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Assam

Assam

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Assam

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Assam
Capital
 - Coordinates
Dispur
 - 26.15° N 91.77° E
Largest city Guwahati
Population (2001)
 - Density
26,638,407 (14th)
 - 340/km²
Area
 - Districts
78,438 km² (16th)
 - 23
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Establishment
 - Governor
 - Chief Minister
 - Legislature (seats)
1947-08-15
 - Ajai Singh
 - Tarun Gogoi
 - Unicameral (126)
Official language(s) Assamese,Bangla , Bodo, Karbi
Abbreviation (ISO) {{{abbreviation}}}
Website: assamgovt.nic.in
† Assam had a legislature since 1937

Assam pronunciation  (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur - now a part of Guwahati. Located just below the eastern Himalayan foothills, it is surrounded by the other northeastern states: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya. Assam and its commercial capital Guwahati form the gateway to the northeastern states, together called the seven sisters. These states are connected to the rest of India via Assam's border with West Bengal and a narrow strip called the "Chicken's Neck." Assam also shares international borders with Bhutan and Bangladesh.

On February 27, 2006 the cabinet of ministers in Assam adopted a controversial proposal to change the name of the state to Asom which is yet to be implemented [1].

Contents

[edit] Origin of name

The land of Assam was known by various names in the past---Pragjyotishpura, also known as "city of astrology" in ancient Hindu scriptures such as the Mahabharata; and Kamarupa in the early Middle Ages. After the decline of the Kamarupa kingdom in the 12th century, the land that included a part of the old Kamarupa kingdom and regions to the east of it was ruled by the Shan people, who called themselves Tai, but who were called Ahoms by the others. This kingdom lasted for nearly 600 years. Satyendra Nath Sarma writes:<ref>Sarma, Satyendra Nath Assamese Literature, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1976</ref>

While the Shan invaders called themselves Tai, they came to be referred to as Āsām, Āsam and sometimes as Acam by the indigenous people of the country. The modern Assamese word Āhom by which the Tai people are known is derived from Āsām or Āsam. The epithet applied to the Shan conquerors was subsequently transferred to the country over which they ruled and thus the name Kāmarūpa was replaced by Āsām, which ultimately took the Sanskritized form Asama, meaning "unequalled, peerless or uneven"<ref>Banikanta Kakati: Assamese: Its Formation and Development, p2</ref>

[edit] Early documented mentions

Therefore, the name Assam is of relatively recent origin. One of the first unambiguous references come from Thomas Bowrey in 1663 about Mir Jumla's death: "They lost the best of Nabobs, the Kingdome of Acham, and, by consequence, many large privileges".<ref>Bowrey, Thomas, A Geographical Account of Countries around Bay of Bengal, ed Temple, R. C., Hakluyt Society's Publications</ref> Tavernier's "Travels in India", published in 1676 uses the spelling "Assen" for Assam in the French original. The official chronicler of Mir Jumla too calls the place "Asam".<ref>The Indian Antiquary, July 1887, pp222-226</ref> Most scholars accept that the first known mention of the word Assam today is in a stanza from the Bhagavat of Sankardeva<ref>Srimandbhagavat, skandha 2, H Dattabaruah and Co., Nalbari, pp-38</ref> composed/translated in this region about the middle of the 16th century which described the ethnic groups of the region transcribed in iTrans

       kiraTa kachhaari      khaachi gaaro miri
               yavana ka~Nka govaala |
       asama maluka            dhobaa ye turuka
               kubaacha mlechchha chaNDaala ||

[edit] Later adoption

After the fall of the Tai Ahoms and the conquest by the British in 1826, "Assam" was used to denote first the principality of the erstwhile Ahoms, and later the British province. Soon, the province was expanded to include regions that were not part of historical Tai Ahom kingdom. The boundaries of Assam have been redrawn many times after that, but the name Assam remained. Today, the boundary of Assam contains roughly the historical Ahom, Koch Hajo and Kachari kingdoms.famous for assam tea

[edit] Geography

T-shaped, the state consists of the northern Brahmaputra valley, the middle Karbi and Cachar hills and the southern Barak Valley. It experiences heavy rainfall between March and September, with very high humidity in the summer months. The temperatures are generally mild, never extreme during any season.

