supply of fish and fish products for food and trade in 2000 was 20 kilograms of fish per year or 2 ounces per day per person.<ref name="EARTH">Earthtrends.org Cambodia Counrtry Profile</ref> Some of the fish can be made into prahok (a Khmer delicacy) for longer storage. Overall, the cuisine of Cambodia is similar to that of its Southeast Asian neighbours. The cuisine is relatively unknown to the world compared to that of its neighbors Thailand and Vietnam, but has been described not as spicy as Thai cuisine and similar to other Southeast Asia cuisines.
Football (soccer) is one of the more popular sports, although professional organized sports are not as prevelant in Cambodia as in western countries due to the economic conditions. The Cambodia national football team managed fourth in the 1972 Asian Cup but development has slowed since the civil war. Western sports such as volleyball, bodybuilding, field hockey, rugby, and baseball are gaining popularity while traditional boat racing maintains its appeal as a national sport. Martial Arts is also practiced in Cambodia, the most popular being Pradal Serey, which is similar to Muay Thai and also considered a national sport. Other styles such as Karate, Kung Fu and Taekwondo are rapidly catching on.
The civil war severely damaged Cambodia's transport system, despite the provision of Soviet technical assistance and equipment. Cambodia has two rail lines, totalling about 612 kilometers (380 mi) of single, one meter gauge track.<ref name="CNTRYDTA">CountryData.com</ref> The lines run from the capital to Sihanoukville on the southern coast, and from Phnom Penh to Sisophon (although trains often run only as far as Battambang). Currently only one passenger train per week operates, between Phnom Penh and Battambang.
The nation's extensive inland waterways were important historically in domestic trade. The Mekong and the Tonle Sap River, their numerous tributaries, and the Tonle Sap provided avenues of considerable length, including 3,700 kilometers (2,300 mi) navigable all year by craft drawing 0.6 meters (2 ft) and another 282 kilometers (175 mi) navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters (6 ft).<ref name="CNTRYDTA"/> Cambodia has two major ports, Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville, and five minor ones. Phnom Penh, located at the junction of the Basak, the Mekong, and the Tonle Sap rivers, is the only river port capable of receiving 8,000 ton ships during the wet season and 5,000 ton ships during the dry season.
With increasing economic activity has come an increase in automobile and motorcycle use; as often in developing countries, an associated rise in traffic deaths and injuries is occurring.<ref>"Picking Up Speed: As Cambodia's Traffic Levels Increase, So Too Does the Road Death Toll," The Cambodia Daily, Saturday, March 9-10, 2002."</ref> Cycle rickshaws ("cyclos") are an additional option often used by visitors.
 See also
- Business in Asia report on airports. Accessed 13 November 2005
- Cambodian Culture website Accessed December 11 2004
- Cambodian Economy Information Accessed January 19 2005
- Encyclopaedia Britannica's Cambodia Country Page
- CIA World Factbook U.S. Department of State website
- IFES Summary of 2003 legislative election results. Accessed January 27 2005
- Kerlogue, Fiona Arts of Southeast Asia. Thames and Hudson 2004. ISBN 0-500-20381-4
- Ministry of Tourism statistics on tourism. Accessed January 27 2005
- NGO Forum on Cambodia report on 2003 legislative elections. Accessed January 27 2005
- Radio Broadcasting in Cambodia Accessed January 23 2005
- Fredenburg, P. and B. Hill. 2006. Sharing Rice for Peace and Prosperity in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Sid Harta Publishers, Victoria. ISBN 1-921206-08-X. pp271
- Puckridge, D. 2004. The Burning of the Rice. Sid Harta Publishers, Victoria. ISBN 1-877059-73-0. pp326
 External links</div>
Image:Wiktionary-logo-en.png Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Image:Wikibooks-logo.svg Textbooks from Wikibooks
Image:Wikiquote-logo.svg Quotations from Wikiquote
Image:Wikisource-logo.svg Source texts from Wikisource
Image:Commons-logo.svg Images and media from Commons
Image:Wikinews-logo.png News stories from Wikinews
Image:Wikiversity-logo-Snorky.svg Learning resources from Wikiversity
- King of Cambodia, Norodom Sihamoni Official Website of King Norodom Sihamoni
- King of Cambodia, Norodom Sihanouk Official Website of former King Norodom Sihanouk
- Cambodia.gov.kh Official Royal Government of Cambodia Website (English Version) (Cambodia.gov.kh)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
- Cambodia e-Visa, Applying Travel Visa Online
- CIA World Factbook - Cambodia
- Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Cambodia
- Cambodia Country Factsheet from The Common Language Project
- Cambodia travel guide from Wikitravel
- Cambodia Cultural Profile History and listings of arts and media contacts compiled by the UK's Visiting Arts and Cambodia's Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts
- Cambodia: Art - systematic directory of annotated links
- Ecosorn Project - Economic and Social Relaunch of the Northwest Provinces in Cambodia
- LICADHO - Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights
- Latest Cambodia News Delivery latest Cambodia News
- CambodiaWatch Cambodia Online Magazine
- NCLO (No Child Left Out) A U.S. Charity devoted to helping the children of Cambodia
- NCLO WORKS Sponsor or write to a Cambodian orphan
- Psah NCLO An online Cambodian Market where all proceeds benefit orphaned and impoverished Cambodian children
|Image:Flag of Cambodia.svg|| ||Image:Flag of Cambodia.svg|
|Geographical and geopolitical: Asia | Southeast Asia|
|International organisations: United Nations | World Trade Organization | ADB | Non-Aligned Movement | Group of 77|