Brooklyn

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Brooklyn
Location
Image:Brooklyn Highlight New York City Map Julius Schorzman.png
Brooklyn shown within New York City
Government
County:Kings
Borough president:Marty Markowitz
Demographics
Population:2,465,326
Population density:34,920/mi²
Geography
Area:251.0 km² (96.9 mi²)
Land:182.9 km² (70.6 mi²)
Water:68.1 km² (26.3 mi²)
Coordinates:{74}° 42′ 15.24″ N 73° 55′ 4.54″ W
This article is about the borough of New York City. For other uses, see Brooklyn (disambiguation).

Brooklyn (named for the Dutch city Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. An independent city until its consolidation into New York in 1898, Brooklyn is New York's most populous borough, with nearly 2.5 million residents. As an independent city Brooklyn would rank as the fourth most populous city in the United States.

The borough of Brooklyn is coterminous with Kings County, which is also the most populous county in New York State.

In spite of its consolidation into New York, Brooklyn maintains a strongly distinct character of its own. Variously called the "City of Trees," "City of Homes," or the "City of Churches" in the 19th century, Brooklyn is now often styled the "Borough of Homes and Churches".

As a promotional gesture by the current borough administration, distinctive traffic signs are posted along major traffic arteries at Brooklyn’s border crossings. They incorporate colorful expressions associated with Brooklyn, including: "Fugheddaboudit," "Oy Vey!," and "How Sweet It Is." One sign identifies the borough as: "Home to Everyone From Everywhere!"

Contents

[edit] History

Main article: History of Brooklyn

The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle the area in the 1620s on the western edge of Long Island, which was then largely inhabited by the Canarsie Native American tribe. The Village of Breuckelen, which preceded the City of New Amsterdam (which became New York City) by some 7 years, was authorized by the Dutch West India Company in 1646 and became the first municipality in what is now New York State. At the time Breuckelen was part of New Netherland.

The Dutch lost Breuckelen in the British conquest of New Netherland in 1664. In 1683, the British reorganized the Province of New York into 12 counties, each of which was sub-divided into towns. Kings County was one of the original 12 counties, and Brooklyn, the Anglicized name of Breuckelen, was one of the original six towns within Kings County. The county was named in honor of King Charles II of England.

In August and September 1776 the Battle of Brooklyn (also known as the Battle of Long Island) was fought in Kings County. It was the first major battle in the American Revolutionary War following the Declaration of Independence, and the largest battle of the entire conflict. New York, and Brooklyn along with it, gained independence from the British with the Treaty of Paris in 1783.

The first half of the 19th century saw urban areas grow along the economically strategic East River waterfront, across from New York City. Each of the two cities and six towns in Kings County remained independent municipalities, however, and purposely created non-aligning street grids with different naming systems. The two cities were the City of Brooklyn and the City of Williamsburgh. Brooklyn annexed Williamsburgh in 1854, which lost its final "h." It took until 1896 for Brooklyn to annex all other parts of Kings County.

Image:DSCN3630 brooklynskyline e.JPG
Brooklyn's skyline as seen from the East River

The building of rail links such as the Brighton Beach Line in 1878 heralded explosive growth, and in the space of a decade the City of Brooklyn annexed the Town of New Lots in 1886, the Town of Flatbush, the Town of Gravesend, and the Town of New Utrecht in 1894, and the Town of Flatlands in 1896.

Brooklyn had reached its natural municipal boundaries at the ends of Kings County. The question was now whether it was prepared to engage in the still-grander process of consolidation now developing throughout the region.

In 1898, Brooklyn residents voted by a slight majority to join with Manhattan, The Bronx, Queens and Richmond (later Staten Island) as the five boroughs to form modern New York City. Kings County retained its status as one of New York State's counties.

[edit] Geography

Image:NASA photo of Brooklyn.jpg
Satellite image showing Brooklyn, center. Manhattan is visible upper left. Staten Island is seen lower left, linked by the Verrazano Narrows Bridge.

Brooklyn is located on the westernmost point of Long Island and shares its only land boundary with Queens to the northeast. The westernmost section of this boundary is defined by Newtown Creek, which flows into the East River.