Assam is very rich in vegetation, forests and wildlife. Lumber was once a lucrative business, until it was declared illegal by the Supreme Court of India. The region also has a number of reserved forests, and one of them, Kaziranga, is the home of the rare Indian Rhinoceros. The state produces a lot of Bamboo, although the bamboo industry is still nascent. The wildlife, forests and flora, rivers and waterways, have great natural beauty, providing growth in tourism.

High rainfall, deforestation, and other factors have resulted in annual floods that cause widespread loss of life, livelihood and property. An earthquake prone region, Assam has experienced two large earthquakes: 1897 (8.1 on the Richter scale) and 1950 (8.6).

Assam is divided into 23 districts: Barpeta, Bongaigaon, Cachar, Darrang, Dhemaji, Dhubri, Dibrugarh, Goalpara, Golaghat, Hailakandi, Jorhat, Kamrup, Karbi Anglong, Karimganj, Kokrajhar, Lakhimpur, Marigaon, Nagaon, Nalbari, North Cachar Hills, Sibsagar, Sonitpur, and Tinsukia.

[edit] Climate

Pleasant sub-alpine climate prevails in the hills.The plains however experience tropical climate making them uncomfortably humid especially during the rainy seasons. Winter sets in from around the end of the month of October and lasts till the end of February. The temperature drops to a minimum of 6 to 8 degrees Celsius, the nights and early mornings are foggy, and rain is scanty. Summer arrives in the middle of May accompanied by high humidity and rainfall. The temperature reaches a maximum of 35 to 38 degrees Celsius. The frequent rains however serve to push the mercury down. The Moonsoons blow full blast during the month of June. Thunderstorms known as Bordoichilla is a frequent occurrence during the afternoons. Spring and Autumn with moderate temperatures and modest rainfall are the best seasons.

Assam falls in a zone prone to earthquakes. Though mild tremors are familiar to the region, high-intensity earthquakes are rather infrequent. However, they do occur as in 1869 when the bank of the Barak sank by 15 ft, in 1897, and again in 1950 when a large part of the State was ravaged by an earthquake of unprecedented intensity.

[edit] Demographics

Assam is a multi-ethnic society. Forty five different languages are spoken by different communities in Assam. The state is the meeting place of three major language families: Austroasiatic (5), Sino-Tibetan (24) and Indo-European (12). Three of the spoken languages do not fall in these families. There is a high degree of bilingualism. The number of ethnic communities in the state is very large. The People of India project (POI) has studied 115 communities. Of these 79 (69%) identify themselves regionally, 22 (19%) identify themselves locally, and 3 communities identify themselves trans-nationally.

The earliest settlers were Austroasiatic. The Tibeto-Burman speakers have entered the region from the north, northeast and southeast at various times in the prehistorical and historical times. The Indo-Aryan speakers have entered the region from the Gangetic plains in the west again at various times in the past.

Assam has communities representing many different religions, but the major religion is Hinduism (67.13%). Islam (28.43%) constitutes the largest proportional population among all Indian states except Jammu and Kashmir. Other significant religions (4.44%) include Animism (followed by many tribal communities), Buddhism (by ethnic communities like the Khamti, Phake, Aito etc.) and Sikhism (followed by communities in Borkhola, in Nagaon).

In Hinduism, Assam has played a significant role in the growth of the sakta form of worship and Tantricism which continues in the present times. Saivism too continues to be important. The medieval times saw the emergence of a Bhakti movement led by Srimanta Sankardeva which continues to be strong today. The Islamic population is predominantly Sunni, and is divided into three communities: Syed, Shaikh and Moria. The early Islamic population (starting 13th century) was the result of remnants of invading armies and newer communities are agrarian and labor settlers from present-day Bangladesh.

The benefit of development in Assam is relatively evenly spread. It has a larger representation of leadership in panchayat and regional levels and a relative gender equality.

[edit] History

Main Article: History of Assam

[edit] Pre-historic Assam

Assam and adjoining regions have evidence of human settlement from all periods of the Stone ages. That the known hills settlements belonged to earlier periods may suggest that the valleys were populated later, or it may reflect sampling bias due to mountainous areas being more likely to remain less disturbed over long stretches of time.

