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Caliphate

Caliphate

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The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة Khilafah) is an Islamic federal government which represents political leadership and unity of the Muslim world (Ummah) applying Islamic law (Shariah). The Caliph is the term for the head of state and it is the only form of government sanctioned in traditional Islamic theology. In past Caliphates, each member state (Sultanate, Wilayah, or Emirate) of the Caliphate had its own governor (Sultan, Emir or Wali).

Caliphs were often also referred to as Amīr al-Mu'minīn (أمير المؤمنين) "Commander of the Faithful", Imam al-Ummah, Imam al-Mu'minīn (إمام المؤمنين), or more colloquially, leader of the Muslims, the land where the Caliphate existed was referred to as Dar al-Islam (دار الإسلام ) even if the majority of inhabitants were not Muslims, and the lands which did not implement Islamic law (Shariah) under the Caliphate were referred to as Dar al-Kufr.

The first Caliphate's capitol was in Madinah, after the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's death. After the first four caliphates of Muhammad's Sahaba (disciples); Abu Bakr, Umar ibn al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali ibn Abi Talib, the caliphate was claimed by the dynasties such as Umayyads, the Abbasids, and the Ottomans, as well as by other, competing dynasties in al-Andalus, Northern Africa, and Egypt. The last Caliphate, the Ottoman caliphate was officially abolished by Mustafa Kemal with the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1924.

Contents

[edit] Political System of the Caliphate

[edit] Electing or Appointing a Caliph

Fred M. Donner, in his book The Early Islamic Conquests (1981), argues that the standard Arabian practice during the early Caliphates was for the prominent men of a kinship group, or tribe, to gather after a leader's death and elect a leader from amongst themselves. Although there was no specified procedure for this shura, or consultative assembly. Candidates were usually from the same lineage as the deceased leader, but they were not necessarily his sons. Capable men who would lead well were preferred over an ineffectual direct heir, as there was no basis in the majority Sunni view that the head of state or governor should be chosen based on lineage alone.

Image:Age of Caliphs.png
The Caliphate, 622-750

This argument is advanced by Sunni Muslims, who believe that Muhammad's lieutenant Abu Bakr was elected by the community and that this was the proper procedure. They further argue that a caliph is ideally chosen by election or community consensus, even though the caliphate soon became a hereditary office, or the prize of the strongest general.

Shi'a Muslims disagree. They believe that Muhammad had given many indications that he considered ˤAlī ibn Abī Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, as his chosen successor making a majority vote irrelevant. They say that Abū Bakr seized power by threat against Ali and trickery and that all caliphs other than ˤAlī were usurpers. ˤAlī and his descendents are believed to have been the only proper Muslim leaders, or imams regardless of Democracy] and what the majority wanted, in the Shia's point of view. This matter is covered in much greater detail in the article Succession to Muhammad, and in the article on Shi'a Islam, although it is worth mentioning that ˤAlī himself did not rebel against the majority choosing Abu Bakr though he may have disagreed. Shia's argue that in the absence of a Caliphate the system termed Vilayat-e Faqih suffices.

Contrary to the Shia, Sunni Muslims believe that the caliph has always been a merely temporal political ruler, appointed to rule within the bounds of Islamic law (Shariah), and not necessarily the most qualified in Islamic law. The job of adjudicating orthodoxy and Islamic law (Shariah) was left to Islamic lawyers or specialists individually termed as Mujtahids and collectively named the Ulema. The first four caliphs are called the Rashidun meaning the Rightly Guided Caliphs, because they are believe to have followed the Qur'an and the sunnah (example) of Muhammad in all things.

[edit] The Wazir (وزير)‎ The Caliph's Deputies

...

[edit] The Diwan- The Cabinet

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[edit] Majlis al-Shura- The House of Representitives

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[edit] The Judiciary & Qadis (قاضى)

...

[edit] Impeachement of the Caliph & Other Officials

...

[edit] Bayt al-mal- The Treasury

Historically, it was a financial institution responsible for the administration of taxes. It served as a royal treasury for the caliphs and sultans, managing personal finances and government expenditures. Further, it administered distributions of zakah revenues for public works. Modern Islamic economists deem the institutional framework appropriate for contemporary Islamic societies.

[edit] Foreign Policy & Jihad

The land that the Caliphate was at war with was referred to as Dar al-Harb (Arabic: دار الحرب "land of war") , and only the Caliph could declare war if it was considered a just war, or Jihad. ...

