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Professional boxing bout featuring Ricardo Domínguez (left) versus Rafael Ortíz

Boxing, also called Western Boxing, pugilism, prizefighting (when referring to professional boxing) or the sweet science (a common nickname among fans), is a sport and martial art in which two participants of similar weight fight each other with their fists in a series of one to three-minute intervals called "rounds". In both Olympic and professional divisions, the combatants (called boxers or fighters) avoid their opponent's punches while trying to land punches of their own. Points are awarded for clean, solid blows to the legal area on the front of the opponent's body above the waistline, with hits to the head and torso being especially valuable. The fighter with the most points after the scheduled number of rounds is declared the winner. Victory may also be achieved if the opponent is knocked down and unable to get up before the referee counts to ten (a Knockout, or KO) or if the opponent is deemed too injured to continue (a Technical Knockout, or TKO). For record-keeping purposes, a TKO is usually counted as a knockout when calculating the total knockouts.


[edit] Origins

Image:NAMA Akrotiri 2.jpg
Youths boxing in a Minoan fresco on the Greek island of Santorini

Archaeological evidence suggests boxing existed in North Africa as early as 4000 BC[citation needed] and had developed in the Mediterranean by 1500 BC.

A mythical Greek ruler named Theseus, said to have lived around the 9th century BC, allegedly invented a form of boxing in which two men seated face to face, would beat each other with their fists until one of them was killed. In time, the boxers began to fight while standing and wear gloves (with spikes) and wrappings on their arms below the elbows, although otherwise they were competed naked.

First accepted as an Olympic sport (the ancient Greeks called it Pygme/ Pygmachia) in 688 BC, participants trained on punching bags (called a korykos). Fighters wore leather straps (called himantes) over their hands, wrists, and sometimes breast, to protect them from injury. The straps left their fingers free.

Forms of boxing are mentioned in early Buddhist sources. In the Lotus Sutra (Chapter 14), Gautama Buddha (563-483 BC) refers to pugilists while speaking to Manjusri. The Lotus Sutra also refers to another boxing martial art called nara. Another early Buddhist sutra Hongyo-kyo describes a boxing contest between Gautama Buddha's half-brother Prince Nanda and his cousin Devadatta.<ref name=Haines>Bruce A. Haines (1995). Karate's History and Traditions (p. 23-25). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-1947-5.</ref> The boxing martial art of Vajra Mushti was described in the Buddharata Sutra, written in the 5th century,<ref>Cezar Borkowski (1998). Complete Idiot's Guide to Martial Arts.</ref> though the art can be traced back to the early Hindu Kshatriya caste.<ref name=Haines/>

In ancient Rome, fighters were usually criminals and slaves who hoped to become champions and gain their freedom; however, free men also fought. Eventually, fist fighting became so popular that even aristocrats started fighting, but the practice was eventually banned by the caesar Augustus. In 500 A.D., the sport was banned altogether by christian Theodoric the Great. <ref>BBC. The origins of Boxing, BBC History [1]</ref>

[edit] London Prize Ring rules (1743)

The beginnings of the modern right cross demonstrated in Edmund Price's The Science of Self Defense: A Treatise on Sparring and Wrestling, 1867

Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Roman Empire. However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. The sport would later resurface in England during the early 18th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting. The first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, and the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719.<ref>James B. Roberts and Alexander G. Skutt (1999). James Figg, IBOHF [2]</ref> This is also the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used.

Early bare-knuckle fighting was crude with no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, and no referee. Modern rules banning kicking, gouging, grappling, biting, headbutting, fish-hooking and blows below the belt were absent.

The first boxing rules, called the London Prize Ring rules, were introduced by heavyweight champion Jack Broughton in 1743 to protect fighters in the ring where deaths sometimes occurred.<ref>John Rennie (2006) East London Prize Ring Rules 1743[3]</ref> Under these rules, if a man went down and could not continue after a count of 30 seconds, the fight was over. Hitting a downed fighter and grasping below the waist were prohibited. Broughton also invented, and encouraged the use of "mufflers" a form of padded gloves, which were used in training and exhibitions.

Although bare-knuckle fighting was in almost every aspect far more brutal than modern boxing, it did allow the fighters a single advantage not enjoyed by today's boxers: The London Prize Rules permitted the fighter to drop to one knee to begin a 30-second count at any time. Thus a fighter realizing he was in trouble had an opportunity to recover. Intentionally going down in modern boxing will cause the recovering fighter to lose points in the scoring system.