The earliest ruler according to legend was Mahiranga (sanskritized form of the Tibeto-Burman name Mairang). He was followed by others in his line: Hatak, Sambar, Ratna and Ghatak. Naraka removed this line of rulers and established his own dynasty. The Naraka king mentioned at various places in Kalika Purana, Mahabharata and Ramayana covering a wide period of time were probably different rulers from the same dynasty. Kalika Purana, a sanskrit text compiled in Assam in the 9th and 10th century, mentions that the last of the Naraka-bhauma rulers, Narak, was slain by Krishna. His son Bhagadatta, mentioned in the Mahabharata, fought for the Kauravas in the battle of Kurushetra with an army of kiratas, chinas and dwellers of the eastern coast. Later rulers of Kamarupa frequently drew their lineage from the Naraka rulers.

[edit] Ancient and Medieval Assam

Image:RangGhar.jpg
Rang Ghar, in Ahom capital Sibsagar

Ancient Assam was known as Kamarupa and was ruled by many powerful dynasties. The Varman Dynasty (350-650AD) and the Xalostombho dynasty led Kamrupa as a strong ancient kingdom. During the rule of the greatest of the Varman kings, Bhaskarvarman (600-650AD), a contemporary of Harshavardhana of Kanauj, the Chinese traveler Xuan Zang visited the region, and recorded his travels. The other dynasties that ruled the region were the Kacharis, the Chutias etc. that belonged to the Indo-Tibetan groups.

Two later kingdoms left the biggest impact in the region. The Ahoms, a Tai group, ruled eastern Assam for nearly 600 years (1228-1826). The Koch, a Tibeto-Burmese/Dravidian group, established their sovereignty in 1510 which later extended to western Assam and northern Bengal. The Koch kingdom later split into two. The western kingdom became a vassal of the Moghuls whereas the eastern kingdom became an Ahom satellite state.

In spite of numerous invasions from the west, mostly by Muslim rulers, no western power could establish its rule in Assam until the advent of the British. The most successful invader was Mir Jumla, a governor of Aurangzeb, who briefly occupied Garhgaon the then capital of the Ahoms (1662-1663). He found it difficult to control the people, who carried on guerrilla attacks on his forces and forced his army to leave the region. Attempt by the Moghuls under the command of Raja Ram Singh resulted in the victory for the Ahoms at Saraighat (1671) under the Ahom general Lachit Borphukan.

[edit] Annexation to the Colonial British Empire

Ahom palace intrigue (and political turmoil resulting from the Moamoria rebellion) aided the expansionist Burmese ruler of Ava to invade Assam and install a puppet king in 1821. With the Burmese having reached the doorsteps of the East India Company's borders, the First Anglo-Burmese War ensued, in which Assam was one of the sectors. The war ended with the Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826, and the East India Company took control of the region.

Under British Administration, Assam was made a part of the British Indian province called the Bengal Presidency with it's capital at Calcutta. Sometime about 1905-1912, Assam was separated and with parts of Bengal, a separate province of Eastern Bengal and Assam was established with Dhaka as it's capital.

At the time of independence of India, it consisted of the original Ahom kingdom, the present-day Arunachal Pradesh (North East Frontier Agency), Naga Hills, original Kachari kingdom, Lushai Hills, and Garo, Khasi and Jaintia Hills. Of the Assam province on the eve of Independence, Sylhet choose to join Pakistan in a referendum; and the two princely states Manipur and Tripura became Group C provinces. The capital was Shillong.

[edit] Post independence

After the independence from British rule in 1947, Assam spawned four more states to become one of the seven sister states in the 1960s and 1970s. The new states were Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya. The capital of Assam, which was in Shillong, had to be moved to Dispur, now a part of an expanding Guwahati.

In 1961, the Government of Assam passed a legislature making the usage of Assamese language compulsory. The legislature resulted in widespread protest across Assam, particularly by the significant non-Assamese speaking minority. In one such incident, 11 Bengalis were killed due to police firing in Silchar in southern Assam on May 19th. Coming under intense pressure, the Government withdrew the legislation.