[edit] The Standard (Flag)

Image:Al-Liwaa.png The flag of the Islamic State or Al-Liwaa اللواء


Image:Al-Raya.png The flag of the mujahid fighters and jihad, also known as Al-Raya الراية

[edit] History

Abū Bakr nominated Umar as his successor on his deathbed, and the Muslim community submitted to his choice. His successor, Uthman, was elected by a council of electors, but was soon perceived by some to be ruling as a "king" rather than an elected leader. Uthman was killed by members of a disaffected group. ˤAlī then took control, but was not universally accepted as caliph. He faced numerous rebellions and was assassinated after a tumultuous rule of only five years. This period is known as the Fitna, or the first Islamic civil war.

One of ˤAlī's challengers was Muˤāwiyya, a relative of Uthman. After ˤAlī's death, Muˤāwiyya managed to overcome all other claimants to the Caliphate. He is remembered by history as Muˤāwiyya, the founder of the Umayyad dynasty. Under Muˤāwiyya, the caliphate became a hereditary office.

In the areas which were previously under the Persia or Byzantium rule, the successors lowered taxes, provided greater local autonomy and greater religious freedom for Jews and indigenous Christians, and brought peace to peoples demoralized and disaffected by the casualties and heavy taxation resulted from the years of Byzantine-Persian warfare. <ref> John Esposito (1992) p.36 </ref>

[edit] Umayyads

Main article: Umayyad

Under the Umayyads, the Muslim empire grew rapidly. To the West, Muslim rule expanded across North Africa and into Spain. To the East, it expanded through Iran and ultimately to India. This made it one of the largest empires in the history of West Eurasia, extending its entire breadth.

However, the Umayyad dynasty was not universally supported within Islam itself. Some Muslims supported prominent early Muslims like az-Zubayr; others felt that only members of Muhammad's clan, the Banū Hashim, or his own lineage, the descendants of ˤAlī, should rule. There were numerous rebellions against the Umayyads, as well as splits within the Umayyad ranks (notably, the rivalry between Yaman and Qays). Eventually, supporters of the Banu Hisham and Alid claims united to bring down the Umayyads in 750. However, the Shiˤat ˤAlī, "the Party of ˤAlī", were again disappointed when the Abbasid dynasty took power, as the Abbasids were descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib and not from ˤAlī. Following this disappointment, the Shiˤat ˤAlī finally split from the majority Sunni Muslims and formed what are today the several Shiˤa denominations.

[edit] Abbasids

Main article: Abbasid

The Abbasids would provide an unbroken line of caliphs for over three centuries, consolidating Islamic rule and cultivating great intellectual and cultural developments in the Middle East. But by 940 the power of the caliphate under the Abbasids was waning as non-Arabs, particularly the Turkish (and later the Mamluks in Egypt in the latter half of the 13th century), gained influence, and sultans and emirs became increasingly independent. However, the caliphate endured as both a symbolic position and a unifying entity for the Islamic world.

During the period of the Abassid dynasty, Abassid claims to the caliphate did not go unchallenged. The Shiˤa Said ibn Husayn of the Fatimid dynasty, which claimed descendancy of Muhammad through his daughter, claimed the title of Caliph in 909, creating a separate line of caliphs in North Africa. Initially covering Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, the Fatimid caliphs extended their rule for the next 150 years, taking Egypt and Palestine, before the Abbassid dynasty was able to turn the tide, limiting Fatimid rule to Egypt. The Fatimid dynasty finally ended in 1171. The Umayyad dynasty, which had survived and come to rule over the Muslim provinces of Spain, reclaimed the title of Caliph in 929, lasting until it was overthrown in 1031.

[edit] Shadow Caliphate

1258 saw the conquest of Baghdad and the execution of Abassid caliph al-Musta'sim by Mongol forces under Hulagu Khan. A surviving member of the Abbasid House was installed as Caliph at Cairo under the patronage of the Mamluk Sultanate three years later. However, the authority of this line of Caliphs was confined to ceremonial and religious matters, and later Muslim historians referred to it as a "shadow" caliphate.