In 1838, the London Prize Ring rules were expanded in detail. Later revised in 1853, they stipulated the following:<ref> Clay Moyle and Arly Allen (2006), 1838 Prize Rules[4]</ref>

  • Fights occurred in a 24-foot-square ring surrounded by ropes.
  • If a fighter was knocked down, he had to rise within 30 seconds under his own power to be allowed to continue.
  • Biting, headbutting and hitting below the belt were declared fouls.

[edit] Marquess of Queensberry rules (1867)

In 1867, the Marquess of Queensberry rules were drafted by John Chambers for amateur championships held at Lillie Bridge in London for Lightweights, Middleweights and Heavyweights. The rules were published under the patronage of the Marquess of Queensberry, whose name has always been associated with them.

There were twelve rules in all, and they specified that fights should be "a fair stand-up boxing match" in a 24-foot-square ring. Rounds were three minutes long with one minute rest intervals between rounds. Each fighter was given a ten-second count if he was knocked down and wrestling was banned.

The introduction of gloves of "fair-size" also changed the nature of the bouts. An average pair of boxing gloves resembles a bloated pair of mittens and are laced up around the wrists. Gloves protected the hands of both fighters but their considerable size and weight made knock-out victories more difficult to achieve.<ref>Encyclopedia Britannica (2006). Queensbury Rules, Britannica[5]</ref> As a result, bouts became longer and more strategic with greater importance attached to defensive maneuvers such as slipping, bobbing, countering and angling.

The English case of R v. Coney in 1882 found that a bare-knuckle fight was an assault occasioning actual bodily harm, despite the consent of the participants. This marked the end of widespread public bare-knuckle contests in England.

The first world heavyweight champion under the Queensberry Rules was "Gentleman Jim" Corbett, who defeated John L. Sullivan in 1892 at the Pelican Athletic Club in New Orleans.<ref>Tracy Callis (2006). James Corbett, [6]</ref>

With the gradual acceptance of formalised rules, two distinct branches of boxing emerged; Professional and Olympic. The boxing rules enforced by governing bodies worldwide today at the local, national and international level are all derived in some way from the Marquess of Queensberry Rules.

[edit] Olympic boxing

Headgear is mandatory in Olympic boxing
Main article: Amateur boxing

Olympic (or Amateur) boxing is found at the Olympic Games and Commonwealth Games. Olympic boxing has point scoring system rather than physical damage or knockouts. Bouts comprise of four rounds of two minutes in Olympic and Commonwealth, and three rounds of two minutes in a national ABA (Amateur Boxing association) bout, each with a one-minute interval between rounds, but more recently the rounds are decided by the coaches and the timing is dependant on the age group.

Competitors wear protective headgear and gloves with a white strip across the knuckle. A punch is considered a scoring punch only when the boxers connect with the white portion of the gloves. Each punch that lands on the head or torso is awarded a point. A referee monitors the fight to ensure that competitors use only legal blows (a belt worn over the torso represents the lower limit of punches - any boxer repeatedly landing "low blows" (below the belt) is disqualified). Referees also ensure that the boxers don't use holding tactics to prevent the opponent from swinging (if this occurs, the referee separates the opponents and orders them to continue boxing. Repeated holding can result in a boxer being penalized, or ultimately, disqualified). Referees will stop the bout if a boxer is seriously injured, if one boxer is significantly dominating the other or if the score is severely imbalanced.<ref>Andrew Eisele (2005). Olympic Boxing Rules, [7]</ref>

[edit] Women's boxing

Main article: Women's boxing

Women's boxing first appeared in the Olympic Games at a demonstration bout in 1904. For most of the 20th century, however, it was banned in most nations. Its revival was pioneered by the Swedish Amateur Boxing Association, which sanctioned events for women in 1988. The British Amateur Boxing Association sanctioned its first boxing competition for women in 1997. The first event was to be between two thirteen-year-olds, but one of the boxers withdrew because of hostile media attention. Four weeks later, an event was held between two sixteen-year-olds. The A.I.B.A. accepted new rules for Women's Boxing at the end of the 20th century and approved the first European Cup for Women in 1999 and the first World Championship for women in 2001. Women's boxing will not be at the 2008 Olympics, and it is very unlikely to become an official Olympic sport at the 2012 Olympics.<ref>Andrew Eisele (2006). Women's Boxing, [8]</ref> Although women fought professionally in many countries, in the United Kingdom the B.B.B.B.B.B.C. refused to issue licences to women until 1998. By the end of the century, however, they had issued five such licenses. The first sanctioned bout between women was in November 1998 at Streatham in London, between Jane Crouch and Simona Lukic.

