Learn more about Breakfast

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Part of the Meals series
Common meals...
Second breakfast
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Cuisine | Kitchen

Breakfast is the first meal of the day, preceding lunch or dinner and is eaten in the morning.

The English word derives from idea of breaking the involuntary fast of sleep, thus signifying the first meal eaten after awakening. It thus conveys the exact literal meaning of the Vulgar Latin word disjejunare which, however, evolved via the French déjeuner to become the English word lunch.


[edit] History

The erosion of breakfast has been an ongoing trend in the West since at least the early 20th century, coinciding with later waking times than when most Westerners had agricultural occupations. Today, hampered by busy morning schedules, many neglect breakfast or skip it entirely. This trend now exists in industrialized nations worldwide, where it is accompanied frequently by replacing local breakfast traditions with modern Western-style foods, often packaged or pre-made. Nevertheless, many nutritionists consider breakfast a very important meal, since it provides vital nourishment and energy for starting the day. Studies have indicated that children and adolescents who usually have breakfast generally consumed more daily calories than those who skip this meal and, yet, are less likely to be overweight1. A meal can be considered breakfast if it satisfies 2 of the following 3 criteria. 1. It is the first meal of the day. 2. It is eaten before noon on the calendar day. 3. The meal consists of standard breakfast style food (for lists of food, see below).

[edit] Typical breakfasts by world regions

[edit] China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong

Chinese breakfasts vary greatly between different regions. Except for Hong Kong, Western types of breakfasts or their derivatives are rarely enjoyed. In Northern China breakfast fares typically include huājuǎn, mántou (steamed breads), shāobǐng (unleavened pocket-bread with sesame), bāozi (steamed buns with meat or vegetable stuffing), with Dòunǎi or dòujiāng (soy milk) or tea served in Chinese style as beverages.

In Central and Eastern China, typified by Shanghai and the neighbouring Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Anhui provinces breakfast fares include some Northern as well as Southern dishes. Typically breakfast consists of xifan (a rice dumpling made by glutinous rice and yóutiáo (fried bread stick), salted jiacai (mustard greens), and dried pork mince as fillings), yóudoùfu fěnsī (a soup made by fried tofu and cellophane noodles), bāozi, plain rice congee/jook (zōu) served with numerous side dishes such as salted duck eggs, pickled vegetables, and century eggs, or sweetened or savoury soy milk served with shāobǐng or yóutiáo.

Image:Chinese rice congee.jpg
A typical rice congee/jook complete with dried minced pork. This is a popular breakfast fare in Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Fujian province on mainland China, and Taiwan

In Southeastern China such as Fujian province, breakfasts consist of rice congee/jook served with side dishes like pickled vegetables and century eggs.

In Southern China represented by Guangdong province breakfasts include rice congee/jook prepared to a thicker consistency than those sold in Shanghai and side dishes are not served. Congee is served with yóutiáo if it is plain. In many cases, however, congee is prepared with meats or dried vegetables such as beef slices, shredded salted pork and century eggs, fish, or slices of pig's liver and kidney and could be served with or without yóutiáo. Other breakfast fares include rice noodle rolls or cheong fun (served with Hoi sin sauce and soy sauce and, unlike the rice noddle rolls served in restaurants, without fillings), fried noodles (pan fried noodles with bean sprouts, spring onions, and soy sauce), fagao (rice cakes), jiānbǐng (thin pancakes, similar to crêpes), lúobogāo (turnip cakes) and zòngzi (another kind of rice cake). The dim sum breakfast, is a world in itself, and is often eaten as brunch at specialist restaurants.

In Taiwan, due to the influx of mainland Chinese in the aftermath of the Republic of China's retreat to Taiwan in 1949 after the end of the Chinese Civil War, breakfasts tend to be a mix of Northern and Eastern Chinese fares in addition to the traditional Southeastern Chinese fares. This is more pronounced in cities with high proportions of mainland Chinese descents like Taipei.