[edit] Ottomans

Main article: Ottoman Caliphate

As the Ottoman Empire grew in size and strength, Ottoman rulers beginning with Mehmed II began to claim caliphal authority. Their claim was strengthened when the Ottoman Empire defeated the Mamluk Sultanate in 1517 and took control of most Arab lands. The last Abbasid Caliph at Cairo, al-Mutawakkil III, was taken into custody and was transported to İstanbul, where he reportedly surrendered the Caliphate to Selim I.

Ottoman rulers were known primarily by the title of Sultan and used the title of caliph only sporadically. Mehmed II and his grandson Selim used it to justify their conquest of Islamic countries.
Image:Ottoman 1683.png
The Ottoman Caliphate.

According to Barthold, the first time the title of caliph was used as a political instead of symbolic religious title by the Ottomans was the peace treaty with Russia in 1774. The outcome of this war was disastrous for the Ottomans. Large territories, including those with large muslim populations such as Crimea, were lost to the Christian Russian Empire. However, the Ottomans under Abdulhamid I claimed a diplomatic victory by assigning themselves the protectors of Muslims in Russia as part of the peace treaty. This was the first time the Ottoman caliph was acknowledged as having political significance outside of Ottoman borders by a European power. As a consequence of this diplomatic victory, as the Ottoman borders were shrinking, the powers of the Ottoman caliph increased. Around 1880 Sultan Abdulhamid II reasserted the title as a way of countering creeping European colonialism in Muslim lands. His claim was most fervently accepted by the Muslims of British India. By the eve of the First World War, the Ottoman state, despite its weakness vis-à-vis Europe, represented the largest and most powerful independent Islamic political entity. But the sultan also enjoyed some authority beyond the borders of his shrinking empire as caliph of Muslims in Egypt, India and Central Asia.

[edit] End of Caliphate

On March 3, 1924, the first President of the Turkish Republic and its leader, Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, constitutionally abolished the institution of the Caliphate. Its powers within Turkey were transferred to the Turkish Grand National Assembly (parliament) of the newly formed Turkish Republic and the title has since been inactive. Though very unlikely, the Turkish Republic still retains the right to reinstate the Caliphate, if it ever chooses to do so.

Scattered attempts to revive the Caliphate elsewhere in the Muslim World were made in the years immediately following its abandonment by Turkey, but none were successful. Hussein bin Ali, a former Ottoman governor of the Hejaz who aided the British during World War I and revolted against Istanbul, declared himself Caliph two days after Turkey relinquished the title. But his claim was largely ignored, and he was soon ousted and driven out of Arabia by the Saudis, a rival clan that would have no interest in the Caliphate. The last Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI made a similar attempt to re-establish himself as Caliph in the Hejaz after leaving Turkey, but he was also unsuccessful. A summit was convened at Cairo in 1926 to discuss the revival of the Caliphate, but most Muslim countries did not participate and no action was taken to implement the summit's resolutions.

[edit] Khilafat Movement

In the 1920s the Khilafat Movement, a movement to restore the Turkish Caliphate, spread throughout the British colonial territories in Asia. It was particularly strong in British India, where it was a rallying point for Muslim communities led by Maulana Muhammad Ali Jouhar. However, after the arrest or abscondment of it's leaders, and a series of tragic offshoots the movement lost its momemtum. Subsequently, with the end of the Caliphate in Turkey and failed attempts to restore it, the movement gradually died down.

Though the title Ameer al-Mumineen was adopted by the King of Morocco and Mullah Mohammed Omar, former head of the now-defunct Taliban regime of Afghanistan, neither claimed any legal standing or authority over Muslims outside the borders of their respective countries. The closest thing to a Caliphate in existence today is the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), an international organization with limited influence founded in 1969 consisting of the governments of most Muslim-majority countries.

[edit] Reestablishment of a modern Caliphate

Once the subject of intense conflict and rivalry amongst Muslim rulers, the caliphate has lain dormant and largely unclaimed for much of the past 82 years.

Though Islam is still a dominant influence in most Muslim societies and many Muslims might favor a caliphate in the abstract, tight restrictions on political activity in many Muslim countries coupled with the tremendous obstacles to uniting over fifty nation-states under a single institution have prevented efforts to revive the caliphate from garnering massive active support, even amongst devout Muslims. Popular apolitical Islamic movements such as the Tablighi Jamaat identify a lack of spirituality and decline in personal religious observance as the root cause of the Muslim World's problems, and claim that the caliphate cannot be successfully revived until these deficiencies are addressed. No attempts at rebuilding a power structure based on Islam were successful anywhere in the Muslim World until the Iranian Revolution in 1979, which was based on Shia principles and whose leaders did not outwardly call for the restoration of a global Caliphate.