[edit] Professional boxing

Professional bouts are far longer than Olympic bouts (ranging from four to twelve rounds, however there are some two or three round bouts [9] [10] [11], the championship limit of 12 rounds has existed since the late 1980's when it was shortened from 15 rounds in an effort to increase fighter safety), headgear is not permitted, and boxers are generally allowed to take much more punishment before a fight is halted. At any time, however, the referee may stop the contest if he believes that one participant cannot intelligently defend him or herself due to injury. In that case, the other participant is awarded a technical knockout win, which appears on the boxer's record as a knockout win (or loss). A technical knockout would also be awarded if a fighter lands a punch that opens a cut on the opponent, and the opponent is later deemed not fit to continue by a doctor because of the cut. For this reason, fighters often employ cutmen, whose job is to treat cuts between rounds so that the boxer is able to continue despite the cut. If a boxer simply quits fighting, or if his corner stops the fight, then the winning boxer is also awarded a technical knockout victory. In contrast with amateur boxing, professional male boxers have to be bare chested<ref>Bert Randolph Sugar (2001). "Boxing," World Book Online Americas Edition[12]</ref>

Mike Tyson on the cover of Time Magazine in 1988.

[edit] Development of professional boxing

In 1891, the National Sporting Club (N.S.C.), a private club in London, began to promote professional glove fights at its own premises, and created nine of its own rules to augment the Queensberry Rules. These rules specified more accurately the role of the officials, and produced a system of scoring that enabled the referee to decide the result of a fight. The British Boxing Board of Control (B.B.B.C.) was first formed in 1919 with close links to the N.S.C., and was re-formed in 1929 after the N.S.C. closed.<ref>Evolution of Boxing,[13]</ref>

In 1909, the first of twenty-two belts were presented by the fifth Earl of Lonsdale to the winner of a British title fight held at the N.S.C. In 1929, the B.B.B.C. continued to award Lonsdale belts to any British boxer who won three title fights in the same weight division. The "title fight" has always been the focal point in professional boxing. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, however, there were title fights at each weight. Promoters who could stage profitable title fights became influential in the sport, as did boxers' managers. The best promoters and managers have been instrumental in bringing boxing to new audiences and provoking media and public interest. The most famous of all two-way partnership (fighter-manager-promoter) was that of Jack Dempsey (Heavyweight Champion, 1919-1926), and the promoter Tex Rickard. Together they grossed US$ 8.4 million in only five fights between 1921 and 1927 and ushered in a "golden age" of popularity for professional boxing in the 1920s.<ref>Jack Dempsey Profile,[14]</ref> They were also responsible for the first live radio broadcast of a title fight (Dempsey v. Georges Carpentier, in 1921). In the United Kingdom, Jack Solomons' success as a fight promoter helped re-establish professional boxing after the Second World War and made the UK a popular place for title fights in the 1950s and 1960s.

In the first part of the 20th century, the U.S.A. became the centre for professional boxing. It was generally accepted that the "world champions" were those listed by the Police Gazette.<ref>Britannica. Police Gazette, Britannicaonline Online[15]</ref> After 1920, the National Boxing Association (N.B.A.) began to sanction "title fights".<ref>Angel M. Bastidas. WBA History, [16]</ref> Also during that time, Ring Magazine was founded, and it listed champions and awarded championship belts. The N.B.A. was renamed in 1962 and became the World Boxing Association (W.B.A.). The following year, a rival body, the World Boxing Council (W.B.C.), was formed.<ref>Piero Pini and Professor Ramón G. Velásquez (2006). History & Founding Fathers WBCboxing[17]</ref> In 1983, another world body, the International Boxing Federation (I.B.F.) was formed. By the end of the 20th century, a boxer had to be recognized by the three separate bodies to be the "Undisputed World Champion". Regional sanctioning bodies such as the North American Boxing Federation, the North American Boxing Council and the United States Boxing Association also awarded championships. Ring Magazine also continued listing the World Champion of each weight division, and its rankings continue being of the most appreciated by fans.