A typical Hong Kong cha chaan teng breakfast, including a cup of silk-sock milk tea, indicating the extent of Western influence on breakfasts enjoyed by Hong Kong Chinese

Traditional breakfasts in Hong Kong follow very similarly with those in Guangdong. But due to long periods of British colonial rule and the influx of substantial refugees from Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces and Shanghai with the end of Chinese Civil War in 1949, localized interpretations of English breakfast and Eastern Chinese breakfast fares are commonly found alongside Cantonese breakfasts. In a Hong Kong cha chaan teng breakfasts could consist of tea, coffee, or yin-yeung served with bread, ham, and fried eggs, and a bowl of macaroni soup with ham. This local interpretation of English breakfast is regarded in both mainland China and Taiwan as uniquely Hong Kong. In upper market restaurants or hotels, however, standard English and Continental breakfasts are served.

[edit] Rest of Asia

  • India. In South India, the most popular breakfast is an assortment with several possible main dishes, such as idlis, vadas, dosas and chapatis. These are most often served with hot sambar and at least one kind of chutney (usually coconut chutney). Breakfast is usually followed by a cup of tea or coffee, both made with milk and sugar. Pongal is a common breakfast item in Tamil Nadu, while uppittu or kharabath and kesaribath are the common items in Karnataka. The usual North Indian breakfast consists of stuffed paratha breads with fresh butter, curd and pickles. Popular accompaniments include sweets like jalebi, halwa, and sweetened milk. In Maharashtra, poha, Upma or shira (similar to kesaribath) is frequently eaten for breakfast. In urban areas, omlettes and simple butter sandwiches are becoming a popular breakfast food.
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A typical Japanese breakfast.
  • Japan. A traditional Japanese breakfast is based on rice, seafood, and fermented foods, which do not differ substantially from dishes eaten at other meals in Japanese cuisine. An exception is natto (a type of fermented soybeans), which is rarely eaten outside of breakfast. A typical Japanese restaurant breakfast presentation would be miso soup, rice with nori or other garnishes, natto, grilled fish, raw egg , and a pickled vegetable. Western breakfast foods may be eaten. However, the influence of Japanese travelers has made the traditional breakfast a standard option on the menus of many upscale hotels world-wide. It is common in Japanese households to include left-over items from the last evening's dinner in the next day's breakfast. Typical breakfast beverages are green tea (traditional) and coffee (modern).
  • Korea. In Korea, breakfast has historically not existed as a distinct concept. Traditionally, food eaten in the morning does not differ substantially from the other meals of the day (see Korean cuisine) though the number of dishes is fewer. Kimchi (a mixture of fermented vegetables) and rice are traditional staples of the morning meal. Today, however, people are more likely to eat Western-style breakfasts similar to those in the United States.
  • Malaysia and Singapore. In Malaysia and Singapore, breakfast sometimes consists of a popular Malay food called nasi lemak. Other food such as roti canai (known as roti prata in Singapore), kaya toast and wonton noodles are also among the favorites. In the East Coast, glutinous rice is eaten as breakfast.
  • Myanmar. In Myanmar, formerly (Burma), the traditional breakfast in town and country alike is htamin gyaw, fried rice with boiled peas (pè byoke) and yei nway gyan ( green tea) especially among the poor.
Glutinous rice or kao hnyin is a popular alternative, steamed wrapped in banana leaf often with peas as kao hnyin baung served with a sprinkle of crushed and salted toasted sesame. Equally popular is the black variety known as nga cheik cooked the same way and called nga cheik paung. Si damin is sticky rice cooked with turmeric and onions in peanut oil and served with crushed and salted toasted sesame and crispfried onions. Assorted fritters such as baya gyaw (urad dal) go with all of them.
Nan bya or naan (Indian-style flatbreads) again with pè byoke or simply buttered is served with Indian tea or coffee.
Fried chapati, blistered like nan bya but crispy, with pè byoke and crispy fried onions is a popular alternative.
E kya kway (Chinese-style fried breadsticks or youtiao) with Indian tea or coffee is another favourite.
Mohinga, perhaps the most popular of all, now available as an "all-day breakfast" in many towns and cities, is rice vermicelli in fish broth kept on the boil with chickpea flour and/or crushed toasted rice, lemon grass, sliced banana stem, onions, garlic, ginger, pepper and fish paste and served with crispy fried onions, crushed dried chilli, coriander, fish sauce and lime. Add fritters such as split chickpea (pè gyan gyaw), urad dal (baya gyaw) or gourd (bu gyaw), boiled egg and fried fish cake (nga hpè gyaw).
  • Pakistan. The traditional breakfast in Pakistan is a heavy meal called Halva Puri Cholay or Halva Puri for short which consists of two separate dishes of Halva, a sweet made from semolina and Aloo Cholay, a spicy chick-pea and potato curry eaten with Puri, a small circular deep-fried flat bread. This is accompanied by a cool drink of Lassi which is made from yougart can be both salty or sweet. The sweeter version is often topped with Malai (thick fresh cream). Breakfast is usually followed by Chai (black tea with milk). In cities and urban areas, eggs and toast with butter and jam are becoming a popular.
  • Philippines. A favourite traditional breakfast in the Philippines consists of garlic fried rice, fried or scrambled eggs, and a choice of breakfast meat: beef tapa (like a fried beef jerky), pork tocino (caramelised pork), longaniza (breakfast sausage), dried salty, smoked fish or sardines, lightly fried fish heads, sauteed corned beef, or crispy pork adobo, often with Western-style baked beans, sliced tomatoes and a local pickle (achara) on the side. Alternatively, a cheese-topped breakfast pastry called an ensaimada (a colonial relative of the Mallorcan ensaimada) is also eaten, usually with hot chocolate, as is pan de sal (Philippine breakfast roll) filled with a buffalo milk white cheese, and local barako coffee.

