Transcontinental country

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A transcontinental country is a country belonging to more than one continent. The definitions used may vary according to which criteria are used (whether purely geographical or, on the other hand, political, economic or cultural criteria). An example is Russia, which has its historical core as well as most of its population (75%), economic activity and political institutions (such as its capital city) in Europe, yet geographically most of the territory (75%) is actually in Asia. By most definitions, Russia straddles both in Eurasia.

Contents

[edit] Definitions of the continents

[edit] Islands

Image:AegeanIslands.PNG
Green - Europe; dark pink/light pink/gray - Asia;
yellow - Greek Asian islands (Aegean)

Continents are so called because they are continuous bodies of land. Thus, an island is not strictly part of any continent, but many islands can be associated with one by geographical proximity (or also by historical convention, political ties or similar "human" criteria). For example, Sumatra, Singapore and Hainan are not literally "in" Asia; nevertheless, they are closer to Asia than to any other continent, and also are most closely associated with Asia, so this article will consider them Asiatic islands, and Indonesia and Greece transcontinental countries (likewise for other continents and their adjacent islands). Alternate associations would be defensible in some cases.

Using this definition, the following countries could all be considered transcontinental, solely by virtue of the fact that an integral part of their national territory consists of islands that are situated within the continental shelf of another continent or are otherwise geographically closer to another continent than the mainland (mainland continent shown below in bold text):

  • Colombia (South America and North America)
  • France (if one includes the 4 politically integral overseas departments, France is split between four different continents: Europe, South America, Africa and North America)
  • Denmark (Europe and North America)
  • Netherlands (if one includes the oversea Netherlands Antilles, the Netherlands are split between 3 different continents: Europe, South America and North America)
  • Greece (Europe and Asia)
  • Iceland (Europe or North America, depending on defining criteria)
  • Italy (Europe and Africa)
  • Portugal (Europe and Africa)
  • Spain (Europe and Africa)
  • Venezuela (South America and North America)
  • Yemen (Asia and Africa)

Four countries also include both continental territory and islands in mid-ocean; see Oceania, below.

[edit] Europe and Asia

The nature and boundaries of Europe are as much sociopolitical questions as geographical. Many geologists and geographers agree that Europe and Asia share many common geographical features and they are sometimes referred to as the single continent Eurasia. Europe is nevertheless a distinct geographical entity, mostly a super-peninsula off the mainland of Asia.

The eastern boundary of Europe has been variously defined since antiquity. Herodotus regarded Europe as extending all the way to the Eastern Ocean, and therefore being as long as (and much larger than) Africa and Asia together. The modern world is in consensus that Europe ends at the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains, but the boundaries between these latter two features are uncertain; that leading from the Urals to the Black Sea, for example, has been drawn by different authorities as at the Don, the Kuma-Manych Depression, the Caucasus, the Russian frontier or the Phasis.

Numerous sources (e.g. the National Geographic Society) state that the Europe-Asia boundary follows the watershed of the Ural Mountains from near Kara, Russia on the Kara Sea to the source of the Ural River, then follows that river to the Caspian Sea, the watershed of the Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea.

This article instead discusses the following geographically-focused path: from Baydaratskaya Guba on the Kara Sea, the border follows the eastern side of the Ural mountains, then the Ural River until the Mugodzhar Hills, then the Emba River to the Caspian Sea. The Caspian section of the border goes through the deepest parts of the sea, then on the Kura River (in Azerbaijan and Georgia), through the Surami passage, and on the Qvirila river in the Kolkhida lowland to the coastal city of Poti. The Black Sea section of the border again follows the deepest troughs, then through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, then the deepest parts of the Mediterranean Sea (see the "Islands" section of this article) and on to the Strait of Gibraltar.

Image:TransAsia m.png
Green - Europe; pink/gray - Asia; A/B/C - other border definitions

By this definition, Europe includes all the Ural Mountains and the Greater Caucasus (not least Mount Elbrus, which would be the highest point in Europe), while the Lesser Caucasus are located entirely in Asia. Russia and Kazakhstan have both European (western) and Asian (eastern) parts (and Russia even had a North American part, before Alaska was sold to the United States in 1867). The Turkish city Istanbul lies in both Europe and Asia; effectively making it a transcontinental city. Georgia's capital Tbilisi is located exactly on the border by this definition, while its south-eastern city Rustavi and Azerbaijan's capital Baku are both in Europe. By this definition, the Georgian republics South Ossetia and Abkhazia lie entirely in Europe, but Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhichevan is located entirely in Asia.