In the 1980s the Brahmaputra valley saw a six-year Assam Agitation that began non-violently but became increasingly violent. The movement was triggered by the discovery of a sudden rise in electorates in electoral rolls. The movement tried to force the government to identify and deport foreigners who, the natives maintained, are illegally inundating the land from neighboring Bangladesh and changing the demographics ,gradually pushing the indigenous Assamese into a minority.. Critics called it a xenophobic reaction of a racist people. The agitation ended after an accord between the leaders of the agitation and the Union Government. Most of the accord remains unimplemented today, a cause for a simmering discontent. However there is more to this problem than what meets the eye. Political parties have increasingly used the Bangladeshi card as a vote bank rather than addressing the concerns of the Assamese populace. However in recent years the Government of India has come to identify the problem of infiltration as a threat to national security. Former Governor of Assam (Retd) Lt Gen. S.K.Sinha makes this explicit in his report to the Government of India. An inhospitable terrain and a porous border constitute major challenges in checking this problem of infiltration

This was followed by demands for greater autonomy especially by the Bodos in the later 1980s and 1990s. The period also saw the growth of armed secessionist groups like United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) and National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB). The union government responded by deploying the Indian army to control the situation in November 1990, leading to claims of human rights violations. The Indian army deployment has now been institutionalized under a Unified Command. Worsening inter-ethnic relationships also marked this period.

The 2000s saw inter-ethnic killings, especially in the Karbi and Cachar hills (e.g the Hmar-Dimasa conflict).ok

[edit] Languages

Assamese and Bodo are the major indigenous and official languages of the state while Bengali holds official status in particular districts in the Barak Valley.

Traditionally Assamese was the language of the commons (of mixed origin - Bodo, Khasi, Sanskrit, Magadhan Prakrit) of the ancient kingdoms such as Kamrupa and Kamatapur in Assam. Traces of the language can be found in many poems in Charyapada written by Luipa, Sarahapa, etc during the period of the Xalostombho / Salastambha dynasty (7th/8th Century AD) of Kamarupa Kingdom. Modern Kamrupi dialect is the remnant of this language. Moreover, Assamese in its ancient and medieval form was used by almost every ethno-cultural group as the lingua-franca of the region. Probably the language was then required for needed economic integration and was also probably spread through the stronger and larger politico-economic systems such as that of the ancient Kamrupa. Traditional and localised forms of this language still exist in Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, North Bengal, Kacar (Cachar) and in Southern Assam (similarities with Chittagonian language in present-day Bangladesh exists). The form used in the upper Assam was enriched by contributions from many eastern immigrations such as of those of Tai-Ahoms and others beginning from 13th century onwards. Linguistically modern Assamese traces its roots to the version developed by the American Missionaries based on the local form in practice near Xiwoxagor/Sibsagar district. Assamese or Oxomeeya (as called in Assam) is a rich language due to its hybrid nature with its unique characteristics of pronounciation and softness. Assamese literature is one of the richest. The constitution of India recognises it as a major language of Republic of India.

Bodo is the ancient language of Assam and is mother of majority of the present day languages and dialects within the state and also in surrounding areas. Looking at the spatial distribution patterns of related ethno-cultural groups and their cultural traits and also phenomenon such as of naming all the major rivers in the North East Region with original Bodo words (e.g. Dihing, Dibru, Dihong, D/Tista, Dikrai, etc) it is understood that it was the most important language in the North East India in the ancient times, where history yet havent opened its gates. Bodo is presently spoken largely in the Lower Assam areas mostly under the areas of Bodo Territorial Council. During past few decades (after years of neglect) it is fortunate that Bodo as a language is getting attention and much care is being taken for development of Bodo literature.

Assam is also rich with several native languages such as Micing, Karbi, Dimaca, Rabha, Tiwa, etc of Tibeto-Burman origin and are closely related to Bodo. There are also small groups of people in different part of Assam with languages such as Tai-Phake, Tai-Aiton, Tai-Khamti, etc related to Tai-group of languages of Souhtern China and South East Asia. The Tai-Ahom language (brought by Sukapha and his followers) is now fortunately getting attentions for wide-spread research after centuries long care and preservation by the Bailungs (traditional priests), which is no more a spoken language for commons today. There are also small groups of people speaking Manipuri, Khasi, Garo, Hmar, Kuki, etc in different parts of Assam.

