Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield

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The Rt Hon. Benjamin Disraeli
Image:1st Earl of Beaconsfield.jpg

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In office
27 February 1868 – 1 December 1868
20 February 187421 April 1880
Preceded by The Earl of Derby
William Ewart Gladstone
Succeeded by William Ewart Gladstone

In office
February 27, 1852 – December 17, 1852
February 26, 1858June 11, 1859
July 6, 1866February 29, 1868
Preceded by Charles Wood
George Cornewall Lewis
William Ewart Gladstone
Succeeded by William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone
George Ward Hunt

Born 21 December 1804
London
Died 19 April 1881
London
Political party Conservative

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (21 December, 180419 April, 1881) was a British statesman and literary figure. He served in government for three decades, twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom – the first and thus far only person of Jewish parentage to do so, although Disraeli was baptised in the Anglican Church at an early age. Disraeli's most lasting achievement was the creation of the modern Conservative Party after the Corn Laws schism of 1846.

Although a major figure in the protectionist wing of the Conservative Party after 1844, Disraeli's relations with the other leading figures in the party, particularly Lord Derby, the overall leader, were often strained. Not until the 1860s would Derby and Disraeli be on easy terms, and the latter's succession of the former assured. From 1852 onwards, Disraeli's career would also be marked by his often intense rivalry with William Ewart Gladstone, who eventually rose to become leader of the Liberal Party. In this duel, Disraeli was aided by his warm friendship with Queen Victoria, who came to detest Gladstone during the latter's first premiership in the 1870s. In 1876 Disraeli was raised to the peerage as the Earl of Beaconsfield, capping nearly four decades in the House of Commons.

Before and during his political career, Disraeli was well-known as a literary and social figure, although his novels are not generally regarded as belonging to the first rank of Victorian literature. He mainly wrote romances, of which Sybil and Vivian Grey are perhaps the best-known today. He was and is unusual among British Prime Ministers for having gained equal social and political renown.

Contents

[edit] Early life

Image:Isaac disraeli.jpg
Isaac D'Israeli
Father of Benjamin Disraeli

Disraeli descended from Italian Sephardic Jews from both his maternal and paternal sides, although he claimed Spanish ancestry during his own lifetime, he may have just been referring to the fact that all Sephardim ultimately originate in Spain. <ref>Robert Blake, Disraeli, 3. Norman Gash, reviewing Blake's work, argued that Benjamin's claim to Spanish ancestry could not be entirely dismissed. Norman Gash, review of Disraeli, by Robert Blake. The English Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 327. (Apr., 1968), 360-364</ref> His father was the literary critic and historian Isaac D'Israeli who, though Jewish, in 1817 had Benjamin baptised in the Church of England, following a dispute with their synagogue. The elder D'Israeli (Benjamin changed the spelling in the 1820s by dropping the foreign-looking apostrophe) himself was content to remain outside organized religion. <ref>Opponents, however, continued to include the apostrophe in correspondence. Lord Lincoln, writing to Sir Robert Peel in 1846, referred to "D'Israeli." J. B. Conacher, "Peel and the Peelites, 1846-1850." The English Historical Review, Vol. 73, No. 288. (Jul., 1958), 435</ref> Benjamin at first attended a small school, the Reverend John Potticary's school at Blackheath<ref>Rhind, N. (1993) Blackheath Village & Environs, 1790-1990, Vol.1 The Village and Blackheath Vale (Bookshop Blackheath, London), p.157.</ref> (later to evolve into St Piran's School). Beginning in 1817, Benjamin attended Higham Hall, in Walthamstow. His younger brothers, in contrast, attended the superior Winchester College, a fact which apparently grated on Disraeli and may explain his dislike of his mother, Maria D'Israeli.

