Learn more about 9th century
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 Western European
 "Dark Ages" applied later to this period
Starting about 400 years after the period, influential figures in the early phases of the Renaissance would refer back to these times, and the 3 centuries previous, as the "Dark Ages". The reference based on the eclipse of the Western Roman Empire, after AD 476, and the general loss of classical art forms, reduction of urban centers, and diffusion of political power to a petty level. Regional enities never grew to the level of nationhood, let alone empire. Only the Roman Catholic Papacy had true international power, and this was somewhat limited due to poor communications between the regions of Europe. Classical civilization's former record was preserved by the efforts of Catholic monks hand copying manuscripts, but since only a tiny percentage of the populace could read and write, little information or knowledge was disseminated. Most western people were engaged in rural agriculture, and the Roman cities were largely in ruins. Still, certain arts, related to the Church and the ruling class, led to at least a small degree of support to artisans. There is a legacy of brass and gold objects preserved in the world's museums from the Europe's "Dark Ages".
 Art of the "Dark Ages"
First and foremost, art existed because the Church required it. The basic tools of the Roman Catholic mass, thousands of golden art objects were made. Sacred cups, vessels, reliqueries, crucifixes, rosaries, altar pieces, and statues of the Virgin and Child or Saints all kept the flame of art from dying out in the period. Architecture began to revive to some extent by the 9th century. It took the form of Church facilities of all kinds, and the first castle fortifications since Roman times began to take form in simple "moat and baily" castles, or simple "strong point" tower structures, with little refinement.
 Worldwide Events
- An unknown event causes the decline of the Maya Classical Era
- Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century
- Reign of Charlemagne, and concurrent (and controversially labeled) Carolingian Renaissance in western Europe
- Large-scale Viking attacks on Europe begin, devastating countless numbers of people
- Oseberg ship burial
- The Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, forcing the Serbs and Bulgars south of the Danube.
- The Tukolor settle in the Senegal river valley.
- Muslim traders settle in the north-west and south-east of Madagascar.
- around 813-around 915 - period of serious Arab naval raids on shores of Tyrrhenian and Adriatic seas
- 800 - Arab fleet sails up the Tiber.
- 848-852 - The west bank of the Tiber is annexed into the city of Rome. A defensive wall, commissioned by Pope Leo IV, is built around what came to be called the Leonine City
- 870 - Prague Castle founded
- 800-909 - rule of Aghlabids as independent dynasty in North Africa
- 850-875 - The first Norse settlers arrive on Iceland.
- 863-879 - period of schism between eastern and western churches
- Late 9th century: Bulgaria stretches from the mouth of the Danube to Epirus and Bosnia.
- In Italy, some cities became free republics: for instance Forlì, in the 889.
- The Christian Nubian kingdom reaches its peak of prosperity and military power. (Early history of Sudan)
- Harald Fairhair was victorious at the battle of Hafrsfjord, and Norway was unified into one kingdom.
- Chess reaches Japan
- 867-onward Revival of the Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty.
 Significant people
- Alfred the Great
- Arnulf of Carinthia
- Wang Kon
- Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius
- Kenneth I of Scotland
- Louis the Pious
- Adi Sankara
- Harald I of Norway
- Boris I of Bulgaria
- Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α') (811 - 886), ruled (867) - (886)
- Amoghavarsha I, a great king
 Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- Vulgar Latin begins to devolve into various Romance languages
- First image of a rotary grindstone in a European source - illustration shows crank, first known use of a crank in the West (Utrecht Psalter, A.D. 843)
- Invention of gunpowder by Chinese Taoist Alchemists
 Decades and years
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als:9. Jahrhundert ar:قرن 9 an:Sieglo IX ast:Sieglu IX az:IX əsr be:9 стагодзьдзе bs:9. vijek br:IXvet kantved bg:9 век ca:Segle IX cs:9. století da:9. århundrede de:9. Jahrhundert et:9. sajand el:9ος αιώνας es:Siglo IX eo:9-a jarcento eu:IX. mendea fr:IXe siècle fy:9e ieu ga:9ú haois gd:9mh Linn gl:Século IX ko:9세기 hr:9. stoljeće io:9ma yar-cento id:Abad ke-9 is:9. öldin it:IX secolo he:המאה ה-9 kw:9ves kansblydhen la:Saeculum 9 lb:9. Joerhonnert lt:IX amžius li:Negende iew hu:9. század mk:9 век nl:9e eeuw ja:9世紀 no:9. århundre nn:800-talet pl:IX wiek pt:Século IX ksh:9. Joohunndot ro:Secolul IX ru:IX век sq:Shekulli IX ru-sib:9-о столетте scn:Sèculu IX simple:9th century sl:9. stoletje sr:9. век fi:800-luku sv:800-talet tt:9. yöz th:คริสต์ศตวรรษที่ 9 vi:Thế kỷ 9 tr:9. yüzyıl uk:9 століття zh:9世纪