The three additional lines on the map show common interpretations about the border that are mostly non-geographicaly grounded:

  • The line labelled A on the map follows the peaks of the Urals, and then the Ural River (some non-geographic sources instead choose the frontier of Kazakhstan, although a natural feature is the only possible geographical boundary as opposed to a political boundary).
  • Line B passes through the Kuma-Manych Depression (this path was proposed in 1730 by Philip Johan von Strahlenberg). This path would exclude from Europe not only the Caucasus, but also regions traditionally in European Russia such as Krasnodar, with the ancient Greek colonies of Gorgippia and Phanagoria.
  • Line C follows the Caucasus watershed.

Because of Kazakhstan's Central Asian culture and political orientation, it is very rarely regarded as a European country, despite its sizeable territory in Europe (larger than the whole of Portugal or Greece). Three nations of the South Caucasus, however – Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia – have a stronger sociopolitical claim to be European. Of these three, only Georgia and Azerbaijan[citation needed] are sometimes regarded as having small portions of territory in Europe, but Armenia may be regarded as European for cultural and historical reasons.

By this definition, the majority of Georgia's and Azerbaijan's populations live in Europe, and two-thirds of the Georgian territory and a little less than half of Azerbaijan's territory are in Europe. However, they are often excluded today from lists of European states (unlike Russia and Turkey, with proportionally less European territory and population). This may be due in part to the popular Western understanding that, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, three kinds of state emerged: Russia itself; the "European" states (i.e. the Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova); and "other, Asian" states[citation needed]. Recent maps, therefore, often fail to distinguish between the South Caucasus states and those of Central Asia.

Russia's Vaygach Island and Novaya Zemlya extend northward from the northern end of the Ural Mountains and are a continuation of the chain into the Arctic Ocean. They separate the European Barents Sea and the Asian Kara Sea, and may be considered part of Europe or Asia. The maps on this page show them with Europe, as they are used in the calculations.

[edit] Culturally European states

Other nations have strong cultural ties with Europe, such as the north African states Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. However, the clear boundary of the Mediterranean Sea excludes these nations geographically. Israel also has European ties, due in part to its unique history; thus, perhaps confusingly, a Middle Eastern state geographically in Asia is represented in the UEFA European football league (Australia similarly has joined the Asian Football Confederation), and the Eurovision Song Contest. Some in Israel, Morocco and Tunisia, have shown ambition to become a state of the European Union, but currently full membership is disallowed (Morocco has actually applied to join, but was rejected on geographical grounds). Of course, many other countries outside Europe have cultural and historical ties to Europe as a consequence of colonization and migration.

[edit] Politically European states

See also Geographic criteria for EU membership

Europe ends in the west at the Atlantic Ocean, although Iceland (in the Atlantic, between Europe and North America) is usually considered European. Greenland is geographically associated with North America but politically associated with Europe (as it is still part of Denmark, although EU law no longer applies there). Turkey, despite having only 3% of its land in Europe, has been a member of the Council of Europe since 1949 and an official candidate for membership of the European Union since 2005. Islands geographically associated with one continent sometimes have stronger political and cultural ties to another. For example, Cyprus, an island off the coast of Asia, was admitted to the Council of Europe in 1961 and joined the EU in 2004. Cape Verde, an island group off the Atlantic coast of Africa, has also shown an interest in joining the EU. Armenia, also a geographically Asian state, joined the Council of Europe in 2001.

[edit] Africa

The natural geographical boundaries of Africa are the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. The boundary between them has been drawn either up the Gulf of Suez or up the Gulf of Aqaba. On purely geological grounds, the boundary could be drawn along the faultline into the Jordan river valley (which would make Israel an African country).

The usual line today is at the Isthmus of Suez along the path of the Suez Canal. This makes the Sinai Peninsula geographically Asian, and Egypt a transcontinental country. Nevertheless Egypt is commonly referred to as an African state, because most of its population and territory is there.

In historical geography, several of the larger Mediterranean islands have often been more akin to Africa than to Europe or Asia. Egypt often ruled Cyprus, and sometimes Rhodes. The Roman Empire grouped Crete with Cyrenaica (in ancient Libya.) The Balearic Islands and half of Sicily were ruled from Carthage.