Brooklyn's waterfront faces different bodies of water. Northern Brooklyn's coast is defined by the East River, while middle Brooklyn adjoins Upper New York Bay. This area of the waterfront features the Red Hook peninsula and the Erie Basin. Buttermilk Channel separates this part of the waterfront from Governors Island. Southwest is Gowanus Bay, connected to the Gowanus Canal. At its south westernmost section, Brooklyn is separated from Staten Island by the Narrows, where Upper and Lower New York Bay meet.

Brooklyn's southern coast includes the peninsula on which stretch Coney Island, Brighton Beach and Manhattan Beach. The southeastern coast lies on island-dotted Jamaica Bay.

The highest point in Brooklyn is the area around Prospect Park and Green-Wood Cemetery, rising approximately 200 feet above sea level. There is also a minor elevation in Downtown Brooklyn known as Brooklyn Heights.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the County has a total area of 251.0 km² (96.9 mi²). 182.9 km² (70.6 mi²) of it is land and 68.1 km² (26.3 mi²) of it is water. 27.13% of the total area is water.

Populations of wild Monk Parakeets, also known as the Quaker Parrot, live in Green-Wood Cemetery, Midwood, Marine Park, Bensonhurst, and Bay Ridge.

See also: Geography and environment of New York City

[edit] Neighborhoods

Brooklyn, which developed from distinct towns and villages from its founding in the Dutch colonial era, has many well-defined neighborhoods. Many are architecturally and ethnically distinct, after growing rapidly in the late 19th and early 20th century as upwardly-mobile immigrants moved out of tenement buildings in Manhattan neighborhoods like the Lower East Side. Borough Park is largely Orthodox Jewish; Bedford-Stuyvesant is one of New York City's most notable African-American neighborhoods; Bensonhurst historically is Italian-American; Fort Greene is home to many middle-class black professionals. Since 1990, Brooklyn has seen a rise in new immigration to neighborhoods like Sunset Park, home to flourishing Hispanic and Chinese American communities.

Downtown Brooklyn is the third-largest central business district in New York City, after Midtown Manhattan and Lower Manhattan. It has many commercial towers with lower rents than comparable office space in Manhattan, and is home to growing numbers of smaller firms, as well as residential buildings.

Most districts in Brooklyn are residential. The northwestern neighborhoods between DUMBO, by the Brooklyn Bridge, to Park Slope, adjacent to Prospect Park, are characterized by many 19th century brownstone houses. Neighborhoods to the south and especially to the east often have detached single- and multi-family homes with yards resembling older suburban neighborhoods.

Recently the city has completed an extensive rezoning of the Brooklyn waterfront. Neighborhoods along the East River north of Downtown Brooklyn, such as Williamsburg, are beginning to see high-rise development in abadonded industrial zones. In recent years a series of artists' colonies have developed along the East River as artists have left their traditional, more expensive Manhattan neighborhoods. Gentrification has rapidly transformed much of Williamsburg, DUMBO, and Red Hook. Redevelopment has moved eastward away from the waterfront along the L 14th Street subway line, which has come to be known colloquially as the Hipster Express([1]).

See also: List of Brooklyn, New York neighborhoods

[edit] Adjacent counties

[edit] Government

Image:Brooklyn-borough-hall.jpg
Brooklyn Borough Hall. The scaffolding is part of a roof renovation project.

Since consolidation with New York City in 1898, Brooklyn has been governed by the New York City Charter that provides for a "strong" mayor-council system. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in Brooklyn.

The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. In 1989 the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional on the grounds that Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision.<ref>Cornell Law School Supreme Court Collection: Board of Estimate of City of New York v. Morris, accessed June 12, 2006</ref>

Since 1990 the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Brooklyn's Borough President is Marty Markowitz, elected as a Democrat in 2001 and re-elected in 2005.

The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. 69.7% of registered voters in Brooklyn are Democrats. Party platforms center on affordable housing, education and economic development. The most controversial political issue is over the proposed Brooklyn Nets Arena, a large development project.

Each of the city's five counties (coterminous with each borough) has its own criminal court system and District Attorney, the chief public prosecutor who is directly elected by popular vote. Charles J. Hynes, a Democrat, has been the District Attorney of Kings County since 1989. Brooklyn has 16 City Council members, the largest number of any of the five boroughs. It also has 18 administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents.

