7 World Trade Center

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Image:Wtc7 jan06.jpg
The new 7 World Trade Center (view from southeast)

There have been two buildings in New York City named 7 World Trade Center. The first building, which opened in 1987, was destroyed on September 11, 2001. The newer building was completed in 2006 and it is the first with a World Trade Center address to have been rebuilt.

The original 7 World Trade Center was on the super-block bounded by Vesey, Washington and Barclay Streets, and West Broadway. The new 7 World Trade Center is at the same location, except that its eastern boundary is on Greenwich Street, with a public park occupying the block between Greenwich Street and West Broadway.


[edit] 1984-2001

Image:NYfromWTC corrected.jpg
A view of 7 WTC (on the left) taken on August 14, 1992.

The original Seven World Trade Center, which was destroyed in the September 11, 2001 attacks, was built in the mid-1980s. Construction began in 1984, and in March 1987 the building opened to become the seventh structure comprising the World Trade Center. The building was constructed on top of a Con Edison substation, which was originally constructed on the site in 1967.<ref name="NIST-june2004">Template:Cite web</ref> The substation was constructed with a caisson foundation, that was designed to carry the weight of a future building on the site.<ref name="NIST-june2004"/>

The original structure had 47 floors<ref name="emporis1">Template:Cite web</ref> and was 570 feet (174 m) <ref name="emporis1"/> in height. Each floor had 47,000 square feet of rentable office space, which was considerably larger than most other buildings in New York City.<ref>Horsley, Carter B.. "Lower Manhattan Luring Office Developers", The New York Times, October 25, 1981.</ref> In all, 7 World Trade Center had 1,868,000 square feet (174,000 m²) of office space.<ref name="fema-ch5">Template:Cite web</ref> The building was clad in a red exterior masonry and had a pedestrian bridge connecting it to the main WTC complex. Emery Roth & Sons<ref name="emporis1"/> designed the building, which stood just north of the main World Trade Center complex across Vesey Street. The Center's management leased space to financial institutions, insurance companies, and government agencies.

From the former two categories, the building housed Salomon Smith Barney, American Express Bank International, Standard Chartered Bank, Provident Financial Management, ITT Hartford Insurance Group, First State Management Group, Inc., Federal Home Loan Bank, and NAIC Securities.

Image:WTC Building Arrangement and Site Plan (building 7 highlighted).jpg
The position of Building 7 in relation to the other WTC buildings before September 11 2001.

The government agencies housed at 7 World Trade Center were the United States Secret Service, the Department of Defense, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Mayor's Office of Emergency Management, the Internal Revenue Service Regional Council (IRS), and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). <ref>"CIA Lost Office In WTC: A secret office operated by the CIA was destroyed in the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, seriously disrupting intelligence operations'", CBSNews.com / AP, 2001, November 5, 2001.</ref>

[edit] Collapse

At 5:20 PM EDT on September 11, 2001, 7 World Trade Center collapsed. Since it had been evacuated, there were no casualties. The policemen and fireman advised people to get away from the building minutes before the collapse because they knew it was going to collapse

In May 2002, the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States (FEMA) released a report on the collapse.<ref name="fema-ch5"/> FEMA made preliminary findings that the collapse was due primarily to fires on multiple stories caused by debris from the other two towers, and not to the actual impact damage of 1 WTC and 2 WTC as they collapsed. The report noted that, prior to this collapse, there was no record of the fire-induced collapse of a large fire-protected steel building such as 7 WTC.

The report did not reach final conclusions, outlining a number of issues needing to be explored with respect to the cause of the collapse. Specifically, FEMA made these findings:

“Loss of structural integrity was likely a result of weakening caused by fires on the 5th to 7th floors. The specifics of the fires in WTC 7 and how they caused the building to collapse remain unknown at this time. Although the total diesel fuel on the premises contained massive potential energy, the best hypothesis has only a low probability of occurrence. Further research, investigation, and analyses are needed to resolve this issue.” (Chapter 5, pg 31.)