The Canary Islands and Madeira Islands are off the Atlantic coast of Morocco, and although they are geographically part of Africa, they are under the rule of Spain and Portugal, respectively, and geopolitically part of Europe. Under Moorish rule prior to Southwest European colonization, they were fully integrated into Africa.

[edit] Americas

The border between North America and South America has been drawn variously, generally somewhere along the Isthmus of Panama.

One common demarcation follows the Darien Mountains watershed divide along the Colombia-Panama boundary where the isthmus meets the South American continent. Another reckons the continental divide at the Panama Canal, whereby Panama has territory on either side in both continents. Geopolitically (i.e., not strictly geophysical), Panama is usually included with the other Central American countries in North America. The border between North and South America has also been drawn (infrequently) between Costa Rica and Panama, or at one of several other lines across the Isthmus of Panama.

In some cultures, America (singular usage) is thought of as one continent or supercontinent encompassing the entire landmass between Alaska and Tierra del Fuego. In this context, North and South America (and sometimes, Central America) are thought of as regions of the greater landmass, rather than continents of their own.

This collectivity of lands and regions in the Western hemisphere is referred to as the Americas. From a sociopolitical and cultural perspective, the Americas are generally divided into Anglo-America (namely the U.S. and Canada, where English prevails, AKA North America proper) and Latin America (the rest of the Americas, where Romance languages generally predominate). Latin America – particularly Hispanic America – is generally considered a transcontinental region straddling two continents, much like the Middle East. Moreover, the Guyanas are sometimes grouped with the Caribbean along with Belize and Bermuda (actually 600 miles east of the US mainland, also sometimes grouped with Anglo-America.)

[edit] Asia and Oceania

Image:TransOceania m.PNG
Green - Oceania; pink/gray - Asia; M - Melanesia line

Indonesia is a multi-island, transcontinental state belonging both to Asia and to Oceania. The geological and zoological border follows the Wallace line. Alternatively it may be divided according to the Melanesia definition – accounting for human language, genetics, history and crafts – placing more territory in Asia (shown by the line labelled M on the map). Indonesia is today more commonly referred to as one of the Southeast Asian countries, and thus simply Asian. East Timor, an independent state that was formerly a territory of Indonesia, is sometimes considered part of Oceania, but is classified by the United Nations as part of the "South-Eastern Asia" block. It is expected to join the Association of Southeast Asian Nations [1] having been involved as a ASEAN Regional Forum member since independence, and participated in the Southeast Asian Games since 2003.

[edit] Oceania

Oceania is not a continent; however, Australia by itself is usually considered one. Therefore the admission of Hawaii to the United States in 1959 did not make the U.S. a transcontinental nation (whether the U.S. was transcontinental from 1898 to 1946, by its possession of the Philippines, is a historical question).

If Oceania were a continent, rather than the part of the Earth furthest from any of them, the following countries might be considered transcontinental, as occupying both Oceania and a continent:

[edit] Definitions of transcontinental country

A country divided between two (or more) nationalities may also be termed a transcontinental country, for several reasons: immigration (e.g. Chinese in the U.S.); historical reasons (colonization, especially of extraterritorial possessions and dependencies of European states – for example Spain's Ceuta and Melilla); islands belonging to the more distant state in a sea shared between continents (such as Yemen's islands of Socotra, east of the Horn of Africa). Sometimes these overseas territories are regarded as an integral part of the main state (e.g. French Guiana, part of France), in which case the state (here, France) could be regarded as a transcontinental country.

[edit] List of geographically transcontinental states

A transcontinental state is a country whose contiguous continental territory (or in the case of an island state, its different islands) lies in two (or more) different continents. Non-contiguous parts of countries are not considered (i.e. distant integral parts, extraterritorial possessions, dependencies and the like – examples include French Guiana, Hawaii, Socotra, and Ceuta and Melilla). This list includes the countries meeting that definition and presents tables showing the calculated area and population of the country on each continent.

[edit] Methodology of calculation

There are two main methods for non-scientific calculation of parts of the state area:

  • The smaller part of the territory is divided into rectangles, which area can be easily calculated using simple distance tools. This method gives results with moderate errors and can be used only for area, but not for population.
  • If the administrative divisions (sub-regions) of the state are going along the continents geographical border (or near it) then much more correct data (widely available area and population data for the regions) can be added up together.