Brooklyn has not voted for a Republican in a national presidential election in the last 50 years. In the 2004 presidential election Democrat John Kerry received 74.9% of the vote in Brooklyn and Republican George W. Bush received 24.3%.

The 11th Congressional District encompassing Park Slope, Crown Heights, Flatbush, Brownsville and Prospect Heights was created by the 1965 Voting Rights Act with the intention of increasing African-American representation in the United States Congress. In 1968 the district elected Shirley Chisholm, the first African-American woman to hold a seat in the Congress and a founding member of the Congressional Black Caucus. The district's population of 654,361 is 57% black, 24% white, and 12% Latino.<ref>"'Black seat' threatened by Yassky’s congressional run, big money support." 1 June 2006.[2]</ref>

Brooklyn's official motto is Een Draght Mackt Maght. Written in the Dutch language, it is inspired by the motto of the United Dutch Provinces and translated as In Unity There is Strength. The motto is displayed on the borough seal and flag, which also feature a young robed woman bearing fasces, a traditional emblem of republicanism.<ref>http://fotw.vexillum.com/flags/us-ny-bk.html</ref> Brooklyn's official colors are blue and gold.<ref>Borough of Brooklyn.[ blue and gold.</ref>

[edit] Economy

Image:AdamsStreetModern.jpg
Downtown Brooklyn is the third largest business district in New York City.

Brooklyn's job market is driven by three main factors: the performance of the national/city economy, population flows, and the borough's position as a convenient back office for New York's businesses.<ref>New York State Department of Labor Brooklyn Report, April 2006. [3]</ref>

Forty-four percent of Brooklyn's employed population, or 410,000 people, work in the borough; more than half of the borough's residents work outside its boundaries. As a result, economic conditions in Manhattan are important to the borough's jobseekers. Strong international immigration to Brooklyn generates jobs in services, retailing and construction.<ref>New York State Department of Labor Brooklyn Report, April 2006. [4]</ref>

In recent years Brooklyn has benefited from a steady influx of financial back office operations from Manhattan, the rapid growth of a high-tech/entertainment economy in DUMBO, and strong growth in support services such as accounting, personal supply agencies and computer services firms.<ref>New York State Department of Labor Brooklyn Report, April 2006. [5]</ref>

Jobs in the borough have traditionally been concentrated in manufacturing, but since 1975, Brooklyn has shifted from a manufacturing-based economy to a service-based economy. In 2004, 215,000 Brooklyn residents worked in the services sector, while 27,500 worked in manufacturing. Although manufacturing has declined, a substantial base has remained in apparel and niche manufacturing concerns such as furniture, fabricated metals, and food products.<ref>New York City Economic Development Corporation, Brooklyn Borough Update March 2004.[6]</ref> The pharmaceutical company Pfizer has a manufacturing plant in Brooklyn that employs 990 workers. First established as a shipbuilding facility in 1801, the Brooklyn Navy Yard employed 70,000 people at is peak during World War II and was then the largest employer in the borough. The Missouri, the ship on which the Japanese formally surrendered, was built there, as was the iron-sided Civil War vessel the Monitor, and the Maine, whose sinking off Havana led to the start of the Spanish-American War. The Navy Yard is now a hub for industrial design firms, food processing businesses, and artisans, along with a growing film and television production industry. About 230 private-sector firms providing 4,000 jobs are at the Yard.

Construction and services are the fastest growing sectors.<ref>New York State Dept of Labor [7]</ref> Most employers in Brooklyn are small businesses. In 2000, 91% of the approximately 38,704 business establishments in Brooklyn had fewer than 20 employees.<ref>U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 County Business Patterns. [8]</ref>

The unemployment rate in Brooklyn in March 2006 was 5.9%.