His father destined him for the law, and he was articled to a solicitor in 1821. The law was, however, uncongenial, and by 1825, he gave it up. Disraeli was apparently determined to obtain independent means, and speculated on the stock exchange as early as 1824 on various South American mining companies. The recognition of the new South American republics on the recommendation of George Canning had led to a considerable boom, encouraged by various promoters and puffers. In this connexion, Disraeli became involved with the financier J. D. Powles, one such booster. In the course of 1825, Disraeli wrote three anonymous pamphlets for Powles, promoting the companies. <ref>Blake, Disraeli, 24-26; Claudio Veliz, "Egana, Lambert, and the Chilean Mining Associations of 1825." The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 55, No. 4. (Nov., 1975), 637-663</ref>

That same year Disraeli's financial activities brought him into contact with the publisher John Murray who, like Powles and Disraeli, was involved in the South American mines. Accordingly, they attempted to bring out a newspaper, The Representative, to promote the cause of the mines and those politicians who supported the mines, specifically Canning. The paper was a failure, in part because the mining "bubble" burst in late 1825, ruining Powles and Disraeli. Also, according to Disraeli's biographer, Lord Blake, the paper was "atrociously edited", and would have failed anyway. Disraeli would be indebted for the rest of his life.

[edit] Literary career

Image:Young disraeli.jpg
a Young Disraeli
by Sir Francis Grant, 1852

Disraeli now turned towards literature, and brought out his first novel, Vivian Grey, in 1826. Disraeli's biographers agree that Vivian Grey was a thinly-veiled re-telling of the affair of the Representative, and it proved very popular on its release, although it also caused much offence within the Tory literary world when Disraeli's authorship was discovered. The book, which was initially published anonymously, was purportedly written by a "man of fashion" – someone who moved in high society. Disraeli, then just twenty-three, did not move in high society, and the numerous solecisms present in Vivian Grey made this painfully obvious. Reviewers were sharply critical on these grounds of both the author and the book. Furthermore, Murray believed that Disraeli had caricatured him and abused his confidence–an accusation denied at the time, and by the official biography, although subsequent biographers (notably Blake) have sided with Murray.<ref>Stephen R. Graubard, review of Disraeli, by Robert Blake. The American Historical Review, Vol. 73, No. 1. (Oct., 1967), 139.</ref>

After producing a Vindication of the British Constitution, and some political pamphlets, Disraeli followed up Vivian Grey by a series of novels, The Young Duke (1831), Contarini Fleming (1832), Alroy (1833), Venetia and Henrietta Temple (1837). During the same period he had also written The Revolutionary Epick and three burlesques, Ixion, The Infernal Marriage, and Popanilla. Of these only Henrietta Temple (based on his affair with Lady Henrietta Sykes) was a true success.

During the 1840s Disraeli wrote three political novels collectively known as "the Trilogy"–Sybil, Coningsby, and Tancred.

Disraeli's relationships with other writers of his period (most of whom were male), were strained or non-existent. After the disaster of the Representative John Gibson Lockhart was a bitter enemy and the two never reconciled.<ref>C. L. Cline, "Disraeli and John Gibson Lockhart" in Modern Language Notes, Vol. 56, No. 2. (Feb., 1941), pp. 134-137.</ref> Disraeli's preference for female company prevented the development of contact with those who were not alienated by his opinions, comportment, or background. One contemporary who tried to bridge the gap, William Makepeace Thackeray, established a tentative cordial relationship in the late 1840s only to see everything collapse when Disraeli took offence at a burlesque of him which Thackeray had penned for Punch. Disraeli took revenge in Endymion (published in 1880), when he caricatured Thackeray as "St. Barbe." <ref>C. L. Cline, "Disraeli and Thackeray" in The Review of English Studies, Vol. 19, No. 76. (Oct., 1943), pp. 404-408. This view has been accepted by most historians. See James D. Merritt, "The Novelist St. Barbe in Disraeli's Endymion: Revenge on Whom?" in Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Vol. 23, No. 1. (Jun., 1968), pp. 85-88, who argues that St. Barbe was an attack on Thomas Carlyle.</ref>