[edit] Australia

The typical breakfast of Australians strongly resembles breakfast in many Western countries. Owing to the warm weather in some parts of Australia, generally breakfast is light but in the cold parts can be a full English breakfast, the light consists of cereals, toast, fruit, and fruit juices rather than cooked items. Australians also enjoy a heavy breakfast with fried bacon, egg, mushroom, sausage, tomatoes and toast, with tea or coffee and juice (similar to the full English breakfast). Some other typical meals include pancakes, waffles, yoghurt, bagels and sometimes hash browns.

Australia has a popular spread called Vegemite that is routinely smeared on toast for breakfast. It is similar to a popular British spread called Marmite, but has very few followers outside of Australia and New Zealand other than expatriates.

[edit] New Zealand

The breakfast of the average New Zealander is derived from the British. In the summer time it would generally be a light meal, and in the winter time it would be a warm meal. Often New Zealanders will indulge in a full cooked breakfast (or brunch) on a Sunday morning. The light summer breakfast may include cereals, toast, fruit and juice. The warm winter breakfast could include porridge, Weetbix, coffee, tea or Milo.

Similar to their Australian friends, New Zealanders enjoy Vegemite smeared liberally on toasted Vogel's bread.

[edit] Europe

Continental breakfast

As a general trend, traditional breakfasts are less substantial and less elaborate in the warmer, more southern countries bordering the Mediterranean, while breakfasts are traditionally larger, with a greater variety of dishes and greater prevalence of hot dishes in the cooler northern- and central-European countries.

Hotels and other types of lodging in Europe typically include breakfast in their rates, and in many cases, especially in larger hotels, it is served as a buffet. Specific items will vary from country to country, depending on local breakfast tastes and habits. In Switzerland, for example, cold cuts (luncheon meats), cheese, yoghurt, prepared fruit, butter, croissants, breads, and rolls are served. Regardless of location, the standard requirements for a British breakfast (eggs, sausages, tomatoes (fresh grilled or canned), bacon) are also often a part of the buffet, and can be augmented by baked beans, a working class addition, and hash browns, a more recently acquired taste from the US.

[edit] Continental breakfast

An institutional meal plan based on lighter Mediterranean breakfast traditions and served in hotels world-wide is known as a European "Continental breakfast". It is a light snack meant to tide one over until lunch. It consists mainly of coffee and milk (often mixed as Cappuccino or latte) with a variety of sweet cakes such as brioche and pastries such as croissant, often with a sweet jam, cream, or chocolate filling. It is often served with juice. The continental breakfast may also include sliced cold meats, such as salami or ham, and yogurt or cereal.