See also: Economy of New York City

[edit] Demographics

Brooklyn Compared
2000 CensusBrooklynNY CityNY State
Total population2,465,3268,008,27818,976,457
Population density34,920/mi²26,403/mi²402/mi²
Median household income (1999)$32,135$38,293$43,393
Per capita income$16,775$22,402$23,389
Bachelor's degree or higher22%27%24%
Foreign born38%36%20%
White41%45%67%
Black36%27%16%
Hispanic (any race)20%27%15%
Asian8%10%6%
Image:New York City Demographics 05 500px Julius Schorzman.png
Brooklyn has been New York City's most populous borough since the mid-1920s. (Key: Each borough's historical population in millions. The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, Staten Island)

According to 2005 U.S. Census Bureau estimates, there are 2,486,235 people (up from 2.3 million in 1990), 880,727 households, and 583,922 families residing in Brooklyn.GR2<ref>U.S. Census Bureau, "Residential Population and Components of Change New York State and Counties, April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005." Retrieved on 2006-08-04.[9]</ref> Were it still a separate city and not a borough, Brooklyn would be the fourth largest city in the United States after New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago.

The population density was 13,480/km² (34,920/mi²). There were 930,866 housing units at an average density of 5,090/km² (13,180/mi²).

In 2000, 41.20% of Brooklyn residents were white; 36.44% were black; 7.54% were Asian; 0.41% were Native American; 0.06% Pacific Islander; 10.05% were of other races; and 4.27% were from two or more races. People of Hispanic or Latino origin, who may be of any race, comprised 19.79% of the population. 18.00% of the population reported speaking Spanish at home, 5.95% Russian, 4.19% French or a French-based creole, 3.92% Chinese, 3.10% Yiddish, 2.10% Italian, 1.42% Polish, 1.13% Hebrew, and 1.09% Arabic.<ref>MLA Data Center - Kings County, New York Retrieved 4 November 2006. </ref>

Of the 880,727 households in Brooklyn, 38.6% were married couples living together, 22.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.7% were non-families. 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living in them. Of all households 27.8% are made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.41.

In Brooklyn the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 11.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. Brooklyn has more women, with 88.4 males for every 100 females.

The median income for households in Brooklyn was $32,135, and the median income for a family was $36,188. Males had a higher median income of $34,317 than females, whose median income was $30,516. The per capita income was $16,775. About 22% of families and 25.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34% of those under age 18 and 21.5% of those age 65 or over.

Brooklyn has long been a magnet for immigrants, and presently has substantial populations from many countries, including China, Jamaica, Pakistan and Russia. The borough also attracts people previously residing in the United States. Of these, most come from Chicago, San Francisco, Washington DC/Baltimore, Boston, and Seattle. An overwhelming majority of those who leave Brooklyn go to the Broward, Dade, Palm Beach, and Orange Counties of Florida. The Brooklyn population continues to grow because there is more immigration than emigration.<ref>Brooklyn Economic Development Corporation. Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy Report, 2002.[http://www.bedc.org/statistics/domestic_migration.htm</ref>

Residents of Brooklyn are known as Brooklynites, and their sometimes distinctive Brooklyn accent is colloquially known as Brooklynese.

[edit] Culture

Image:GreeneryOfBrooklyn.JPG
The Greenery of Brooklyn Streets

Brooklyn has played a major role in American letters. Walt Whitman wrote of the Brooklyn waterfront in his classic poem Crossing Brooklyn Ferry. Betty Smith's 1943 book A Tree Grows In Brooklyn, and the 1945 film based on it, are among the best-known early works about life in Brooklyn. William Styron's novel Sophie's Choice is set in Flatbush, just off Prospect Park, during the summer of 1947. Arthur Miller's 1955 play A View From the Bridge is set in Brooklyn. Paule Marshall's 1959 novel, Brown Girl, Brownstones, about Barbadian immigrants during the Depression and World War II is also set in Brooklyn. More recently, Brooklyn-born author Jonathan Lethem has written several books about growing up in the borough, including Motherless Brooklyn and The Fortress of Solitude. The neighborhood of Park Slope is home to many contemporary writers, including Jonathan Safran Foer, Jhumpa Lahiri, Jonathan Franzen, Rick Moody, Jennifer Egan, Kathryn Harrison, Paul Auster, Nicole Krauss, Colson Whitehead, Darin Strauss, Siri Hustvedt and Suketu Mehta, among others. So many writers live in the area that Brooklyn-based band One Ring Zero released an album with lyrics written mainly by Brooklyn-based writers. The Discovery Kids show Time Warp Trio is also set in Brooklyn.