[edit] Boxing styles

There are three generally accepted boxing styles that are used to define fighters. They are the in-fighter, the out-fighter and the brawler.

[edit] Inside-fighter

In-fighters are often considered the most exciting boxers to watch (Philly-Shell). This style favours closing inside an opponent, overwhelming them with intensity and flurries of hooks and uppercuts. They tend to be agile on their feet which can make them difficult to evade for a slower fighter. A great example of a classic inside-fighter is Light-Heavyweight Jalen Banks. Jalen has a classic bob-and-weave style which opens up into three and five punch combinations.

[edit] Outside-fighter

Out-fighters (also known as an "out-boxer" or "boxer") are the opposite of the in-fighter. Where the in-fighter tries to close the gap between himself and his opponent, the out-fighter seeks to maintain that gap and fight with faster, longer range punches. Since they rely on the weaker jabs and straights (as opposed to hooks and uppercuts), they tend to win by points decisions rather than by knockout, although some out-fighters have notable knockout records. They attempt to control the fight by using their jab to keep their opponent at range, and using their strong footwork to evade any opponent that closes in. In fact, outside fighters are known for being extremely quick on their feet, which often makes up for their relative lack of power. Out-fighters are often regarded as the best boxers on account of their desire to win a fight by wearing an opponent down and outclassing an opponent by strategy, rather than simply knocking him (or her) out. A great example is Sugar Ray Leonard.

[edit] Brawler

If the out-fighter represents everything classy about boxing, the brawler (also known as the 'slugger', 'hard hitter' or 'one puncher') often stands for everything that's brutal and dirty in the sport. Sluggers tend to lack finesse in the ring, but make up for it in raw power, often able to knock almost any opponent out with a single punch. This ability makes them exciting to watch, and their fights unpredictable. Many brawlers tend to lack mobility in the ring and have difficulty pursuing fighters who are fast on their feet. They prefer the harder, slower punches (such as hooks and uppercuts) and tend to ignore combination punching. Their slowness and predictable punching patterns (single punches with obvious leads) often leaves them open for counterpunching. A good example of a Brawler is Rocky Marciano.

[edit] Hybrid boxers

These styles are merely archetypes that many boxers fall into. However, some notable fighters transcend any one category. Mike Tyson, although known primarily as a brawler, was a very intense in-fighter in the first half of his career. He had the strength of a brawler, but the combinations, agility and ferocity of an in-fighter, which earned him his devastating reputation.

[edit] Swarmer

A less common style of boxing, the swarmer is a boxer who attempts to overwhelm his opponent by applying constant pressure. Swarmers tend to have a very good bob and weave, good power, a good chin, and a tremendous punch output. Boxers who use the swarmer style tend to have shorter careers than those who don't because the amount of punishment taken while trying to get past opponents guard is very high.

[edit] Rock, Paper, Scissors

There is a commonly accepted theory about the success each of these boxing styles has against the others. This is merely a theory and it has been disproven several times, although it serves as a decent guide. The general rule is similar to the game Rock, Paper, Scissors - each boxing style has advantages over one, but disadvantages against the other. A famous cliché amongst boxing fans and writers is "styles make fights"

[edit] Technique

The modern boxing stance is a reflection of the current system of rules employed by professional boxing. It differs in many ways from the typical boxing stances of the 19th and early 20th centuries. It's been stated that Americans adopted a more upright vertical armed guard (as opposed to more horizontally held, knuckles facing the ground guard as seen when looking at early 20th century boxers such as Jack Johnson) due to the Americans' confrontations with the Filipino natives as a result of the Philippines Spanish-American War[citation needed]. When engaged in hand to hand combat, the Filipinos would slash the wrists of the American soldiers, the Americans adapted by changing the guarded stance and thus just one example of a boxing technicality evolving.