The total area and population of countries is well known from various sources, so when there is data for the part of the country on one continent - then the other part (on the other continent) and the percentages can be easily calculated.

[edit] Countries in both Asia and Europe

Image:TransAsia.PNG
green - Europe, pink/gray - Asia
See "Europe and Asia" section of this article for more details about the geographical border between Europe and Asia.
See also Geographic criteria for EU membership.
  • Azerbaijan - situated in both Western Asia and Eastern Europe.
  • Georgia - situated in both Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
  • Kazakhstan - situated in both Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
  • Russia - situated in both Northern Asia and Eastern Europe.
  • Turkey - situated in both Western Asia and Southeastern Europe.
  • Greece - situated in both Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. See top map.
  • Armenia, Cyprus and sometimes even Israel are geographically in Western Asia, but are considered by some as part of Europe for other reasons. For example, Armenia and Cyprus are members of the Council of Europe, and Armenia, Cyprus and Israel participate in the Eurovision Song Contest.

Map colors: Geographical Europe is colored green. The Asian territory of states that lie both in Europe and Asia are coloured light pink. Dark-pink are colored states that lie entirely on the Asian continent, but are considered European because of cultural and historical reasons. Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan is also coloured dark-pink because it is not a continuous extension of Azerbaijan's territory

Statistics

State Total Area
km²
Area in Asia
km²
Area in Asia
% of total
Area in Europe
km²
Area in Europe
% of total
Greece 131,990 6,074 4.60 125,916 95.40
Georgia 69,700 20,460 29.35 49,240 70.65
Azerbaijan 86,600 46,870 54.12 39,730 45.88
Russia 17,075,200 13,115,200 76.81 3,960,000 23.19
Kazakhstan 2,717,300 2,346,927 86.37 370,373 13.63
Turkey 780,580 756,768 96.95 23,812 3.05
Armenia 29,800 29,800 100 0 0

Countries are sorted according to percentage of European area.
Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [2]
For methodologies of calculation see below.

State Total Population Population in Asia Population in Asia
% of total
Population in Europe Population in Europe
% of total
Greece 11,244,118 390,603 3.47 10,853,515 96.53
Russia 143,780,000 37,742,857 26.25 106,037,143 73.75
Georgia 4,479,180 2,032,004 45.37 2,447,176 54.63
Azerbaijan 8,327,618 4,129,127 49.58 4,198,491 50.42
Turkey 68,900,000 57,855,068 83.97 11,044,932 1 16.03 1
Kazakhstan 14,757,767 13,472,593 91.29 1,285,174 8.71
Armenia 3,326,448 3,326,448 100 0 0
Cyprus 775,927 775,927 100 0 0

1 Including the districts of Istanbul city that are lying in Asia.
Countries are sorted according to percentage of European population.
Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [3]
For methodologies of calculation see below.

[edit] Azerbaijan

The Azerbaijan territory is more finely granulated into regions than the territory of the other states in this list. The consequence is that the area and population calculations should be more accurate. Of the regions that touch the border five lie entirely in Europe by this definition (best accuracy), one lies almost entirely in Asia, eight lie in both Europe and Asia. Another twenty regions lie entirely in Europe, the rest - in Asia.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high-to-medium
  • Accuracy of population calculation: high-to-medium

[edit] Georgia

Georgia regions' borders in most cases follow the geographical Europe/Asia border. The exclusions are two regions that are divided in half, one region that stretches by this definition a little into Asia and one region that has a quarter of it in Europe.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high (but better is possible)
  • Accuracy of population calculation: high (but better is possible)

[edit] Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan regions' borders don't follow the Emba river. There is one region entirely in Europe and two regions that are lying in both Europe and Asia by this definition.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: medium
  • Accuracy of population calculation: medium

[edit] Russia

Most of Russia regions' borders follow closely enough the Europe/Asia border. The deviations of the borders are such that if one mainly European region has a small part of its territory in Asia, then another mainly Asian region has a small part of its territory in Europe. Such cases are rare and nearly compensating one-another, so for such a rough calculation above medium accuracy can be claimed (Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk, Yamal-Nenets AD and Orenburg borders does not follow exactly the Europe/Asia border).