[edit] Parliament

Disraeli had been considering a political career as early as 1830, before he departed England for the Mediterranean. His first real efforts, however, did not come until 1832, during the great crisis over the Reform Bill, when he contributed to an anti-Whig pamphlet edited by Croker and published by Murray entitled England and France: or a cure for Ministerial Gallomania. The choice of a Tory publication was regarded as odd if not offensive by Disraeli's friends and relatives, who thought him more of a Radical.
Image:Robert Peel.jpg
Sir Robert Peel, Bt.
Prime Minister 1834-35, 1841-46
Indeed, Disraeli had objected to Murray about Croker inserting "high Tory" sentiment, writing that "it is quite impossible that anything adverse to the general measure of Reform can issue from my pen." Further, at the time Gallomania was published, Disraeli was in fact electioneering in High Wycombe in the Radical interest. <ref>Robert Blake, Disraeli, (New York, 1966), 84-86.</ref> Disraeli's politics at the time were influenced both by his rebellious streak and by his desire to make his mark. In the early 1830s the Tories and the interests they represented appeared to be a lost cause. The other great party, the Whigs, was apparently anathema to Disraeli: "Toryism is worn out & I cannot condescend to be a Whig." <ref>Ibid, 87</ref>

Though he initially stood for election, unsuccessfully, as a Radical, Disraeli was a progressive Tory by the time he won a seat in the House of Commons in 1837 representing the constituency of Maidstone. The next year he settled his private life by marrying Mary Anne Lewis, the widow of Wyndham Lewis, Disraeli's erstwhile colleague at Maidstone.

Image:Lord John Manners.jpg
Lord John Manners
Friend of Disraeli, and leading figure in the Young England movement

Although nominally a Conservative, Disraeli was sympathetic to some of the demands of the Chartists and argued for an alliance between the landed aristocracy and the working class against the increasing power of the middle class, helping to found the Young England group in 1842 to promote the view that the rich should use their power to protect the poor from exploitation by the middle class. During the twenty years which separated the Corn Laws and the Second Reform Bill Disraeli would seek Tory-Radical alliances, to little avail.

Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel passed over Disraeli when putting together his government in 1841 and Disraeli, hurt, gradually became a sharp critic of Peel's government, often deliberately adopting positions contrary to those of his nominal chief.<ref>Peel's reasons for doing so are disputed. Some historians suggest Edward Stanley's well-known antipathy to Disraeli as the prime factor. Robert Blake dismisses these claims, suggesting instead that Peel's need to balance the various factions of the Conservative Party, and the heavy preponderance of aristocrats within the cabinet, precluded Disraeli's inclusion. See C. L. Cline, "Disraeli and Peel's 1841 Cabinet" in The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 11, No. 4. (Dec., 1939), pp. 509-512 and Blake, Disraeli, 165-166.</ref> The best known of these cases was the Maynooth grant in 1845 and the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846. The end of 1845 and the first months of 1846 were dominated by the battle in parliament between the free traders and the protectionists over the repeal of the Corn Laws, with the latter rallying around Disraeli and Lord George Bentinck. An alliance of pro-Peel Conservatives, Radicals, and Whigs carried repeal, but the Conservative Party split: Peel and his followers, known as Peelites, moved towards the Whigs, while a "new" Conservative Party formed around the protectionists, led by Disraeli, Bentinck, and Lord Stanley (later Lord Derby).