In response to FEMA's concerns, the Commerce Department’s National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) conducted a three-year, US$24 million investigation into the structural failure and progressive collapse of several WTC complex structures, including 7 World Trade Center. The study included not only in-house technical expertise, but also drew upon the knowledge of several outside private institutions, including the Structural Engineering Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (SEI/ASCE), the Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), and the Structural Engineers Association of New York (SEAoNY).<ref name="NIST-WTCreport">Template:Cite web</ref>

NIST has released video and still photo analysis of Building 7 prior to its collapse that appears to indicate a greater degree of structural damage from falling debris than originally assumed by FEMA. Specifically, a large 10-story gash existed on the south facade, extending a third across the face of the building and approximately a quarter of the way into the interior.<ref name="NIST-june2004"/> A unique aspect of the design of 7 WTC was that each outer structural column was responsible for supporting 2,000 square feet (186 square meters) of floor space, suggesting that the simultaneous removal of a number of columns would lead to a severely compromised structure. Consistent with this theory, news footage shows visible cracking and bowing of the building's east wall immediately prior to the collapse, which started from the penthouse floors.<ref name="NIST-june2004"/>

The final report from NIST regarding the collapse of 7 WTC was due in July 2005, but is still ongoing.<ref name="NISTFAQ">Template:Cite web</ref> NIST released a progress report in June of 2004 outlining its working hypothesis. On this hypothesis a local failure in a critical column, caused by damage from either fire or falling debris from the collapses of the two towers, progressed first vertically and then horizontally to result in "a disproportionate collapse of the entire structure".<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In a New York Magazine interview in March 2006, Dr S. Shyam Sunder, NIST's lead WTC disaster investigator, said of 7 World Trade Center, "We are studying the horizontal movement east to west, internal to the structure, on the fifth to seventh floors.” and then added "But truthfully, I don’t really know. We’ve had trouble getting a handle on Building No. 7".<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Despite FEMA's preliminary finding that fire caused the collapse, conspiracy theorists believe the collapse was the result of a controlled demolition, usually as part of a larger belief in 9/11 conspiracy theories. When asked about controlled demolition theories, Dr. Sunder said, "We consulted 80 public-sector experts and 125 private-sector experts. It is a Who’s Who of experts. People look for other solutions. As scientists, we can’t worry about that. Facts are facts."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In answer to the question of whether "a controlled demolition hypothesis is being considered to explain the collapse", NIST says that it "While NIST has found no evidence of a blast or controlled demolition event, it would like to determine the magnitude of hypothetical blast scenarios that could have led to the structural failure of one or more critical elements."<ref name="NISTFAQ"/>

[edit] 2002-2006: Building the new 7 World Trade Center

Image:Construction 7wtc.jpg
7 World Trade Center under construction in October 2004
Image:WTC7 alone.jpg
The new 7 World Trade Center

Construction of the new 7 World Trade Center began in 2002, and was completed in 2006 at a cost of $700 million.<ref name="ar-June2006">"7 World Trade Center completed, first major development at Ground Zero", Architectural Record, June 1, 2006.</ref> The 52-story building is is 750 feet (228 m) tall, and contains 1,700,000 square feet (158 000 m²) of leasable office space starting from the 11th floor.<ref name="emporis2">Template:Cite web</ref> The first ten floors will house an electrical substation which will power most of Lower Manhattan. The office tower has a narrower footprint at ground level than its predecessor (as the course of Greenwich Street has been restored in an effort to re-unite Tribeca and the Financial District).

The architect was David Childs of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill who worked in conjunction with glass artist and designer James Carpenter. They used ultra-clear, low-iron glass to provide reflectivity and light, with stainless-steel spandrels behind the glass that also help reflect sunlight.<ref name="ar-June2006"/> Artist Jenny Holzer created a large light installation inside the main lobby with glowing text moving across wide plastic panels.<ref name="ar-June2006"/> The entire wall is about 30 meters wide by 7 meters tall and changes colors, according to the time of day.