[edit] Islamist Call

Various Sunni Islamist movements have gained momentum in recent years with the ultimate aim of establishing some form of Caliphate; however, they differ in their methodology and approach. Some, such as the Justice and Development Party in Turkey, are locally-oriented, mainstream political parties that have no apparent transnational objectives.

Others, such as various branches of the Muslim Brotherhood, have stated goals of fostering pan-Islamic unity and implementing Islamic Law. Mainstream Islamic institutions in Muslim countries today have generally not made the restoration of the caliphate a top priority and have instead focused on other issues, Islamists argue it is because they are tied to the current Muslim regimes.

One transnational group particularily strong in Central Asia, Hizb ut-Tahrir (lit. party of liberty), has tried to recruit the world's Muslims to a renewed caliphate, aiming to ultimately form a federal pan-Islamic government. [1]

[edit] Famous caliphs

Main article: List of caliphs

[edit] Past Caliphates

The more important dynasties include:


[edit] Primary Islamic Evidences

[edit] The Quran

To Govern by Islam in the Quran

Sunni's argue that to govern a state by Islamic law (Shariah) is, by definition, to rule via the Caliphate, and use the following evidences.

So govern between the people by that which Allah has revealed (Islam), and follow not their vain desires, beware of them in case they seduce you from just some part of that which Allah has revealed to you

Qur'an 004:049

O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and then those among you who are in authority; and if you have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the messenger's rulings, if you are (in truth) believers in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and more seemly in the end.

Qur'an 004:059

But no, by the Lord, they will not believe (in truth) until they make you (Muhammad) the source of ruling of what is in dispute between them, And find in their souls No resistance against Thy decisions, but accept Them with the fullest conviction.

Qur'an 004:065

Lo, we reveal to you the scripture with the truth, that you may govern mankind by that which Allah shows you.

Qur'an 004:105

Whoso governs not by that which Allah has revealed, such are disbelievers (Kafir).

Qur'an 005:044

Whoso governs not by that which Allah has revealed, such are the oppressors (Dhallem).

Qur'an 005:045

Whoso governs not by that which Allah has revealed, such are the evil doers (Fasiq).

Qur'an 005:047

The rule is for none but Allah.

Qur'an 006:057

..Verily the ’Hukm’ (command, Judgment) is for none but Allah.

Qur'an 012:040

It is not for any believing man or woman, when Allah and his massenger have ruled in a matter, to have any choice for themselves in their affairs. For whoever rebels against Allah and His Messenger has gone astray into manifest error.

Qur'an 033:036

[edit] The Traditions of the Prophet

Nafi’a reported saying:

Umar said to me that he heard the Prophet saying: Whoever takes away his hand from allegiance to Allah (SWT) will meet Him (SWT) on the Day of Resurrection without having any proof for him, and whoever dies whilst there was no baya’a on his neck (to a Caliph), he dies a death in the days of ignorance (Jahilliya).

Hisham ibn ’Urwa reported on the authority of Abu Saleh on the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

Leaders will take charge of you after me, where the pious (one) will lead you with his piety and the impious (one) with his impiety, so only listen to them and obey them in everything which conforms with the truth (Islam). If they act rightly it is for your credit, and if they acted wrongly it is counted for you and against them.

Muslim narrated on the authority of al-A’araj, on the authority of Abu Hurairah, that the Prophet said:

Behold, the Imam (Caliph) is but a shield from behind whom the people fight and by whom they defend themselves.

Muslim reported on the authority of Abu Hazim, who said:

I accompanied Abu Hurairah for five years and heard him talking of the Prophet’s saying: The Prophets ruled over the children of Israel, whenever a Prophet died another Prophet succeeded him, but there will be no Prophet after me. There will be Khalifahs and they will number many. They asked: What then do you order us? He said: Fulfil the baya’a to them one after the other and give them their due. Surely Allah will ask them about what He entrusted them with.

Ibn ’Abbas narrated that the Prophet said:

If anyone sees in his Emir something that displeases him let him remain patient, for behold, he who separates himself from the sultan (authority of Islam) by even so much as a hand span and dies thereupon, has died a death of the days of ignorance (jahilliyah).