[edit] Office

[edit] The first Derby government

Main article: Who? Who? Ministry

The first opportunity for Disraeli, Stanley, and the protectionist Tories to take office had come in 1851, when Lord John Russell's government had been defeated in the House of Commons over the Ecclesiastical Titles Act 1851. Disraeli was to have been Home Secretary, with Stanley (who became the Earl of Derby later that year) as Prime Minister. The Peelites, however, refused to serve under Stanley or with Disraeli, and attempts to create a purely protectionist government failed. <ref>Ibid, 301-305.</ref>

Russell resumed office, but resigned again in early 1852 when a combination of the protectionists and Lord Palmerston defeated him on a Militia Bill. This time Lord Derby (as he had become) took office, and appointed Disraeli Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. Disraeli's first and primary responsibility was to produce a Budget for the coming fiscal year. He proposed to reduce taxes on malt and tea (indirect taxation); additional revenue would come from an increase in the House tax. More controversially, Disraeli also proposed to alter the workings of the Income Tax (direct taxation) by "differentiating"–i.e., different rates would be levied on different types of income. <ref>P. R. Ghosh, "Disraelian Conservatism: A Financial Approach." The English Historical Review, Vol. 99, No. 391. (Apr., 1984), 269-273; H. C. G. Matthew, "Disraeli, Gladstone, and the Politics of Mid-Victorian Budgets." The Historical Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3. (Sep., 1979), 621.</ref> The establishment of the income tax on a permanent basis had been the subject of much inter-party discussion since the fall of Peel's ministry, but no conclusions had been reached, and Disraeli was criticised for mixing up details over the different "schedules" of income. He was also hampered by an unexpected increase in defence expenditure, which was forced on him by Derby and Sir John Pakington (leading to his celebrated remark to John Bright about the "damned defences"). <ref>Bright's diary quotes the conversation in full. See George Trevelyan, The Life of John Bright, (London, 1913), 205-206</ref> This, combined with bad timing and perceived inexperience led to the failure of the Budget and consequently the fall of the government in December of that year.
Image:14th Earl of Derby.jpg
The Earl of Derby
Prime Minister 1852, 1858-59, 1866-68

Nonetheless, William Ewart Gladstone's final speech on the Budget marked the beginning of over twenty years of mutual parliamentary hostility and the end of Gladstone's formal association with the Conservative Party.

[edit] The second and third Derby governments

Main article: Second Derby Ministry

Derby returned to office in 1858 and once again made Disraeli chancellor and leader of the House of Commons. The principal measure of the 1858 session was the India Act, under which the subcontinent would be governed for sixty years. The East India Company and its Governor-General were replaced by a viceroy and the Indian Council, while at Westminster the Board of Control was abolished and its functions assumed by the India Office, under the newly-created Secretary of State for India. Disraeli worked closely with Lord Stanley, Derby's son and the President of the Board of Control, to guide the measure through the house. <ref>Blake, Disraeli, 381-382; 386.</ref>

Main article: Third Derby Ministry
After engineering the defeat of a Liberal Reform Bill introduced by Gladstone in 1866, Disraeli and Derby introduced their own measure in 1867.
Image:Gladstone.jpg
William Ewart Gladstone
Four-time Prime Minister
This was primarily a political strategy designed to give Conservatives control of the reform process and thereby long term benefits in the Commons, similar to those derived by the Whigs after the 1832 Reform Act. The Reform Act of 1867 extended the franchise by 938,427 (an increase of 88%) by giving the vote to male householders and male lodgers paying at least 10 pounds for rooms and eliminating rotten boroughs with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants and granting constituencies to fifteen unrepresented towns and extra representation in parliament to larger towns such as Liverpool and Manchester, which had previously been under-represented in Parliament.<ref>J.B. Conancher, "The Emergence of British Parliamentary Democracy in the Nineteenth Century", 177</ref>. This act was unpopular with the right wing of the Conservative Party, most notably Lord Cranborne (later the Marquess of Salisbury), who resigned from the government and spoke against the bill, accusing Disraeli of "a political betrayal which has no parallel in our Parliamentary annals." <ref>Quoted in Blake, Disraeli, 473.</ref> Cranborne, however, was unable to lead a rebellion similar to that which Disraeli had led against Peel twenty years earlier.

