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The Bundesnachrichtendienst (Federal Intelligence Service, BND) is the foreign intelligence agency of the German government, under the control of the Chancellor's Office. Its headquarters are in Pullach near Munich, and Berlin (planned to be centralised in Berlin by 2011). The BND has 200 locations in Germany and foreign countries. In 2005, the BND employed around 6,050 people, 10% of them Bundeswehr soldiers; those are officially employed by the "Amt für Militärkunde" (Office for Military Sciences), which is just a camouflage name. The annual budget of the BND exceeds  430,000,000.

The domestic secret service counterpart of the BND are the Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, BfV) and 16 counterparts at the federal state level (Landesämter für Verfassungsschutz or State Offices for the Protection of the Constitution); there is also a separate military intelligence organisation, the Militärischer Abschirmdienst (lit. military screening service, MAD).


[edit] History

Reinhard Gehlen, the founder and president of the Bundesnachrichtendienst, and legendary cold war spymaster

The predecessor of the BND is the German eastern military intelligence agency, Abteilung Fremde Heere Ost in the General Staff, led by Ex-Nazi Wehrmacht General Reinhard Gehlen. Its main purpose was to collect information on the Soviet Union. In 1946 Gehlen set up an intelligence agency informally known as the Gehlen Org on behalf of US forces as the axe of the Gladio secret stay-behind structure, and recruited many of his former co-workers. Many also were recruited from the former Sicherheitsdienst, SS and Gestapo. On 1 April 1956 the Bundesnachtendienst was created from the Gehlen Org, and was transferred to the German government. Reinhard Gehlen remained President of the BND until 1968.

During the Cold War, as many as 90% of the BND's informants in East Germany were double agents run by the Stasi.[1]

In 2005 a public scandal erupted (dubbed the Journalistenskandal, Journalists scandal) over revelations that the BND had in the mid 1990s placed under surveillance a number of German journalists, in an attempt to discover the source of information leaks from the BND.

Yet another scandal came to light in early 2006, when it was revealed that agents of the BND allegedly supplied targeting information to U.S. forces to facilitate the invasion of Iraq in 2003. The BND assures that it only conveyed so-called non-targets, locations that must not be attacked.

The former is one where the BND has (partially) admitted to using journalists to spy on fellow journalists. This supposedly was done, to protect the security and authenticity (i.e. the truth) of the BND's investigations. It was quickly decided to set up an investigation committee ("Untersuchungsausschuss"), to investigate the allegations. The affair has become very heated, because if the allegations are substantiated, it would be tantamount to a violation of freedom of speech.

[edit] Structure

The Bundesnachrichtendienst is divided into 8 branches, with different operational intelligence tasks.

  1. Operative Aufklärung / Human Intelligence
  2. Technische Aufklärung / Signals Intelligence
  3. Auswertung / Analysis
  4. Steuerung und zentrale Dienstleistung / Administration
  5. Organisierte Kriminalität & Internationaler Terrorismus / Organized Crime & International Terrorism
  6. Technische Unterstützung / Technical Support
  7. Schule des BND / BND School
  8. Sicherheit / Security & Defense

[edit] Presidents of the BND

The head of the Bundesnachrichtendienst is its President. The following persons have held this office since 1956:

Presidents of the Bundesnachrichtendienstes (BND)
Name (lived) Beginning of service End of service
1 Reinhard Gehlen (19021979) 1 April 1956 30 April 1968
2 Gerhard Wessel (19132002) 1 May 1968 31 December 1978
3 Klaus Kinkel (b. 1936) 1 January 1979 26 December 1982
4 Eberhard Blum (19192003) 27 December 1982 31 July 1985
5 Heribert Hellenbroich (b. 1937) 1 August 1985 27 August 1985
6 Hans-Georg Wieck (b. 1928) 4 September 1985 2 October 1990
7 Konrad Porzner (b. 1935) 3 October 1990 31 March 1996
8 Gerhard Güllich (b. 1937) (interim) 1 April 1996 4 June 1996
9 Hansjörg Geiger (b. 1942) 4 June 1996 17 December 1998
10 August Hanning (b. 1946) 17 December 1998 30 November 2005
11 Ernst Uhrlau (b. 1946) 1 December 2005

The President of the BND is a federal Beamter paid according to BBesO order B, B6 (can be viewed here)

[edit] Deputy

The President of the BND has two deputies: one Vice-President and - since December 2003 - one Vice-President for military affairs. Prior to that time there was only one Vice-President. The following persons have held this office since 1957:

Vice-Presidents of the Bundesnachrichtendienstes (BND)
Name (lived) Beginning of service End of service
1 Hans-Heinrich Worgitzky (b. 1907) 24 May 1957 1967
2 Horst Wendland (19121968) 8 October 1968 (suicide)
3 Dieter Blötz (19311987) 4 May 1970 August 1979
4 Norbert Klusak (19361986) 1 April 1980 27 February 1986
5 Paul Münstermann (b. 1932) 1986 27 August 1994
6 Gerhard Güllich (b. 1937) (interim) 1994 1996
7 Rainer Kesselring 18 June 1996
8 Rudolf Adam (b. 1948) July 2001 31 March 2004
9 Werner Schowe (b. 1944), military affairs VP December 2003 2005
10 Rüdiger von Fritsch-Seerhausen 1 May 2004
11 Georg Freiherr von Brandis (b. 1948), military affairs VP 4 October 2005

[edit] See also

[edit] External links and publications

de:Bundesnachrichtendienst fr:Service fédéral de renseignement nl:Bundesnachrichtendienst lt:BND ja:BND no:Bundesnachrichtendienst pl:Bundesnachrichtendienst sv:Bundesnachrichtendienst


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