The borough has had a part in theater and film as well. Lynn Nottage's play Crumbs from the Table of Joy is set in post-World War II Brooklyn and deals with the hopes and frustrations of an African American family recently arrived from Florida. The John Travolta movie Saturday Night Fever was set in Bay Ridge, an Italian neighborhood in south Brooklyn. In the late 1980s Brooklyn achieved a new cultural prominence with the films of Spike Lee, whose She's Gotta Have It and Do The Right Thing were shot in Brooklyn neighborhoods. The 2005 film The Squid and the Whale, by Noah Baumbach, the son of novelist Jonathon Baumbach and Village Voice film critic Georgia Brown, examined the family life of the Park Slope intelligentsia.

The Brooklyn Museum, opened in 1897, is among the world's premier art institutions with a permanent collection that includes more than 1.5 million objects, from ancient Egyptian masterpieces to contemporary art. The Brooklyn Academy of Music (BAM), a complex including the 2,109-seat Howard Gilman Opera House, the 874-seat Harvey Lichtenstein Theater, and the art house BAM Rose Cinemas are notable venues. BAM is recognized internationally as a progressive cultural center well known for The Next Wave Festival, which began in 1983. Artists who have presented their works there include Philip Glass, Peter Brook, Laurie Anderson, Lee Breuer, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Steve Reich, Robert Wilson, Ingmar Bergman, The Whirling Dervishes and the Kirov Opera directed and conducted by Valery Gergiev among others.

Brooklyn has a rich African-American cultural history. The Weeksville Heritage Center in Bedford-Stuyvesant was an important 19th century free black community, whose residents established schools, churches and benevolent associations and were active in the abolitionist movement. The Heritage Center focuses on tours, arts and crafts, literacy and historical preservation programs. The Museum of Contemporary African Diasporan Arts (MoCADA) in Fort Greene presents work by contemporary black artists.

See also: Culture of New York City

[edit] Media

Brooklyn has three local newspapers, the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, the Brooklyn Paper and Courier-Life Publications. Courier-Life Publications is Brooklyn's largest chain of newspapers, with a weekly readership exceeding more than one million. Courier-Life publishes newspapers reaching every sector of the borough, in addition to its myriad supplements. Bay Currents is a bi-weekly newspaper published in south Brooklyn. The Brooklyn Rail is a glossy monthly magazine emphasizing arts and literary criticism and winner of the Utne Independent Press Award in 2002 and 2003 for Best Local/Regional Coverage. Brooklyn is also served by the major New York dailies, including The New York Times, The New York Daily News, and The New York Post.

Brooklyn has a thriving ethnic press. Major ethnic publications include the Brooklyn-Queens Catholic paper The Tablet, as well as several Hatian newspapers including The Haitian Times, Haiti Observateur, and Haiti Progress. Many nationally-distributed ethnic newspapers are based out of offices in Brooklyn. Over 60 ethnic groups, writing in 42 languages, publish some 300 non-English language magazines and newspapers in New York City.

The City of New York also has an official television station, run by the NYC Media Group, which features programming based in Brooklyn. There is also Brooklyn Cable Access Television, the borough's public access channel.

See also: Media of New York City

[edit] Tourism

Southern Brooklyn was once the premier resort destination for New York City. Coney Island developed as a playground for the rich in the early 1900s, when wealthy New Yorkers would bet on horses at the racetracks in Sheepshead Bay and Gravessend and dined at high class restaurants and seaside hotels. The introduction of the subway made Coney Island a vacation destination for the masses, and it evolved into one of America’s first amusement grounds. The Cyclone rollercoaster, built in 1927, is on the National Register of Historic Places. The 1920 Wonder Wheel and other rides are still operational. Coney Island went into decline in the 1950s, but is undergoing a renaissance. The annual Coney Island Mermaid Parade is a hipster costume-and-float parade which honored David Byrne, pre-punk music guru, as the head merman in 1998. Coney Island also hosts the annual Nathan's Hot Dog Eating Contest.

