Bishop of St Andrews

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The Bishop of St. Andrews (Scottish Gaelic: Easbaig Chill Rìmhinn) was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese and then, as Archbishop of St Andrews (Scottish Gaelic: Àrd-easbaig Chill Rìmhinn), the Archdiocese of St. Andrews (originally Cennrígmonaid, and then Kilrymont (i.e. Cellrígmonaid, hence Cill Rìmhinn) in the High Middle Ages). The bishopric itself originates in the period 700-900, and is the best attested bishopric in Scottish history. By the 11th century, it is clear that it is the most important bishopric in Scotland.


[edit] List of known abbots

There had been a monastery there since the 8th century. It was probably taken over by Céli Dé monks in the 9th or 10th centuries, and these survive into the 14th century. It is the Gaelic abbey, rather than the continental priory, that the abbot was in charge of; the importance of the Céli Dé abbey has come down into the modern era in the street names of St. Andrews.

Only a few abbots are known. It is often thought that the position of Abbot and Bishop were the same until the Norman era, although that can never be proved for certain.

Dates Incumbent Notes
d. 747TúathalánHis obit. in the Annals of Ulster, s.a. 747, constitutes our first literary evidence of any religious establishment at St. Andrews (then called by the Scoto-Pictish name Cennrigmonaid).
Unknown number of unnamed abbotsIt is probably that all the bishops before Fothad II, and perhaps before Turgot, were also abbots of the Céli Dé community.
fl. 1172x1178Gille CrístThat he is called "abbot" is the proof that the Céli Dé community were maintaining their independence from the priory in the period.

[edit] List of known bishops

Dates Incumbent Notes
fl. 878x889-906xCellach IWas bishop during the reign of Giric, and was still bishop in 906.
d. 963Fothad IWe know he was bishop during the reign of King Idulb. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba has his death in the period 962x966, and according to the Annals of the Four Masters, he died in 963.
bp. 955/6-963/4 ?Máel Ísu IBower claims he reigned as bishop for eight years.
fl. 966x971Cellach IIBower claims he reigned as bishop for twenty-five years.
fl. late-900sMáel Muire
fl. late 900s/early 1000sMáel Ísu II
fl. early 1000sAilín
d. 1055Máel DúinThe Annals of Tigernach place his death at 1055.
bp. 1055-59TúathalThe Annals of Tigernach place his predecessor's death at 1055, and Bower tells us he was bishop for 4 years, which makes a bishopric of 1055-59 likely, although it is possible that he did not succeed immediately.
bp. 1059?-1093Fothad IIHe performed the marriage of King Máel Coluim III to Margaret (c. 1070), and according to the Annals of Ulster, died in 1093.
bp. 1093x1107GiricHe appears in Version-A of the St. Andrews Foundation Legend. He is almost certainly mentioned by Bower as Gregorius.
bp. 1093x1107CathróeHe is one of 4 bishops-elect listed by Walter Bower (that is, Giric, Cathróe, Eadmer and Godric). As with the other 3, Bower is our only source. As the list is in chronological order, only Cathróe can have been bishop elect before Turgot, Eadmer being bishop-elect in 1120, after the death of Turgot.
el. 1107; cons. 1109Turgot
el. 1120EadmerNever consecrated.
el. 1124; cons. 1126x1127Robert
el./cons. 1160Ernald
el. 1163; cons. 1165Richard
el./cons. 1178JohnOppose by Bishop Hugh and the king. Never took possession of the see.
el./cons. 1178HughOpposed by John.
el. 1189; cons. 1198Roger de Beaumont
trans. 1202William de MalveisinPreviously Bishop of Glasgow.
post. 1202Galfred de LiberationeWas Bishop of Dunkeld; his postulation was rejected by the Pope, and he remained bishop of Dunkeld.
el. 1239; cons. 1240David de Bernham
el. 1253Robert de StutevilleNot consecrated; never took possession of the see.
el. prov./cons. 1255Abel de Golynn
el./cons. 1255Gamelin
post. 1271;cons. 1273William Wishart
el. 1279;cons. 1280William Fraser
el. 1297;cons. 1298William de Lamberton
el./prov./cons. 1328James Bane
prov./cons. 1342William de Landallis
el. 1385Stephen de PaNot consecrated; never took possession of the see. Was captured by pirates on his way to continental Europe, and kept prisoner in England.
prov./cons. 1385Walter Trail
el. 1401Thomas StewartNever consecrated. He was the bastard son of King Robert II of Scotland, and renounced his rights soon after his election.
post. 1402Walter de DanyelstonNot consecrated.
post. 1402x1403Gilbert de GreenlawNot consecrated. He had been Bishop of Aberdeen, but Pope Benedict XIII refused to confirm his postulation, and instead provided Henry Wardlaw.
prov./cons. 1403Henry Wardlaw
trans. 1440James Kennedy
trans. 1465Patrick Graham

[edit] List of anti-bishops

During the Western Schism, in which Scotland chose to side with the Avignon Papacy, the English church would now and then appoint its own candidates to the bishoric. They never, of course, took possession of their see.