[edit] The British Isles

Image:English Breakfast.jpg
English breakfast

Traditionally, inhabitants of the British Isles have enjoyed a substantial hot meal for breakfast, featuring eggs, bacon, and sausages, all washed down with tea or coffee. British imperial experience in India introduced kedgeree to the breakfast buffet in grander British households. Today this dish remains popular but is normally served later in the day rather than at breakfast.

Note that a full-on British breakfast can legitimately run to several courses and can include, as well as the signature fry-up, cereal, half-grapefruit, kippers, smoked haddock, porridge, rehydrated dried fruit such as prunes and figs, cheese,ham, toast, rolls, yoghurts, and fruit salad. Visitors are strongly advised to stoke up on the breakfast buffet: "The only way to eat well in England is to have breakfast three times a day." —W. Somerset Maugham

  • Scotland. A full Scottish Breakfast is egg, black pudding, fruit pudding, lorne slice (a kind of Scottish flat sausage), and ayrshire bacon (a special kind of sweet cured bacon). Potato scones can also be served with this breakfast. For simpler breakfasts, porridge is popular in Scotland.
Main article: Irish breakfast

[edit] France

[edit] Northern Europe

  • Belgium. A typical Belgian breakfast is like that of its southern neighbor, France. Belgians do not eat their famous food, Belgian waffles, which are traditionally sold in tourist areas of large cities there. The breakfast in Belgium consists of breads, toasted or untoasted, with several marmalades, jams, and nut spreads, such as nutella. To drink, the Belgians often enjoy coffee, hot chocolate, water, or fresh juice with breakfast.
  • Netherlands. A traditional Dutch breakfast consists of a combination of poached eggs, bacon (ontbijt spek), sausage (ontbijtworst), and breakfast cake (ontbijtkoek). Today those people who eat breakfast at all typically eat sliced bread with toppings such as cheese, a variety of cured meats, or something sweet like jam, the typically Dutch hagelslag (chocolate sprinkles), chocolade vlokken (chocolate flakes), Muisjes, peanut butter, syrup (from sugar beet or fruit), and honey. Rusks are also popular; breakfast cereals less so. Tea, dripolator coffee, milk, and juice are the most popular breakfast beverages.
  • Scandinavia. A typical breakfast in Denmark, similar to its southern neighbor Germany, consists of bread rolls or toast with butter and Danish skæreost (slicing cheese), a buttery creamy white cheese (often Danish havarti or Danish tilsit), fruit jam, and a lot of coffee. A bigger and fancier spread might also include cold cuts (cold, thin-sliced ham, rullepølse, salami), soft-boiled eggs, muesli and sweet rolls of all types. Special occasions are often celebrated with a shot of Gammel Dansk. Danish workers typically start their Friday mornings with "breakfast meetings".

Breakfasts in other parts of Scandinavia may be quite ample. Fish, cheese, eggs, bacon, hot and cold cereals, breads, potatoes, and fruits are all eaten in various combinations, along with juices, coffee and tea. Filmjölk (Sweden) or kulturmelk (Norway), a soured milk similar to buttermilk or yoghurt is often used on cereals. Whole-grain porridges are popular in Finland, also accompanied by this type of soured milk.