Modern Boxing Techniques

The following stance applies for a right-handed boxer. The boxer stands with the legs shoulder-width apart with the right foot a half-step behind the left foot. The left (lead) fist is held vertically about six inches in front of the face at eye level. The right (rear) fist is held beside the chin and the elbow tucked against the ribcage to protect the body. The chin is tucked into the chest to avoid punches to the jaw which commonly cause knock-outs. Modern boxers can sometimes be seen "tapping" their cheeks or foreheads with their fists in order to remind themselves to keep their hands up (which becomes difficult during long bouts). Modern boxers are taught to "push off" with their feet in order to move effectively. Forward motion involves lifting the lead leg and pushing with the rear leg. Rearward motion involves lifting the rear leg and pushing with the lead leg. During lateral motion the leg in the direction of the movement moves first while the opposite leg provides the force needed to move the body.

[edit] Punches

There are four basic punches in boxing: the Jab, Cross, Hook and Uppercut. If a boxer is right-handed, his left hand is the lead hand, his right hand is the rear hand. The following techniques apply to a right-handed boxer. A right-handed boxer's handedness is commonly described as orthodox. A left-handed boxer is called an unorthodox boxer or a Southpaw.

  • Jab - A quick, straight punch thrown with the lead hand from the guard position. The jab is accompanied by a small, clockwise rotation of the torso and hips, while the fist rotates 90 degrees, becoming horizontal upon impact. As the punch reaches full extension, the lead shoulder is brought up to guard the chin. The rear hand remains next to the face to guard the jaw. After making contact with the target, the lead hand is retracted quickly to resume a guard position in front of the face. The jab is the most important punch in a boxer's arsenal because it provides a fair amount of its own cover and it leaves the least amount of space for a counterpunch from the opponent. It has the longest reach of any punch and does not require commitment or large weight transfers. Due to its relatively weak power, the jab is often used as a tool to gauge distances, probe an opponent's defenses, and set up heavier, more powerful punches. A half-step may be added, moving the entire body into the punch, for additional power.
  • Cross - A powerful straight punch thrown with the rear hand. From the guard position, the rear hand is thrown from the chin, crossing the body and traveling towards the target in a straight line. The rear shoulder is thrust forward and finishes just touching the outside of the chin. At the same time, the lead hand is retracted and tucked against the face to protect the inside of the chin. For additional power, the torso and hips are rotated counter-clockwise as the cross is thrown. Weight is also transferred from the rear foot to the lead foot, resulting in the rear heel turning outwards as it acts as a fulcrum for the transfer of weight. Body rotation and the sudden weight transfer is what gives the cross its power. Like the jab, a half-step forward may be added. After the cross is thrown, the hand is retracted quickly and the guard position resumed. It can be used to counterpunch a jab, aiming for the opponent's head (or a counter to a cross aimed at the body) or to set up a hook. The cross can also follow a jab, creating the classic "one-two combo." The cross is also called a "straight" or "right."
  • Hook - A semi-circular punch thrown with the lead hand to the side of the opponent's head. From the guard position, the elbow is drawn back with a horizontal fist (knuckles pointing forward) and the elbow bent. The rear hand is tucked firmly against the jaw to protect the chin. The torso and hips are rotated clockwise, propelling the fist through a tight, clockwise arc across the front of the body and connecting with the target. At the same time, the lead foot pivots clockwise, turning the left heel outwards. Upon contact, the hook's circular path ends abruptly and the lead hand is pulled quickly back into the guard position. A hook may also target the lower body (the classic Mexican hook to the liver) and this technique is sometimes called the "rip" to distinguish it from the conventional hook to the head. The hook may also be thrown with the rear hand.
  • Uppercut - A vertical, rising punch thrown with the rear hand. From the guard position, the torso shifts slightly to the right, the rear hand drops below the level of the opponent's chest and the knees are bent slightly. From this position, the rear hand is thrust upwards in a rising arc towards the opponent's chin or torso. At the same time, the knees push upwards quickly and the torso and hips rotate counter-clockwise and the rear heel turns outward, mimicking the body movement of the cross. The strategic utility of the uppercut depends on its ability to "lift" the opponent's body, setting it off-balance for successive attacks. The right uppercut followed by a left hook is a devastating combination.