  • Accuracy of area calculation: medium-to-high
  • Accuracy of population calculation: medium-to-high

[edit] Turkey

Turkey regions' are helpful for the calculation, but one should note some things. The area that the mainly Asian region of Çanakkale occupies in Europe is compensating the Asian territory of the Istanbul region. The population calculation is more problematic, because it is not sure if the population density (inhabitants/sq. km.) of these two parts are equal and then there is the case with the city of Istanbul, which is lying on both Europe and Asia. Should the city be looked as one big 'dot', located in Europe, or should the population figures be divided? Currently the whole population of the city is added to the table as European. Also, precise data about the particular districts of Istanbul is missing.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high (but better is possible)
  • Accuracy of population calculation: high-to-medium 1

1 (wrong if Istanbul statistics are to be divided)

[edit] Armenia

Geographically entirely in Asia, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible.

[edit] Greece

Mainland Greece and most of its islands are associated with Europe, but the Dodecanese Prefecture of the South Aegean Periphery and the North Aegean Periphery except for Lemnos Island are associated with Asia. Although the intercontinental boundary mostly follows prefecture and periphery boundaries, the Lemnos figures (particularly the population, circa 18,000 in 2005) are a portion of Lesbos Prefecture that can only be approximated.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high-to-medium
  • Accuracy of population calculation: medium

[edit] Countries in both Asia and Africa

Image:TransAfrica.PNG
green - Asia, pink/gray - Africa
See Geography of Africa and Asia pages for more details about the geographical border between Africa and Asia.
  • The border between the two continents is considered to go along the Isthmus of Suez and the Suez Canal. This border lies in Egypt, so it is considered both North African and Southwest Asian. The border continues through the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.


Statistics

State Total Area
km²
Area in Africa
km²
Area in Africa
% of total
Area in Asia
km²
Area in Asia
% of total
Egypt 1,001,450 937,894 93.65 63,556 6.35
Yemen 527,968 3,625 0.69 524,343 99.31

Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [4]
For methodologies of calculation see below.

State Total Population Population in Africa Population in Africa
% of total
Population in Asia Population in Asia
% of total
Egypt 74,718,797 73,340,638 98.16 1,378,159 1.84
Yemen 20,975,000 44,000 0.21 20,931,000 99.79

Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [5]
For methodologies of calculation see below.

[edit] Egypt

Three of Egypt's regions lie entirely in Asia. One of the regions is nearly equally divided by the Suez Canal and another has a small portion east of the Suez Canal.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high (but better is possible)
  • Accuracy of population calculation: high-to-medium

[edit] Yemen

Although mainland Yemen is in the southern Arabian Peninsula and thus part of Asia, Yemen controls the archipelago of Socotra, which lies east of the horn of Somalia and is much closer to Africa than Asia. Socotra and the mainland city of Aden constitute the transcontinental 'Adan Governorate, so the Socotra archipelago constitutes a portion of a political subdivision that can only be approximated.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high (better is possible)
  • Accuracy of population calculation: medium

[edit] Countries in both Asia and Oceania

Image:TransOceania.PNG
green - Oceania, pink/gray - Asia
See Wallace line and the Oceania and Asia pages for more details about the grouping of the islands between Oceania and Asia.

The best option for geographical definition about which island should be included with Oceania and which with Asia is to use the Wallace line.

  • According to this definition some of the eastern Indonesian islands should be considered Oceanian. So Indonesia is both in Southeast Asia and in Oceania.
  • According to this definition the whole of the state East Timor lies only in Oceania. Culturally it is also much closer to the Pacific people than to Asians. East Timor is considered as a part of Asia only for historical reasons - the past occupation by Indonesia, which is regarded mostly a Southeast Asian state.

However, it is common practice on maps to consider all of Indonesia, including West Papua, as 'Asia'. Indonesia is highly sensitive to ideas of separatism in its eastern borders, and would not want to be considered a country divided by two continents with distinct social characteristics.

Statistics

State Total Area
km²
Area in Asia
km²
Area in Asia
% of total
Area in Oceania
km²
Area in Oceania
% of total
East Timor 15,007 0 0 15,007 100
Indonesia 1,904,443 1,158,645 60.84 745,798 39.16

Countries are sorted according to percentage of Oceanian area.
Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [6]
For methodologies of calculation see below.

