Birth rate

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In demography, the crude birth rate (CBR) of a population is the number of childbirths per 1000 persons per year. It can be mathematically represented by <math>CBR = \frac{n}{p}{1000}</math> where n is the number of childbirths in that year, and p is the current population. This figure is combined with the crude death rate to produce the rate of natural population growth (natural in that it does not take into account net migration).

Another indicator of fertility is frequently used: the total fertility rate — average number of children born to each woman over the course of her life. In general, the total fertility rate is a better indicator of (current) fertility rates because unlike the crude birth rate it is not affected by the age distribution of the population.

Fertility rates tend to be higher in less economically developed countries and lower in more economically developed countries.

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[edit] Other methods of measuring birth rate

General fertility rate (GFR) - This measures the number of births per 1000 women aged 15 to 45

Standardised birth rate (SBR) - This compares the age-sex structure to a hypothetical standard population.

[edit] Factors affecting birth rate

  • Pro-natalist policies and Anti-natalist policies from government
  • Existing age-sex structure
  • Social and religious beliefs - especially relation to contraception
  • Female literacy levels
  • Economic prosperity (although in theory when the economy is doing well families can afford to have more children in practice the higher the economic prosperity the lower the birth rate).
  • Poverty levels – children can be seen as an economic resource in developing countries as they can earn money.
  • Infant Mortality Rate – a family may have more children if a country's IMR is high as it is likely some of those children will die.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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Birth rate

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