These different punching types can be combined to form 'combos', like a jab and cross combo. Nicknamed the one two combo, it is a really effective combination because the jab blinds the opponent and the cross is powerful enough to knock the opponent out.<ref>Leo Cardenas (2006). Video Instruction of How to Throw a Jab Cross Combo[18]</ref>

[edit] Defense

  • Slip - Slipping rotates the body slightly so that an incoming punch passes harmlessly next to the head.
  • Bob and Weave - Bobbing moves the head laterally and beneath an incoming punch. As the opponent's punch arrives, the boxer bends the legs quickly and simultaneously shifts the body either slightly right or left. Once the punch has been evaded, the boxer "weaves" back to an upright position, emerging on either the outside or inside of the opponent's still-extended arm. To move outside the opponent's extended arm is called "bobbing to the outside". To move inside the opponent's extended arm is called "bobbing to the inside".
  • Parry/Block - Parrying or blocking uses the boxer's hands as defensive tools to deflect incoming attacks. As the opponent's punch arrives, the boxer delivers a sharp, lateral, open-handed blow to the opponent's wrist or forearm, redirecting the punch.
  • The Cover-Up - Covering up is the last opportunity to avoid an incoming strike to an unprotected face or body. Generally speaking, the hands are held high to protect the head and chin and the forearms are tucked against the torso to impede body shots. When protecting the body, the boxer rotates the hips and lets incoming punches "roll" off the guard. To protect the head, the boxer presses both fists against the front of the face with the forearms parallel and facing outwards. This type of guard is weak against attacks from below.
  • The Clinch - Clinching is a rough form of grappling that occurs when the distance between both fighters has closed and straight punches cannot be employed. In this situation, the boxer attempts to hold or "tie up" the opponent's hands so he is unable to throw hooks or uppercuts. Boxers experienced in using clinching will NOT loop their arms around their opponents torso but it will instead thrust them inside their opponents guard so their arms are hooked under their armpits making it look like their opponent has initiated the clinch while staying in control and being able to reposition the opposing boxer at will. Variations include locking out one of the opponents arms applying pressure which can distract the opponent and in extreme cases damage the locked elbow joint, also leaving the boxer open to uppercuts on the inside.Boxers will only literally grab hold of their opponent in times when they are severely rocked and even then will quickly attempt to gain an inside hold. One of the key differences between Pro and Amateur is that clinching and inside work such as this are considered as valid tactics (among boxers) and there is much more leniency given towards them by the referee in Professional Boxing

[edit] In the ring

Boxers generally attempt to land short, fast combinations and then quickly shift position to avoid a possible response by their opponent. Strategically, the ring's centre is a desired position since a boxer is able to conserve movement by forcing the opponent to circle around them. When in the centre, the boxer is also less likely to be knocked backwards against the ropes surrounding the ring and cornered.

[edit] Equipment

Image:Wiki letter w.svg Please expand this article.
Further information might be found in a section of the talk page or at Requests for expansion.

Boxing techniques utilize very forceful strikes with the hand. There are many bones in the hand, and striking surfaces without proper technique can cause serious hand injuries. Today, most trainers do not allow boxers to train and spar without hand/wrist wraps and gloves. Handwraps are used to secure the bones in the hand, and the gloves are used to protect the hands from blunt injury, allowing boxers to throw punches with more force than if they did not utilize them.

Headgear, used in Olympic boxing, protects against cuts, scrapes, and swelling, but protects poorly against concussions. Headgear does not sufficiently protect the brain from the jarring that occurs when the head is struck with great force. Also, most boxers aim for the chin on opponents, and the chin is usually not padded. Thus, a powerpunch can do a lot of damage to a boxer, and even a jab that connects to the chin can cause damage, regardless of whether or not headgear is being utilized.

[edit] Medical concerns

It should be noted that knocking a person unconscious or even causing concussion may cause some permanent brain damage.<ref>BBC. Boxing Brain Damage, BBC News[19]</ref> Furthermore, there is no clear division between the force required to knock out a human and an amount of force which will kill them. More than 350 amateur and professional boxers have been killed in the ring since 1945,[citation needed] for example, Duk Koo Kim who on November 13th 1982 held a fight with Ray "Boom Boom" Mancini which led to his death five days later. [20]

In 1983, The Journal of the American Medical Association called for a ban on boxing. The editor, Dr. George Lundberg, called boxing an "obscenity" that "should not be sanctioned by any civilized society." Since then, the American Neurological Association, American Academy of Neurology and British, Canadian and Australian Medical Associations have also wanted to abolish the sport.[citation needed]

Many support the ban because it seems that causing injury to another athlete is the goal of the sport. Dr. Bill O'Neill, boxing spokesman for the British Medical Association, has supported the BMA's proposed ban on boxing: "It is the only sport where the intention is to inflict serious injury on your opponent, and we feel that we must have a total ban on boxing."<ref>BBC, News on Boxing Ban, BBC Online[21]</ref>

Professional boxing is forbidden in Norway, Iceland, Cuba, Iran and North-Korea.