Green-Wood Cemetery, founded by the social reformer Henry Evelyn Pierrepoint in 1838, is both one of the most significant cemeteries in the United States and an expansive green space encompassing 478 acres of rolling hills and dales, several ponds, and a baroque chapel. Still in use, the cemetery is the burial ground of some of the most famous New Yorkers, including Albert Anastasia (1903-1957), mobster, "Lord High Executioner" for "Murder Inc."; Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960-1988), artist; Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990), composer; Laura Jean Libbey (1862-1924), best-selling "dime-store" novelist; Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872), inventor of the telegraph; Edward R. Murrow (1908-1965), journalist; Martha Bulloch Roosevelt (1834-1884), mother of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt; Margaret Sanger (1879-1966), birth control advocate; F.A.O. Schwarz (1836-1911), toy store founder; William M. "Boss" Tweed (1823-1878), notorious boss of the New York political machine.

The New York Transit Museum is a museum which displays historical artifacts of the New York City Subway and bus systems; it is located in the unused Court Street subway station in Brooklyn Heights. The Brooklyn Children's Museum was the world's first museum for children and has many exhibits on culture and zoology. The 52 acre (210,000 m²) Brooklyn Botanic Garden includes a cherry tree esplanade, a one acre (4,000 m²) rose garden, a Japanese hill and pond garden, a fragrance garden for the blind, a water lily pond esplanade, several conservatories, a rock garden, a native flora garden, a bonsai tree collection, and children's gardens and discovery exhibits. Brooklyn's rich African American history can be seen at the Weeksville Houses, where the first freed black community was formed in the early 1800s, and the Simmons African Arts Museum.

See also: Tourism in New York City

[edit] Sports

Main article: Sports in Brooklyn

Brooklyn has a storied sports history. It has been home to many famous sports figures such as Joe Paterno, Joe Pepitone, Joe Torre, Larry Brown, Mike Tyson, Vitas Gerulaitis, Paul Lo Duca, Michael Jordan and Vince Lombardi. Parks throughout the borough such as Prospect Park, Marine Park, and the community sports complex at Floyd Bennett Field provide residents an opportunity to practice and hone their sports skills and talents.

Brooklyn's most famous team, the Dodgers, played at Ebbets Field and was named for "trolley dodgers," a reference to the many streetcar lines that once criss-crossed the borough. The Dodgers most historic achievement came in 1947 when Jackie Robinson took the field in a Dodgers uniform, becoming the first Major League African American player of the modern era. In 1955, the Dodgers won the first and only World Series for Brooklyn against their rival, the New York Yankees. The event was marked by mass euphoria and celebrations all over Brooklyn. Just two years later, the Dodgers moved to Los Angeles, causing a widespread sense of betrayal.

After a 43-year hiatus, pro baseball returned to the borough in 2001 in the form of the Brooklyn Cyclones, a minor league team that began playing in Coney Island.

Developer Bruce Ratner announced in 2004 that he had purchased the New Jersey Nets basketball team. He hopes to move the Nets to a proposed 20,000-seat Brooklyn Nets Arena as part of a controversial housing and office development.

An American Basketball Association (ABA) expansion team was announced in 2005. The team, the Brooklyn Wonders will begin their 36-game season in November of 2006.

[edit] Transportation

Image:R143Int.JPG
A Brooklyn-bound train on the L</pre> subway service.

Brooklyn is well served by public transit. Many New York City Subway lines run through the borough, including the 2, 3, 4, 5, A, C, B, D, F, J, M, N, R, Q, L, and G (running from Brooklyn to Queens) trains. Lines intersect at Jay St/Boro Hall, Atlantic Avenue-Pacific St and DeKalb Avenue. The subway, which runs 24 hours a day 7 days per week, is the primary mode of travel for 92.8% of Brooklyn residents traveling to Manhattan.<ref>DOT Sees More Highways As Brooklyn's Road to Clean Air Daniel Convissor, Auto-Free Press, January/February 1992. Retrieved 4 November 2006. </ref>

The public bus network covers the entire borough. There is daily express bus service into Manhattan. New York's famous yellow cabs also provide transportation in Brooklyn, although they are less numerous in Brooklyn than in Manhattan. There are three commuter rail stations in Brooklyn, including East New York station, Nostrand Avenue station, and Atlantic Terminal, the terminus station of the Atlantic Avenue Branch of the Long Island Railroad. Atlantic Terminal is a major intermodal transit hub with several connecting subway lines.