[edit] Central and eastern Europe

  • Germany. The typical German breakfast consists of bread rolls, butter, jam, ham, a soft-boiled egg, and coffee. However, cereals have become popular, and regional variation is significant — cheeses, cold cuts, meat spreads, yogurt, granola and fruit (fresh or stewed) may appear, as well as eggs cooked to order (usually at smaller hotels or bed-and-breakfasts). A second breakfast is traditional in parts of Germany, notably Bavaria.
  • Switzerland. Swiss breakfasts are often similar to those eaten in neighboring countries. A notable breakfast food of Swiss origin, now found throughout Europe, is muesli (Birchermüesli in Swiss German), introduced in 1900 by Maximilian Bircher-Benner for patients in his hospital.
  • Poland. The traditional Polish breakfast is a large spread with a variety of sides eaten with bread or toast. Sides include various cold cuts, meat spreads, the Polish sausage kielbasa, sardines, tomatoes, Swiss cheese, and sliced pickles. Twaróg, a Polish cheese, is the breakfast classic and comes in many forms. Twaróg can be eaten plain, with salt, sugar, or honey, or it can be mixed with sardines or chives into a cream cheese-like spread. Eggs are served often as the main breakfast item, mostly soft-boiled or scrambled. For a quick winter breakfast, hot oatmeal, to which cocoa is sometimes added, is often served. Jam spreads are popular for a quick breakfast, including plum, raspberry, and black or red currant spreads. Breakfast drinks include coffee, milk (some areas may serve fresh milk from the cow), hot cocoa, or tea. Traditionally, the Poles avoid heavy-cooked foods for breakfast. For the most part, one will not see fried meats or potatoes in a classic Polish breakfast. Emphasis is placed on a large variety of foods to satisfy everyone at the breakfast table.

In Eastern European countries with cold climates, such as Russia, breakfasts tend to be substantial. Zavtrak may consist of hot oatmeal or kasha, eggs, cheese, cured meats or sausage, rye breads with butter, and coffee or tea.

Yoghurt or, especially in central and eastern Europe, kefir may be consumed. In some Balkan countries such as Serbia, savory pastries known as burek are consumed with yogurt.

[edit] Southern Europe

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Typical italian breakfast.
  • Greece. Various kinds of pastry constitute the traditional Greek breakfast. Tyropita, spanakopita, and bougatsa (particularly in Northern Greece) are eaten, usually accompanied with Greek coffee. Simpler breakfasts include honey, marmelade or nutella cream (as well a Greek variation thereof, Merenda) spread over slices of bread. Children typically drink chocolate or plain milk.
  • Italy. The traditional breakfast in Italy is simply Caffè e latte (hot coffee with milk) with bread or rolls, butter, and jam — known as prima colazione or just colazione. Fette biscottate (a cookie-like hard bread) and biscotti (cookies) are commonly eaten. Children drink hot chocolate, plain milk, or hot milk with very little coffee. If breakfast is eaten in a bar (coffee shop), it is composed of cappuccino e brioche (frothed hot milk with coffee, and a pastry). It is very common for Italians to have a quick breakfast snack during the morning (typically a panino, or bread roll).
  • Spain. In Central Spain the traditional breakfast is chocolate con churroshot chocolate with Spanish-style fritters, which are extruded sticks of doughnut-like dough with a star-shaped profile covered in sugar. The chocolate drink is made very thick and sweet. In Madrid, churros are somewhat smaller and shaped like a charity ribbon. This meal is normally served in cafeterias. In the South and West is more common for breakfast to have a cup of coffee (usually with milk) and toasts with either olive oil and salt, or tomato, though sometimes butter and jam are used. The quicker breakfast replaces toasts with galletas (a type of cookies made with flour, sugar, oil and vanilla flavour), madalenas (a Spanish version of the French madeleines made with oil instead of butter) or buns.
  • Portugal. A Portuguese pequeno-almoço comes in two varieties: one eaten running to work and another, more time-consuming one, more common on the weekends. When rushed in the morning, a cup of yogurt, milk, coffee or both and some bread with butter, cheese or jam suffices. Given the time, additions include orange juice, croissants, different kinds of pastry, and/or cereal.

[edit] Latin America

Latin American breakfasts feature many items seen in North American and Continental European breakfasts in regional variations, according to their own culture.

In Northern South America, maize-based breads, such as tortillas or arepas, may dominate or be augmented with wheat breads or pastries. Caffè, Caffè e latte, chocolate, and tea are common beverages.

In Brazil, "café da manhã" (morning coffee in Portuguese) typically consists of a cup of coffee (often with milk), toast, jam, butter. Most Brazilians see it as a light meal, with lunch being the main meal.

In Argentina, breakfast consists mainly of espresso coffee, café con leche, or yerba mate. There are also croissants, brioches, or facturas with dulce de leche, filled churros, french bread with jam and butter, grilled sandwiches of ham and cheese known as tostados, and sweet or salted cookies.