In the past century mass migration of Bengalis to the medieval kingdom of Kacar (of Kocaries) in the Barak Valley has led to their majority, prompting the government of Assam to include Bengali as the official language in the Barak Valley districts.

[edit] Culture

Assamese culture is a rich conglomerate of ethnic practices and assimilated beliefs. When the Tai Ahoms entered the region in 1228, they had their own cultural features. Over the six centuries of their rule, they adopted the local language, religion and cultural customs, and embellished it with their own to such an extent that it puts them apart from medieval rulers of India. This is one reason why Assamese culture is so rich in heritage and values.

[edit] Gamosa

The Gamosa is an article of great significance for the people of Assam. Literally translated, it means 'something to wipe the body with' (Ga=body, mosa=to wipe); interpreting the word “gamosa” as the body-wiping towel is misleading. It is generally a white rectangular piece of cloth with primarily a red border on three sides and red woven motifs on the fourth (in addition to red, other colors are also used). Though it is used daily to wipe the body after a bath (an act of purification), the use is not restricted to this. It is used by the farmer as a waistcloth (tongali) or a loincloth (suriya); a Bihu dancer wraps it around the head with a fluffy knot. It is hung around the neck at the prayer hall and was thrown over the shoulder in the past to signify social status. Guests are welcomed with the offering of a gamosa and tamul (betel nut) and elders are offered gamosas (bihuwaan) during Bihu. It is used to cover the altar at the prayer hall or cover the scriptures. An object of reverence is never placed on the bare ground, but always on a gamosa. One can therefore, very well say, that the gamosa symbolizes the life and culture of Assam.

The word gamosa is derived from the Kamrupi word gaamasa (gaama+chadar), the cloth used to cover the Bhagavad Purana at the altar. The equivalent word in Oriya is spelled as gaamu + cha = gamucha.

Significantly the gamosa is used equally by all irrespective of religious and ethnic backgrounds.

[edit] Bihu

Main article: Bihu

Bihu is a series of prominent festivals of Assam. Primarily a festival celebrated to mark the seasons and the significant points of a cultivator's life over a yearly cycle, in recent times the form and nature of celebration has changed with the growth of urban centers. A non-religious festival, all communities---religious or ethnic---take part in it. Three Bihus are celebrated: rongali, celebrates the coming of spring and the beginning of the sowing season; kongali, the barren bihu when the fields are lush but the barns are empty; and the bhogali, the thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full. Rongali, kongali & bhogali bihu are also known as 'bohag bihu', 'kati bihu' & 'magh bihu'respectivly. The day before the each bihu is known as 'uruka'. There are unique features of each bihu. The first day of 'rongali bihu' is called 'Goru bihu' (the bihu of the cows). On this day the cows are taken to the nearby rivers or ponds to be bathed. Cows take a special position among the people of Assam.

[edit] Music

Main article: Music of Assam

Assam, being the home to many ethnic groups and different cultures, is very rich in folk music. The indigenous folk music has in turn influenced the growth of a modern idiom, that finds expression in the music of such artists like Bhupen Hazarika, Rudra Baruah, Parbati Prasad Baruah, Jayanta Hazarika, Khagen Mahanta among many others. Among the new generation, Zubeen Garg and Jitul Sonowal have a great fan following.

[edit] Major cities and towns

Guwahati is the largest urban centre and a million plus city in Assam. The other important small cities and large towns are Dibrugarh, Jorhat, Silchar (Silcor), Tinsukia (Tinicukiya), Sibsagar (Xiwoxagor), Tezpur, Nagaon, Lakhimpur, Nalbari, Barpeta, Kokrajhar, Goalpara, Dhubri (Dhubury), etc. On the other hand, Namrup, Duliajan, Digboi, Moran, Bongaigaon, Numaligarh, Jogighopa, etc are major industrial towns. Currently, there are around 100 total urban centres in the state.

[edit] Religious places in Assam

Assam has several important temples, and this includes:

The Kamakhya Temple is situated near Guwahati in Assam. It is revered as one of the Shakti Peethas, and is visited by thousands throughout the year. It is also the focus of many myths, stories, and historical events.

The Surya Pahar Temple: It is situated in Goalpara district in Assam. It is an ancient center of sun worship and there are numerous insufficiently explored archaeological remains around it.