Brooklyn is connected to Manhattan by the Williamsburg Bridge, Manhattan Bridge, Brooklyn Bridge and the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel. The Brooklyn-Queens Expressway runs from southern Brooklyn to Queens and is a portion of US Interstate 278. The portion of the highway running from the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel south to the Verrazano Narrows Bridge (which connects Brooklyn to Staten Island) is known as the Gowanus Expressway. Belt Parkway as its name implies runs around Brooklyn's South and Southeast Shores.

Historically Brooklyn's waterfront was a major shipping port, especially at the Brooklyn Army Terminal in Sunset Park. Most container ship cargo operations have shifted to the New Jersey side of New York Harbor, while the city has recently built a new cruise ship terminal in Red Hook that is to become a focal point for New York's growing cruise industry. The Queen Mary 2, the world's largest passenger ship, was designed specifically to fit under the Verrazano Bridge, itself the longest suspension bridge in the United States. The Queen Mary 2 makes regular ports of call at the Red Hook terminal on her transatlantic runs from Southampton, England.

See also: Transportation in New York City

[edit] Education

Image:Higgins.jpg
Higgins Hall at the Pratt Institute.

Education in Brooklyn is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are managed by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States. Private schools range from the elite Packer Collegiate Institute to religious schools run by Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn and Jewish organizations. The Satmar Jewish community of Brooklyn operates its own network of schools, which is the fourth largest school system in New York state.

Brooklyn College is a senior college of the City University of New York, and was the first public co-ed liberal arts college in New York City. The College ranked in the top 10 nationally for the second consecutive year in Princeton Review’s 2006 guidebook, America’s Best Value Colleges. Many of its students are first and second generation immigrants. Emblematic of its students’ potential is Eugene Shenderov, the son of Russian immigrants who received a 2005 Rhodes Scholarship before graduating from the College's B.A.-M.D. program in June 2005.

Brooklyn Law School was founded in 1901 and is notable for its diverse student body. Women and African Americans were enrolled in 1909. According to the Leiter Report, a compendium of law school rankings published by Brian Leiter, Brooklyn Law School places 31st nationally for quality of students.<ref>Leiter's Law School Rankings. [10]</ref>

SUNY Downstate Medical Center, originally founded as the Long Island College Hospital in 1860, is the oldest hospital-based medical school in the United States. The Medical Center is comprised of the College of Medicine, College of Health Related Professions, College of Nursing, University Hospital of Brooklyn, and the School of Graduate Studies, where Nobel Prize-winner Dr. Robert F. Furchgott is a member of the faculty. Half of the Medical Center's students are minorities or immigrants. The College of Medicine has the highest percentage of minority students of any medical school in New York State.

Long Island University is a private university in Downtown Brooklyn with 6,417 undergraduate students. In Clinton Hill, the Pratt Institute is one of the leading art schools in the United States and offers programs in art, architecture, fashion design, design, creative writing, library science, and other area disciplines.

As an independent system, separate from the New York City and Queens libraries, the Brooklyn Public Library offers thousands of public programs, millions of books, and use of more than 850 free Internet-accessible computers. It also has books and periodicals in all the major languages spoken in Brooklyn, including Chinese, Russian, Spanish, Hebrew, and Haitian Kreyol, as well as French, Yiddish, Hindi, Bengali, Polish, Italian, and Arabic. The Central Library is a landmarked building facing Grand Army Plaza and is undergoing extensive renovations and an underground expansion. There are 58 library branches, placing one within a half mile of each Brooklyn resident. There's a significant business library in Brooklyn Heights. The Library is preparing to construct the new Visual and Performing Arts Library, which will focus on the link between new and emerging arts and technology and house traditional and digital collections. It will provide access and training to arts applications and technologies not widely available to the public. The collections will include the subjects of art, theater, dance, music, film, photography and architecture. A special archive will house the records and history of Brooklyn's arts communities.

See also: Education in New York City

[edit] See also

[edit] References

<references />

[edit] External links

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