[edit] Prime Minister

[edit] First government

Derby's health had been declining for some time and he finally resigned as Prime Minister in late February of 1868; he would live for another twenty months. Disraeli's efforts over the past two years had dispelled, for the time being, any doubts about him succeeding Derby as leader of the Conservative Party and therefore Prime Minister. As Disraeli remarked, "I have climbed to the top of the greasy pole." <ref>Blake, Disraeli, 485-487.</ref>
Image:3rd Marquess of Salisbury.jpg
The Marquess of Salisbury
Three-time Prime Minister

However, the Conservatives were still a minority in the House of Commons, and the enaction of the Reform Bill required the calling of new election once the new voting register had been compiled. Disraeli's term as Prime Minister would therefore be fairly short, unless the Conservatives won the general election. He made only two major changes in the cabinet: he replaced Lord Chelmsford as Lord Chancellor with Lord Cairns, and brought in George Ward Hunt as Chancellor of the Exchequer. Disraeli and Chelmsford had never got along particularly well, and Cairns, in Disraeli's view, was a far stronger minister. <ref>Ibid, 487-489.</ref>

Disraeli's first premiership was dominated by the heated debate over the established Church of Ireland. Although Ireland was (and remains) overwhelmingly Roman Catholic, the Protestant Church remained the established church and was funded by direct taxation. An initial attempt by Disraeli to negotiate with Cardinal Manning the establishment of a Roman Catholic university in Dublin foundered in mid-March when Gladstone moved resolutions to dis-establish the Irish Church altogether. The proposal divided the Conservative Party while reuniting the Liberals under Gladstone's leadership. While Disraeli's government survived until the December general election, the initiative had passed to the Liberals.<ref>Ibid, 496-502.</ref>

[edit] Second government

However, in the election that followed, William Gladstone and the Liberals were returned to power with a majority of 170. After six years in opposition, Disraeli and the Conservative Party won the election giving the party its first absolute majority in the House of Commons since the 1840s. Disraeli's government introduced various reforms, such as the Artisans Dwellings Act (1875), the Public Health Act (1875), the Pure Food and Drugs Act (1875), the Climbing Boys Act (1875), and the Education Act (1876). His government also introduced a new Factory Act meant to protect workers, the Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act (1875) to allow peaceful picketing, and the Employers and Workmen Act (1878) to enable workers to sue employers in the civil courts if they broke legal contracts.

Disraeli was a staunch British imperialist and helped strengthen the British Empire with his support for the construction of the Suez Canal. He also achieved a diplomatic success at the Congress of Berlin in 1878 in limiting the growing influence of Russia in the Balkans and breaking up the League of the Three Emperors. However, difficulties in South Africa, epitomised by the defeat of the British Army at the Battle of Isandlwana, and Afghanistan weakened his government and likely led to his party's defeat in the 1880 election.

He was elevated to the House of Lords in 1876 when Queen Victoria (who liked Disraeli both personally and politically) made him Earl of Beaconsfield and Viscount Hughenden. He and Gladstone clashed again over Britain's Balkan policy. Disraeli saw the situation as a matter of British imperial and strategic interests; that is, keeping to Palmerston's policy of supporting the Ottoman Empire against Russian expansion. Gladstone, however, saw the situation as a moral one because Bulgarian Christians had been massacred by the Turks and therefore he believed it was immoral to support the Turks. Gladstone embarked on his "Midlothian campaign" in 1879 denouncing what he called "Beaconsfieldism". In the general election of 1880 Disraeli's Conservatives were defeated by Gladstone's Liberals. Disraeli became ill soon after and died in April 1881. His literary executor and for all intents and purposes his heir was his private secretary, Lord Rowton.