State Total Population Population in Asia Population in Asia
% of total
Population in Oceania Population in Oceania
% of total
East Timor 1,019,252 0 0 1,019,252 100
Indonesia 238,452,952 208,176,381 87.3 28,159,300 12.7

Countries are sorted according to percentage of Oceanian population.
Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [7]
For methodologies of calculation see below.

[edit] East Timor

Geographically (and even culturally) entirely in Oceania, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible.

[edit] Indonesia

Nine of Indonesia's provinces (island groups) lie entirely in Oceania, while the others lie in Asia, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible.

[edit] Countries in both North America and South America

Image:TransAmerica.PNG
green - South America, pink/gray - North America
See North America and South America pages for more details about the geographical border between the two Americas.
  • Most geographic authorities delineate the land border dividing the Americas somewhere along the Isthmus of Panama. One common demarcation follows the Darien watershed along the Colombia-Panama boundary. Another common dividing line (and herein) is the Panama Canal transecting the isthmus; thus, Panama is reckoned to have territory in both continents. Panama City, Panama's capital, sits on the Pacific (southern) coast near the Panama Canal in the eastern (South American) portion of the country. Geopolitically, all of Panama is often considered a part of North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
  • The sea islands division is more complicated. Culturally and historically all Caribbean islands (and even some smaller continental countries) are very close together (both similar indigenous people and similar colonial past) and all of them are often labeled as North American.
    The dependency Aruba and some parts of the Netherland Antilles (Bonaire and Curaçao islands) and the islands state of Trinidad and Tobago are closer to South America but – by virtue of being in the West Indies – generally considered part of North America. Grenada state can be considered geographically North American. The North-American parts of the Netherland Antilles are Saba, Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten. Venezuela's Aves Island and other outlying islands are geographically North American, which is also true of the remote Colombian islands of San Andrés and Providencia.


South American Caribbean islands:

Statistics

State Total Area
km²
Area in North America
km²
Area in North America
% of total
Area in South America
km²
Area in South America
% of total
Trinidad and Tobago 5,128 0 0 5,128 100
Aruba 1 180 0 0 180 100
Netherland Antilles 1 800 68 8.5 732 91.5
Panama 78,200 52,853 67.59 25,347 32.41
Colombia 1,141,748 57 0.005 1,141,691 99.995

1 Extraterritorial part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Countries are sorted according to percentage of South American area.
Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [8]
For methodologies of calculation see below.

State Total Population Population in North America Population in North America
% of total
Population in South America Population in South America
% of total
Trinidad and Tobago 1,104,209 0 0 1,104,209 100
Aruba 1 103,000 0 0 103,000 100
Netherland Antilles 1 221226 59226 26.77 162000 73.23
Panama 3,000,463 2,498,717 83.28 299,936 16.72
Colombia 42,090,502 83,491 0.20 42,007,011 99.80

1 Extraterritorial part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Countries are sorted according to percentage of South American population.
Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [9]
For methodologies of calculation see below.

[edit] Trinidad and Tobago

Geographically entirely in South America, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible.

[edit] Aruba

Geographically entirely in South America, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible.

[edit] Netherlands Antilles

Two of the islands groups lie entirely in South America and the other - in North America, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible.

[edit] Panama

Five of the provinces lie entirely in South America. One of the regions is nearly equally divided between both Americas and another - unequally, nearly 1:4 ratio.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high-to-medium
  • Accuracy of population calculation: medium

[edit] Colombia

Mainland Colombia is in northwestern South America, but the nation also controls the San Andrés and Providencia archipelago and department off the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high-to-medium
  • Accuracy of population calculation: medium

[edit] List of transcontinental empires in history

Pre-colonial empires straddling at least two continents (number of continents in parentheses):

Colonial-era empires with non-contiguous overseas possessions (number of continents in parentheses):

Other trans-continental occurrences:

  • Later Persian Empire (2) - Asia, Europe
  • Greater Colombian Empire (2) - South America, North America
  • Israel (2) - Asia, Africa (for a brief period starting October 15, 1973, it had occupied land on the African side of the Suez Canal during the Yom Kippur War. This land was never administrated by Israeli civil authorities and was withdrawn during the aftermath of the war.)

[edit] External link

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Transcontinental country

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