Muslim reported that the Prophet said:

"Whoever pledged allegiance to a leader (Caliph) giving him the clasp of his hand and the fruit of his heart shall obey him as long as he can, and if another comes to dispute his authority (cause division of the nation) you have to strike the neck of that man.

Imam Ahmed reported on the authority of Abdullah Ibnu Amru that the Messenger of Allah said in a Sahih narration:

It is forbiden even for three persons to be together in a place without appointing one of them as their Emir.

[edit] The Consensus of the Sahaba (Companions)

In regard with the Ijma as-Sahaba they all agreed upon the necessity to establish a successor or Khalif to the Prophet after his death, and they all agreed to appoint a successor to Abu Bakr, then to ’Umar, then to ’Uthman, after the death of each one of them.

The Ijma as-Sahaba to establish a Khaleef manifested itself emphatically when they delayed the burial of the Prophet after his death whilst engaged in appointing a successor to him, despite the fact that the burial of the dead person is fard, and that it is haram upon those who are supposed to prepare for his burial to engage themselves in anything else until they complete the burial. The Sahabah were obliged to engage themselves in preparing the burial of the Prophet , instead some of them engaged themselves in appointing a Khaleef rather than carrying out the burial, and some others kept silent on this engagement and participated in delaying the burial for two nights despite their ability to deny the delay and their ability to bury the Prophet . So this was an Ijma as-Sahaba to engage themselves in appointing a Khaleef rather than to bury the dead. This could not be legitimate unless the appointment of a Khaleef is more obligatory than the burial of the dead.

Also, all the Sahabah agreed throughout their lives upon the obligation of appointing a Khaleef. Although they disagreed upon the person to elect as a Khaleef, they never disagreed upon the appointment of a Khaleef, neither when the Prophet died, nor when any of the Khulafa’a ar-Rashidun died. Therefore the Ijma as-Sahaba is a clear and strong evidence that the appointment of a Khaleef is obligatory.

Also, Al-Habbab Ibn ul-Munthir said when the Sahaba met in the wake of the death of the Prophet (at the thaqifa hall) of Bani Sa’ida:

Let there be one Amir from us and one Amir from you (meaning one from the Ansar and one from the Mohajireen).
Upon this Abu Bakr replied:
It is forbidden for Muslims to have two Amirs (rulers)...

Then he got up and addressed the Muslims. <ref>"As-Sirah" of Ibn Kathir</ref> <ref>"Tarikh ut-Tabari" by at-Tabari</ref> <ref>"Siratu Ibn Hisham" by Ibn Hisham</ref> <ref>"As-Sunan ul-Kubra" of Bayhaqi</ref> <ref>"Al-fasil-fil Milal" by Ibnu Hazim</ref> <ref>"Al-A’kd Al-Farid" of Al-Waqidi</ref>

It has additionally been reported<ref>"as-Sirah" of Ibnu Ishaq</ref> that Abu Bakr went on to say on the day of Al-Saqifa:

It is forbidden for Muslims to have two Amirs for this would cause differences in their affairs and concepts, their unity would be divided and disputes would break out amongst them. The Sunnah would then be abandoned, the bida’a (innovations) would spread and Fitna would grow, and that is in no one’s interests.

The Sahabah (ra) agreed to this and selected Abu Bakr (ra) as their first Khaleef. Habbab ibn Mundhir (ra) who suggested the idea of two Ameers corrected himself and was the first to give Abu Bakr the Baya. This indicates an Ijma as-Sahaba of all of the Sahabah (ra) and thus is a divine source for us. Ali ibni abi Talib (ra), who was attending the body of the Prophet at the time, also consented to this.

Abu Bakr delivered the Shariah verdict on the unity of the Khilafah, stressing that it is forbidden for the Muslim Ummah to have more than one Amir. The Sahabah heard him and approved and consented, no one disputed the verdict, but submitted to it and accepted it as a law (indication of evidence from the Sunnah). The Ansar then conceded their claim to the Khilafah, and Al-Habbab Ibnu Al-Munthir was the first to give the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr (RA). The general consensus of the Sahabah then took effect on the day of Al-Saqifa, that is an obligation for all Muslims to have one ruler only. This opinion has been adopted by all the distinguished scholars. The following are some of them:

Imam ali (RA) says<ref>Nahj-ul-Balagha (part 1 page 91)</ref>:

People must have an Amir...where the believer works under his Imara (rule) and under which the unbeliever would also benefit, until his rule ended by the end of his life (ajal), the booty (fay’i) would be gathered, the enemy would be fought, the routes would be made safe, the strong one will return what he took from the weak till the tyrant would be contained, and not bother anyone.