In the past, when Mexico's population was predominantly rural and agricultural, breakfast tradition included a light desayuno of hot beverages and breads at dawn and a heavier almuerzo mid-morning, with egg dishes such as huevos rancheros, meats, beans, tortillas, pastries, and fruits. Today, almuerzo generally means "lunch," and the Mexican breakfast may be the lighter or heavier version, depending on the person or occasion. Menudo, a tripe stew considered a folk remedy for a hangover, has become a breakfast dish as well as one eaten at other meals.

In Colombia there are various breakfast staples. In the Cundinamarca region people eat changua, a milk, scallion, and cheese soup. In the Tolima region, a Tamal Tolimense is eaten in the company of hot chocolate and arepas.

[edit] Middle East

In most Arab areas, the most popular breakfast by far is pita bread dipped in rich labneh, a type of creamy curd, or in olive oil and za'atar (a common Middle-Eastern spice mix). Other popular breakfast foods in the Mashriq include boiled eggs, olives, cheese and beans.

In Egypt the traditional breakfast is ful medames: slow cooked fava beans (sometimes with lentils) dressed in olive oil, lemon juice and garlic.

An Israeli breakfast typically consists of nothing more than some coffee (usually instant or turkish coffee) and some small cookies or slices of cake. A fuller breakfast might include fried or hard-boiled eggs, cottage cheese, quark cheese, fresh bread, and Israeli salad. Hotels with continental breakfasts, in addition to the aforemention items, will usually serve many different kinds of fish and yogurts, as well as a egg and spicy tomato dish known as shakshuka.

[edit] United States and Canada

A typical restaurant breakfast plate: pancakes, scrambled eggs, and bacon with fruit garnish

[edit] Traditional

Traditional breakfasts in the United States and Canada derive from the full English breakfast and feature predominantly sweet or mild-flavored foods, mostly hot. Typical items include cold breakfast cereals, hot oatmeal porridge, grits, other hot grain porridges, eggs, bacon, ham, small sausages, pan-fried potatoes (hash browns), biscuits, toast, pancakes, waffles, French toast, cornbread, English muffins, bagels (often with cream cheese), pastries (such as croissants, doughnuts, and muffins), yogurt (often sweetened and flavored), and fruit. Orange juice is a standard breakfast beverage, along with coffee, tea, milk, and other fruit juices (grapefruit, tomato, etc). Vegetables are notably rare on traditional menus.

Many regions of the U.S.A. have local breakfast specialties that are less popular nationally. In the South, biscuits served with country-style gravy and grits are one traditional breakfast menu; the Southwest has huevos rancheros; scrapple is a favorite in the Mid-Atlantic states; pork roll is rarely available outside New Jersey and Philadelphia; and New Englanders still occasionally indulge in fried salt-pork, and pie. Specialty sausages also vary in popularity regionally, such as linguiça in Hawaii and southern New England, andouille in Louisiana, chorizo in the Southwest, et cetera.

Some regions of Canada especially Quebec, New Brunswick and Parts of Eastern Ontario will commonly include maple syrup with the fried eggs, and bacon, ham or sausage.

[edit] Contemporary

Image:Quick breakfast.jpg
Many contemporary breakfasts focus on convenience and quick preparation.

Today, most Americans and Canadians eat a reduced breakfast most days, but may still enjoy a traditional hearty breakfast on weekends, holidays, and vacations.

A worker's breakfast often consists only of coffee and prepared food purchased on the way to work or brought from home, eaten during the morning commute or at the workplace just before clocking in. Food items that fit this eat-on-the-go strategy include various sweet breakfast breads and pastries, sweetened flavored yoghurt cups, fresh fruit, granola or "energy" bars, Hot Pockets, toaster pastries such as Pop-Tarts, and instant oatmeal. Leftovers from the previous day's meals may also be eaten.

Caffeinated carbonated beverages are occasionally substituted for the traditional coffee or hot tea.