Dates Incumbent Notes
trans. 1388Alexander de NevilleAnti-Bishop. Never took possession of the see. He was the deposed Archbishop of York, made nominal Bishop of St. Andrews by Pope Urban VI during the Western Schism.
trans. 1398Thomas de ArundelAnti-Bishop. Never took possession of the see. He had been Archbishop of York, then Archbishop of Canterbury, before being exiled by King Richard II of England. He became Pope Boniface IX's nominal bishop of St. Andrews, before being restored to Canterbury the next year.
trans. 1408John TrevaurAnti-Bishop. Had previously been Bishop of St. Asaph. He died in 1410.

[edit] List of archbishops

St. Andrews was elevated into an Archbishopric in 1472 by Pope Sixtus IV.

Dates Incumbent Notes
trans. (as Bishop) 1465Patrick GrahamDeposed for corruption and insanity in 1478.
coadj. 1476; abp. 1478; cons. 1478x1479William Scheves
prov. 1497James Stewart
prov. 1504Alexander Stewart
el. 1513John HepburnWas not accepted by the Pope.
prov. 1513Cardinal Innocenzo CiboHe was the nephew of Pope Leo X, and provided by the Pope instead of John Hepburn. Owing to lack of support in Scotland, the Pope dropped his provision.
trans. 1514Andrew Forman
trans. 1522James Beaton
prov. as coadj. 1537; cons. 1538David Beaton
prov. 1547; trans. 1549John Hamilton
coadj. 1551; suc. 1571Gavin Hamilton

[edit] Abbreviations

  • abp. = Archbishop
  • bp. = Bishop, signifying beginning or period as bishop.
  • coadj. = coadjutor, the designated successor of the bishop
  • cons. = consecrate as bishop by church authorities
  • el. = elected as bishop by the clergy
  • post. = postulated, i.e. nominated for the bishopric (i.e. by the monarch)
  • prov. = provision by the Pope
  • suc. = succeeded
  • trans. = translated to bishopric from other bishopric

[edit] References

  • Anderson, Marjorie Ogilvie, "St. Andrews before Alexander I, in G.W.S. Barrow (ed.), The Scottish Tradition, (Edinburgh, 1994), pp. 1-13
  • Barrow, G.W.S., "The Clergy of St. Andrews", in The Kingdom of the Scots, 2nd Ed., (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 187-202
  • Dowden, John, The Bishops of Scotland, ed. J. Maitland Thomson, (Glasgow, 1912)
  • Macqueen, John, MacQueen, Winifred & Watt, D.E.R. (eds.), Scottichronicon by Walter Bower in Latin and English, Vol. 3, (Aberdeen, 1995)

[edit] See also

Prelates of Medieval Scotland (post-1100)
Archbishops Glasgow (1492) | St Andrews (1472)
Bishops Aberdeen | Argyll | Brechin | Caithness | Dunblane | Dunkeld | Galloway | Glasgow | Isles (Sodor) | Moray | Orkney | Ross | St Andrews
Abbots Arbroath | Balmerino | Cambuskenneth | Coupar Angus | Crossraguel | Culross | Deer | Dercongal (Holywood) | Dryburgh | Dundrennan | Dunfermline | Fearn | Glenluce | Holyrood | Inchaffray | Inchcolm | Iona | Jedburgh | Kelso (Selkirk) | Kilwinning | Kinloss | Lindores | Melrose | Newbattle | Paisley | Saddell | Scone | Soulseat | Sweatheart | Tongland
Priors Ardchattan | Beauly | Blantyre | Canonbie | Coldingham | Fogo | Fyvie | Inchmahome | Lesmahagow | May (Pittenweem) | Monymusk | Oronsay | Pluscarden | Restenneth | St Andrews | Strathfillan | St Mary's Isle | St Serf's Inch, Loch Leven | Urquhart | Whithorn
de:Liste der Bischöfe von St Andrews

Bishop of St Andrews

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