The building has 2 foot (60 cm) thick reinforced concrete and fireproofed elevator and stairway access shafts, whereas the original building used only drywall to line these shafts. The stairways are wider than in the original building to permit greater egress. Steel columns are encased in much thicker fire protection and the building is being promoted as the safest skyscraper in the U.S.<ref name="lower">Template:Cite web</ref> According to Silverstein Properties, the owner of the building, it "will incorporate a host of life-safety enhancements that will become the prototype for new high-rise construction..."

7 World Trade Center is equipped with destination elevators, supplied by the Otis Elevator Company.<ref>Angwin, Julia. "No-button elevators take orders in lobby", Charleston Gazette (West Virginia), November 19, 2006.</ref> After entering their floor destination in a lobby keypad, people are grouped together and directed to specific elevators that will stop at their particular floor. There are no buttons to press inside the elevators. This system is designed to reduce waiting and travel times on the elevators.

The building is considered New York City's first "green" office tower by gaining gold status in the US Green Building Council's LEED program.<ref name="green">Template:Cite web</ref> Rainwater is collected and used for irrigation of the park, and to cool the building, and recycled steel was used in the building's construction.<ref name="ar-June2006"/>

Image:Jeff Koons 7 WTC.JPG
Balloon Flower by artist Jeff Koons

The triangular park was created by David Childs with Ken Smith and his colleague Annie Weinmayr of Ken Smith Landscape Architect, and is situated between the now extended Greenwich Street and West Broadway. It consists of a central open plaza with a fountain and flanking groves of trees and shrubs. As the seasons change, so will the colors in the park, providing a soothing natural complement to the adjacent tower. Artist Jeff Koons created Balloon Flower (Red), the sculpture in the center of the fountain. The mirror-polished stainless steel sculpture represents a twisted balloon in the shape of a flower that has been enlarged to monumental scale.

Building Seven was not included in the original World Trade Center master plan by Daniel Libeskind, but was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill under the leadership of David Childs, who largely redesigned the Freedom Tower.

The building was officially opened at noon on May 23 2006 with a free concert sponsored by Larry Silverstein. The concert featured Suzanne Vega, Citizen Cope, Bill Ware Vibes, Brazilian Girls, Ollabelle, Pharaoh's Daughter, Ronan Tynan of the Irish Tenors, and special guest Lou Reed.

From September 8 to October 7, 2006, the work of photographer Jonathan Hyman was on exhibit in 7 World Trade Center, on the 45th floor.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The exhibit, "An American Landscape", was hosted by the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation. The photographs captured the response of people in New York City and across the United States following the September 11, 2001 attacks. At the time of the exhibit, the 45th floor was a large, empty concrete space, which will eventually be turned into offices. From the 45th floor, visitors could also see 360 degree views of Lower Manhattan, Midtown Manhattan, the Hudson River, Brooklyn Bridge, and a view of the World Trade Center site.

[edit] Tenants

As of August 2006, ten percent of the building has signed leases, with eight tenants,<ref>Spitz, Rebecca. "9/11: Five Years Later: 7 World Trade Open For Business, Lacking Tenants", NY1 News, 2006, August 31.</ref> in addition to housing Silverstein Properties. The building has 42 floors of rentable space, with the first ten floors occupied by a Con Edison substation. In September 2006, Moody's signed a 20-year lease to rent 15 floors of 7 World Trade Center.<ref>"Moody's Signs Lease at 7 WTC", Associated Press/MSN Money, 2006-09-18.</ref>

View out the window of 7 World Trade Center's 45th floor, looking down at the World Trade Center site

Current and future tenants include:

A deal fell through in July 2006 with Vantone Real Estate, of Beijing, which was slated to occupy the top five floors of 7 WTC.<ref>Egan, Mark. "Chinese company pulls out of planned WTC lease", Reuters, 2006, July 11.</ref>

[edit] Trivia

New World Trade Center
Freedom Tower (Tower 1)
200 Greenwich Street (Tower 2)
175 Greenwich Street (Tower 3)
150 Greenwich Street (Tower 4)
7 World Trade Center
Memorial and Museum
Reflecting Absence (Memorial)
International Freedom Center
Drawing Center
Transportation Hub

[edit] See also

[edit] References


[edit] External links

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