[edit] The Sayings of Islamic Scholars

Al-Imam Al-Mawardi says<ref>Al-ahkam Al-Sultaniyah page 9</ref>:

It is forbidden for the Ummah (Muslim world) to have two leaders at the same time.

Al-Imam Al-Nawawi says<ref>Mughni Al-Muhtaj, volume 4, page 132</ref>:

It is forbidden to give an oath to two leaders or more, even in different parts of the world and even if they are far apart.

Al-Imam Al Qalqashandi says<ref>Subul Al-Asha, volume 9, page 277</ref>:

It is forbidden to appoint two leaders at the same time.

Al-Imam Ibnu Hazm says<ref>Al-Muhalla, volume 9, page 360</ref>:

It is permitted to have only one leader (of the Muslims) in the whole of the world.

Al-Imam Al-sha’rani says<ref>Al-Mizan, volume 2, page 157</ref>:

It is forbidden for Muslims to have in the whole world and at the same time two leaders whether in agreement or discord.

Al-Imam Al-Qadhi Abdul-Jabbar (he is a Mu’tazela scholar), says<ref>Al-Mughni fi abwab Al-Tawheed, volume 20, page 243</ref>:

It is forbidden to give the oath to more than one.

Al-Imam Al-Joziri says<ref>Al-Fiqh Alal-Mathahib Al- Arba’a (the fiqh of the four schools of thought), volume 5, page 416</ref>:

The Imams (scholars of the four schools of thought)- may Allah have mercy on them- agree that the Caliphate is an obligation, and that the Muslims must appoint a leader who would implement the injunctions of the religion, and give the oppressed justice against the oppressors. It is forbidden for Muslims to have two leaders in the world whether in agreement or discord.

The Shia schools of thought and others expressed the same opinion about this<ref>Al-Fasl Fil-Milal, volume 4, page 62</ref><ref>Matalib Ulil-Amr</ref><ref>Maqalat Al-Islamyin, volume 2,page 134</ref><ref>Al-Moghni Fi Abuab Al-Tawhid, volume 20, pages 58-145</ref>

Imam al-Qurtubi said in his Tafseer<ref>Tafseer ul-Qurtubi 264/1</ref> of the verse, "Indeed, man is made upon this earth a Caliph" <ref>Qur'an 002:030</ref> that:

This Ayah is a source in the selection of an Imaam, and a Khaleef, he is listened to and he is obeyed, for the word is united through him, and the Ahkam (laws) of the Caliph are implemented through him, and there is no difference regarding the obligation of that between the Ummah, nor between the Imams except what is narrated about al-Asam, the Mu'tazzili (a deviant group)...

Imam al-Qurturbi (rh.a.) also said:

The Khilafah is the pillar upon which other pillars rest

Imam an-Nawawi (rh.a.) said<ref>Sharhu Sahih Muslim page 205 vol 12</ref>:

(The scholars) consented that it is an obligation upon the Muslims to select a Khalif

Imaam al-Ghazali (rh.a.) when writing of the potential consequences of losing the Caliphate said<ref>al Iqtisaad fil Itiqaad page 240</ref>:

The judges will be suspeneded, the Wilayaat (provinces) will be nullified, ... the decrees of those in authority will not be executed and all the people will be on the verge of Haraam

Ibn Taymiyyah (rh.a.) said<ref>Siyaasah Shariyyah - chapter: 'The obligation of adherence to the leadership'</ref>:

It is obligatory to know that the office in charge of commanding over the people (ie: the post of the Khaleefah) is one of the greatest obligations of the Deen. In fact, their is no establishment of the Deen except by it....this is the opinion of the salaf, such as al-Fadl ibn 'Iyaad, Ahmed ibn Hanbal and others

Imam abu ul-Hasan al-Mawardi (rh.a.) said<ref>al-Ahkam us-Sultaniyyah [Arabic] p 56</ref>:

The contract of the Imamah (leadership) for whoever is standing with it, is an obligation by Ijmaa'a (consensus)

Imam Ahmed (rh.a.) said:

The Fitna (mischief and tribuulations) occurs when there is no Imaam established over the affairs of the people