[edit] Personal life and family

Benjamin was the second child and eldest son of Isaac D'Israeli and Maria Basevi. His siblings included Sarah (1802–1859), Naphtali (1807), Ralph (1809–1898), and James (1813–1868). <ref>Ibid, 3.</ref>

Before his entrance into parliament Disraeli was involved with several different women, most notably Lady Henrietta Sykes (the wife of Sir Francis Sykes, Bt), who served as the model for Henrietta Temple. His relationship with Henrietta would eventually cause him serious trouble beyond the usual problems associated with a torrid affair. It was Henrietta who introduced Disraeli to Lord Lyndhurst, with whom she later became romantically involved. As Lord Blake observed: "The true relationship between the three cannot be determined with certainty...there can be no doubt that the affair [figurative usage] damaged Disraeli and that it made its contribution, along with many other episodes, to the understandable aura of distrust which hung around his name for so many years." <ref>Ibid, 116-119.</ref>

[edit] Disraeli's Judaism

Although born of Jewish parents, Disraeli was baptised in the Christian faith at the age of thirteen, and remained an observant Anglican for the rest of his life.<ref>Ibid, 11. See also Todd M. Endelman, "Disraeli's Jewishness Reconsidered" in Modern Judaism, Vol. 5, No. 2, Gershom Scholem Memorial Issue. (May, 1985), 115.</ref> At the same time, he regarded himself racially Jewish and did not view the two positions as incompatible.

[edit] Disraeli's governments

[edit] Works by Disraeli

[edit] Fiction

[edit] Non-fiction

Image:Benjamin-Disraeli-arms.PNG
Arms of Benjamin Disraeli

[edit] Biographies of Disraeli

[edit] Films featuring Disraeli

[edit] References in Pop Culture

Benjamin Disraeli is mentioned in the episode of Family Guy "One If By Clam, Tow If By Sea". Lois sais "Nigel is a very nice man", Peter replies "Yeah right that's what they said about Benjamin Disraeli", the show cuts to an scene of Benjamin who looks at the camera and states "You don't even know who I am".

[edit] Notes

<references />

[edit] References

  • Blake, Robert. Disraeli. New York: St Martin's Press, 1966.
  • Cline, C. L. "Disraeli and John Gibson Lockhart." Modern Language Notes, Vol. 56, No. 2. (Feb., 1941), pp. 134-137.
  • .— "Disraeli and Peel's 1841 Cabinet." The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 11, No. 4. (Dec., 1939), pp. 509-512.
  • .— "Disraeli and Thackeray." The Review of English Studies. Vol. 19, No. 76. (Oct., 1943), pp. 404-408.
  • Conancher, J. B. The Emergence of British Parliamentary Democracy in the Nineteenth Century. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1971.
  • .— "Peel and the Peelites, 1846-1850." The English Historical Review. Vol. 73, No. 288 (Jul., 1958), 431-452.
  • Endelman, Todd M. "Disraeli's Jewishness Reconsidered." Modern Judaism, Vol. 5, No. 2, Gershom Scholem Memorial Issue. (May, 1985), pp. 109-123.
  • Gash, Norman. Review of Disraeli, by Robert Blake. The English Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 327. (Apr., 1968), 360-364
  • Ghosh, P. R. "Disraelian Conservatism: A Financial Approach." The English Historical Review. Vol. 99, No. 391 (Apr., 1984), 268-296.
  • Graubard, Stephen R. Review of Disraeli, by Robert Blake. The American Historical Review, Vol. 73, No. 1. (Oct., 1967), 139.
  • Jerman, B. R. The Young Disraeli. 1960.
  • Matthew, H. C. G. "Disraeli, Gladstone, and the Politics of Mid-Victorian Budgets." The Historical Journal. Vol. 22, No. 3. (Sep., 1979), 615-643.
  • Merritt, James D. "The Novelist St. Barbe in Disraeli's Endymion: Revenge on Whom?" Nineteenth-Century Fiction. Vol. 23, No. 1. (Jun., 1968), pp. 85-88.
  • Trevelyan, G. M. The Life of John Bright. London: Constable, 1913.
  • Veliz, Claudio. "Egana, Lambert, and the Chilean Mining Associations of 1825." The Hispanic American Historical Review . Vol. 55, No. 4 (Nov., 1975), 637-663.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield

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