The Navagraha Temple : It is situated on the Chitrasal or Navagraha hill in Guwahati. The temple is famous for its unique feature of planatery faith.

Sivadol, a Shiva Temple, situated in Sivasagar city is an another religous place where thousands of Shiva dovoters come daily. Besides these, other Devi Dol and Vishnu Dol (Temple) are also located to fullfill the desire of devotees and these temples were built by earlier Ahom Kings.

[edit] Economy

Image:Assam historical pci.png
The per capita income of Assam was higher than the national average soon after Indian Independence. But it has slipped since, and the difference has become larger since liberalization of the Indian economy in the 1980s.

[edit] Macro-economic trend

This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Assam at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.

Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 25,160
1985 56,730
1990 106,210
1995 194,110
2000 314,760

Assam's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $13 billion in current prices.

[edit] Agriculture

Assam's biggest contribution to the world is its tea. Assam produces some of the finest and most expensive teas in the world (see Assam tea). Other than the Chinese tea variety Camellia sinensis, Assam is the only region in the world that has its own variety of tea, called Camellia assamica. Assam tea is grown at elevations near sea level, giving it a malty sweetness and an earthy flavor, as opposed to the more floral aroma of highland (e.g. Darjeeling, Taiwanese) teas.

The tea industry developed by the British planters brought in labour from as far as Bihar and Orissa and their descendents form a significant demographic group in the state.

[edit] Oil industry

Assam also produces crude oil and natural gas. Assam is the second place in the world (after Titusville in the United States) where petroleum was discovered. Asia’s first successful mechanically drilled oil well was drilled in Makum (Assam) way back in 1867. The second oldest oil well in the world still produces crude oil. Most of the oilfields of Assam are located in the Upper Assam region of the Brahmaputra Valley. Assam has four oil refineries located at Guwahati, Digboi, Numaligarh and Bongaigaon with a total capacity of 7 MMTPA (Million Metric Tonnes per annum).

Bongaigaon Refinery and Petrochemicals is the only S&P CNX 500 conglomerate with corporate office in Assam. Its gross income for 2005 was Rs.56,740 million.

[edit] Problems in Assam

The region was part of the British Empire and most of the nationalities of this region were integrated peacefully into the new country. Unfortunately economic indexes of the region, which were above average before independence, began to fall compared to the rest of the country.

Militant groups began forming along ethnic lines after Independence, and demands for sovereignty grew, resulting in the new states of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram in the 1970s. ULFA (United Liberation Front of Asom), and NDFB (National Democratic Front of Bodoland) are two major militant groups that came into existence in the 1980s, leading to a strong military crackdown. The low-intensity military conflict has been continuing for more than a decade now without an end to the insurgency at sight. High rural unemployment adds to this insurgency.

At the turn of the last century (1900s), people from present-day Bangladesh migrated to Assam, encouraged by British to increase agricultural production and thus revenue. The British tea planters imported labour from central India to work in the estates adding to the demographic canvas.

Like indigenous peoples in other parts of the world, the many ethnic groups of this region struggle to maintain their cultural heritage. There are active autonomy movements in the Bodo and Karbi dominated regions. In recent times, ethnicity based militant groups have mushroomed (NDFB, BLT, UPDS, DHD, KLO, HPCD etc.) leading to violent inter-ethnic conflicts (e.g. the Hmar-Dimasa conflict).

[edit] See also

[edit] References

<references/>

[edit] Bibliography

  • Singh, K. S (ed) (2003) People of India: Assam Vol XV Parts I and II, Anthropological Survey of India, Seagull Books, Calcutta

[edit] External links



State of Assam
</b> Assam Topics | History | Politics | People of Assam
Capital Dispur
Districts Barpeta | Bongaigaon | Cachar | Darrang | Dhubri | Dibrugarh | Dhemaji | Golaghat | Goalpara | Hailakandi | Jorhat | Karbi Anglong | Kokrajhar | Kamrup | Karimganj | Lakhimpur | Marigaon | North Cachar Hills | Nagaon | Nalbari | Sibsagar | Sonitpur | Tinsukia
Major cities BarpetaBongaigaonDhubriDibrugarhDiphuGoalparaGuwahatiJorhatKarimganjNagaonNorth LakhimpurSibsagarSilcharTezpurTinsukia


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