A typical contemporary combination of food for a hearty breakfast consists of eggs (fried or scrambled), one type of meat, and one or two starchy dishes; commonly hash browns and toast. A more basic breakfast combination would be a starchy food (such as toast, pastry, cereal, porridge, or pancakes) either alone or served with fruit and yogurt. This second option, similar to the Continental breakfasts served in Europe, is especially common in institutional situations where serving hot food is difficult, expensive, or impractical.

Eggs are strongly associated with breakfast, to the extent that many Americans and Canadians consider egg dishes out-of-place later in the day. Many fast-food restaurants sell breakfast versions of their typical offerings that include eggs and are usually sweeter and less spicy. Examples of such breakfasts-to-go are: egg-filled sandwiches of croissants (a "croissanwich") or muffins; hamburgers without the usual vegetable garnishes; and breakfast burritos or tacos filled with eggs and cheese, optionally with other additions like meat or beans. Variations on the Mexican dish huevos rancheros are also popular as a breakfast in the United States.

An assemblage commonly known as a country breakfast in the western half of the United States consists of eggs or omelette, sausage or bacon, hash browns, sausage gravy, coffee, toast with jam or jelly, and fruit juice.

There are several fast-food and casual-dining chains in North America that specialize in breakfast foods, such as pancakes and country breakfast, and offer these all day long.

The modern options typical of the U.S.A. and Canada are representative of Western-style breakfasts that have become common worldwide, especially in industrialized nations.

[edit] Etymological information

English: 1463, from break (v.) + fast (n.). Cf. Fr. déjeuner "to breakfast," from L. dis-jejunare "to break the fast." The verb is from 1679.

The English name derives from the concept that one has not eaten while sleeping, i.e., one is fasting during that time, and one breaks that fast with the meal. The meaning is therefore the same as the French déjeuner or petit déjeuner, the Spanish desayuno, and the Arabic فطـور (futūr). (The related word إفطار (iftār) refers not to the morning meal, but rather to the breaking of the fast in the evening, during Ramadan -- See Special Occasions below.) The German Frühstück, the Danish morgenmad, the Esperanto matenmanĝo, the Japanese asagohan(朝飯) or choushoku (朝食), the Chinese zao can (早餐), and the Hebrew aruchat boker (ארוחת בוקר) mean "morning meal."

The Portuguese pequeno almoço, meaning "little lunch", like its eastern neighbors, France and Spain. In Brazil, breakfast is café da manhã, the "coffee of the morning".

[edit] Drinks

As the preceding regional descriptions show, beverage choices at breakfast are fairly uniform worldwide, comprising

Cultures around the world commonly shun or restrict alcoholic beverages at breakfast. Notable exceptions would be the Mimosa cocktail: champagne and orange juice; and the Bloody Mary cocktail: vodka and tomato juice. While a Mimosa is normally served at brunch, and rarely consumed before 10:00 in the morning at breakfast proper, the Bloody Mary is almost exclusively a morning cocktail, frequently consumed at breakfast by those suffering from hangovers.

[edit] Catering

Some restaurants devote themselves to breakfast or have special breakfast menus. The field is dominated on one hand by greasy spoons, diners, cafés, cafeterias, and fast food places, and on the other hand by hotels. However, some breakfast places resemble standard restaurants in procedure, selection, and price.

[edit] Special occasions

Breakfast is occasionally served as an entertainment meal. More popular than breakfast in this regard, however, is brunch.

The serving of a pancake breakfast is traditional on Pancake Day (Shrove Tuesday), and some celebrate a festive breakfast on Christmas morning.

During Ramadan, Muslims describe the meal after sunset that "breaks the fast" as Iftar.

[edit] See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

[edit] References

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Rampersaud G.C., Pereira M.A., Girard B.L., Adams J. and Metzl J.D.; Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., May;105(5):743-60, 2005. Abstract in PubMed

[edit] External links

de:Frühstück es:Desayuno eo:Matenmanĝo fr:Petit déjeuner id:Sarapan he:ארוחת בוקר nl:Ontbijt ja:朝食 no:Frokost nds:Fröhstück pl:Śniadanie pt:Desjejum ru:Завтрак simple:Breakfast fi:Aamiainen sv:Frukost th:อาหารเช้า zh:早餐


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