Abu Hafs Umar al-Nasafi (rh.a.) a noted scholar of the 6th century Hijri states

The Muslims simply must have an Imam (Caliph), who will execute the rules, establish the Hudud (penal system), defend the frontiers, equip the armies, collect Zakah, punish those who rebel (against the state) and those who spy and highwaymen, establish Jum'ah and the two 'Eids, settle the dispute among the servants (of Allah), accept the testimony of witnesses in matters of legal rights, give in marriage the young and the poor who have no family, and distribute the booty

Imam Al-Juzayri, an expert on the Fiqh of the four great schools of thought said regarding the four Imams<ref>Fiqh ul-Mathahib ul- Arba'a" [the Fiqh of the four schools of thought], volume 5, page 416</ref>:

The Imams (scholars of the four schools of thought- Shafi'i, Hanafi, Maliki, Hanbali)- may Allah have mercy on them- agree that the Imamah (Leadership) is an obligation, and that the Muslims must appoint an Imam who would implement the deen's rites, and give the oppressed justice against the oppressors

Imam al-Haythami said<ref>al-Haythami in Sawaa'iq ul-haraqah:17</ref>:

It is known that the Sahabah (r.a.h) consented that selecting the Imaam after the end of the era of Prophethood was an obligation (Wajib). Indeed they made it (more) important than the (other) obligations whilst they were busy with it over the burial of the Prophet

Imam ash-Shawkaani wrote<ref>Tafseer al-Quran al-Atheem, volume 2, page 215</ref>:

It is known from Islam by necessity (bi-dharoorah - i.e.: like prayer and fasting) that Islam has forbidden division amongst Muslims and the segregation of their land

The well renowned Imam Hassan Al-Mawardi (ra) says<ref>"AlAahkam Al-Sultaniyah" page 9</ref>:

It is forbidden for the Ummah to have two Imams (leaders) at the same time.

Imam An-Nawawi says<ref>"Mughni Al-Muhtaj", volume 4, page 132</ref>:

It is forbidden to give an oath to two Imams or more, even in different parts of the world and even if they are far apart

He also stated<ref>"Sharhu Sahih Muslim" (explanation of Sahih Muslim) chapter 12 page 231</ref>:

If a baya’a were taken for two Khaleefs one after the other, the baya’a of the first one would be valid and it should be fulfilled and honoured whereas the baya’a of the second would be invalid, and it would be forbidden to honour it. This is the right opinion which the majority of scholars follow, and they agree that it would be forbidden to appoint two Khaleefs at one given time, no matter how great and extended the Islamic lands become.

The Imam Ibnu Hazm says<ref>"Al-Muhalla", volume 4, page 360</ref>:

It is unlawful to have more than one Imam in the whole of the world.

Al-Imam Al-Juzieri, an expert on the Fiqh of the four great schools of thought said regarding the four Imams<ref>"Fiqh ul-Mathahib ul- Arba’a" (the fiqh of the four schools of thought), volume 5, page 416</ref>:

...It is forbidden for Muslims to have two Imams in the world whether in agreement or discord.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  • Crone, Patricia & Hinds, Martin -- God's Caliph, Cambridge University Press, 1986
  • Donner, Fred -- The Early Islamic Conquests, Princeton University Press, 1981

[edit] External links


Forms of Government and Methods of Rule: Autocratic and Authoritarian

Autocratic: Despotism | Dictatorship | Tyranny | Absolute monarchy (Caliphate | Despotate | Emirate | Empire | Imamate | Khanate | Sultanate | Other monarchical titles) | Enlightened absolutism

Other Authoritarian: Military dictatorship (often a Junta) | Oligarchy | Single-party state (Communist state | Fascist(oid) state (e.g. Nazi Germany)) | de facto: Illiberal democracy

ar:خلافة إسلامية

ca:Califa cs:Chalífa da:Kalifat de:Kalifat el:Χαλίφης es:Califa eo:Kalifo fr:Califat gd:Cèileafaid ko:칼리파 hr:Kalif id:Khalifah it:Califfo he:ח'ליף la:Calipha ms:Khilafah Islam nl:Kalief ja:カリフ no:Kalif pl:Kalifat pt:Califa ru:Халиф sq:Kalifati sr:Калиф fi:Kalifi sv:Kalifat tr:Hilafet zh:哈里發

Caliphate

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