[edit] Fatalities versus brain injury

Anti-boxing activist Manuel Velazquez compiled extensive data on deaths in boxing.<ref>Joseph R. Svinth (2006). Deaths in Boxing, Journal of Combative Sport[22]</ref>

In 1984, R.J. McCunney and P.K. Russo published a study entitled Brain Injuries in Boxing. The study argued that boxing is relatively safe compared to other sports by citing the following figures on U.S. sports fatalities:

Fatality rates per 100,000 participants

  1. Horse racing: 128
  2. Sky diving: 123
  3. Hang gliding: 56
  4. Mountaineering: 51
  5. Scuba Diving: 11
  6. Motorcycle racing: 7
  7. College Football: 3
  8. Boxing: 1.3

Dr. Lundberg replied: "It's not the deaths but the chronic brain damage that is so frequent." The AMA reports brain deterioration in three out of four boxers who have twenty or more professional fights.

To date, there has been little research regarding the long-term effects of amateur boxing.

[edit] Boxing Hall of Fame

The sport of boxing has two internationally recognized boxing hall of fames; the International Boxing Hall of Fame (IBHOF) and the World Boxing Hall of Fame (WBHF), with the IBHOF being the more widely recognized boxing hall of fame.

The WBHF was founded by Everett L. Sanders in 1980. Since its inception the WBHOF has never had a permanent location or museum, which has allowed the more recent IBHOF to garner more publicity and prestige.

Boxing's International Hall of Fame was inspired by a tribute an American town held for two local heroes in 1982. The town, Canastota, New York, (which is about 15 miles east of Syracuse, via the New York State Thruway), honored former world welterweight/middleweight champion Carmen Basilio and his nephew, former world welterweight champion Billy Backus. The people of Canastota raised money for the tribute which inspired the idea of creating an official, annual hall of fame for notable boxers.

The International Boxing Hall of Fame opened in Canastota in 1989. The first inductees in 1990 included Jack Johnson, Benny Leonard, Jack Dempsey, Henry Armstrong, Sugar Ray Robinson, Archie Moore, Muhammad Ali, and Alex Constantinidis. Other world-class figures include Roberto "Manos de Piedra" Duran, Ismael Laguna, Eusebio Pedroza, Carlos Monzon, Ronan Keenan, Azumah Nelson, Rocky Marciano, Pipino Cuevas and Ken Buchanan. The Hall of Fame's induction ceremony is held every June as part of a four-day event.

The fans who come to Canastota for the Induction Weekend are treated to a number of events, including scheduled autograph sessions, boxing exhibitions, a parade featuring past and present inductees, and the induction ceremony itself.

[edit] Governing bodies

Boxing has many governing bodies leaving no organization in overall control.

[edit] Professional boxing

Governing Body Website
British Boxing Board of Control (BBBofC)
Nevada State Athletic Commission
Sanctioning Body Website
World Boxing Association (W.B.A.)
World Boxing Council (W.B.C.)
International Boxing Federation (I.B.F.)
World Boxing Organization (W.B.O.)
International Boxing Organization (I.B.O.)
North American Boxing Council (N.A.B.C.)

[edit] Amateur boxing

Governing Body Website
Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur
(International Amateur Boxing Association) (A.I.B.A.)
Image:When We Were Kings.jpg
When We Were Kings

[edit] See also

[edit] References

Cited references <references /> General references

[edit] Boxing associations

bg:Бокс zh-min-nan:Bo̍k-sèng ca:Boxa cs:Box da:Boksning de:Boxen et:Poks es:Boxeo eo:Bokso fr:Boxe anglaise gd:Dòrnaireachd hr:Boks it:Pugilato he:אגרוף lt:Boksas ms:tinju nl:Boksen ja:ボクシング no:Boksing ug:بوكسىيور ھەرىكىتى pl:Boks pt:Boxe ru:Бокс simple:Boxing fi:Nyrkkeily sv:Boxning vi:Quyền Anh tr:Boks zh:拳擊


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