Learn more about 5th century BC
(2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium)
The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC.
The 5th and 4th centuries BC are a period of philosophical brilliance among advanced civilizations, particularly the Greeks. Ancient Greek philosophy develops during the 5th century BC, setting the foundation for Western ideology. In Athens and elsewhere in the Mediterranean world, the 5th century marks a high point in the development of political institutions, art, architecture, and literature.
 490s BC
- 499 BC - Aristagoras, acting on behalf of the Persian Empire, leads a failed attack on the rebellious island of Naxos.
- 499 BC - Aristagoras instigates the Ionic Revolt, beginning the Persian Wars between Greece and Persia.
- 499 BC - Sardis destroyed by Athenian and Ionian troops.
- 498 BC - Leontini subjugated by Hippocrates of Gela.
- 498 BC - Alexander I succeeds his father Amyntas I as king of Macedonia.
- 497 BC - Potidaea is struck by a tsunami.
- 496 BC - Battle of Lake Regillus: A legendary early Roman victory, won over either the Etruscans or the Latins.
- 496 BC - King Gon Jian of Yue defeats and banishes King Fucha of Wu, gaining a temporary hegemony in ancient China during the Spring and Autumn Period.
- 495 BC - Temple to Mercury on the Circus Maximus in Rome is built.
- 494 BC - The Battle of Lade, where Persians take back Ionia.
- 494 BC - Two tribunes of the plebs and two plebeian aediles are elected for the first time in Rome: the office of the tribunate is established.
- 494 BC - The year Rome changed from an Aristocratic Republic to a Liberalized Republic.
- 493 BC - Battle of Lake Regillus fought by the Romans.
- 493 BC - Piraeus, the port town of Athens, is founded.
- 493 BC - Coriolanus captures the Volscian town of Corioli for Rome.
- 492 BC - First expedition of King Darius I of Persia against Greece, under the leadership of his son-in-law Mardonius. This marks the start of the campaign which culminated in the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC.
- 491 BC - Leotychidas II succeeds his cousin Demaratus as king of Sparta.
- 491 BC - Gelo becomes Tyrant of Gela.
- September 12, 490 BC - The Battle of Marathon, where Darius I of Persia is defeated by the Greeks under Miltiades.
- 490 BC - Phidippides runs 40 kilometers from Marathon to Athens to announce the news of the Greek victory; origin of the marathon long-distance race.
 480s BC
- 489 BC Cities of Rhodes unite and start construction of the new city of Rhodes.
- 488 BC - Leonidas I succeeds his brother Cleomenes I as king of Sparta after Cleomenes is judged insane.
- 487 BC - Egypt revolts against the Persians.
- 487 BC - Aegina and Athens go to war.
- 487 BC - Athenian Archonship becomes elective by lot, an important milestone in the move towards radical Athenian democracy.
- 486 BC - First part of the Grand Canal of China is built.
- 486 BC - Xerxes I succeeds Darius I as Great King of Persia.
- 486 BC - Egypt revolts against Persian rule.
- 486 BC - First Buddhist Council at Rejgaha, under the patronage of King Ajatasattu. Oral tradition established for the first time.
- October, 485 BC - Xerxes I succeeds Darius as King of Persia.
- 484 BC - Athenian playwright Aeschylus wins a poetry prize.
- 484 BC - Xerxes I abolishes the Kingdom of Babel and removes the golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach).
- 484 BC - Persians regain control of Egypt.
- 483 BC - Xerxes I of Persia starts planning his expedition against Greece.
- 481 BC - The Congress at the Isthmus of Corinth ends a war between Athens and Aegina.
- 480 BC - King Xerxes I of Persia sets out to conquer Greece.
- 480 BC - Cimon and his friends burn horse-bridles as an offering to Athena and join the marines.
- 480 BC - Pleistarchus succeeds his father Leonidas I as king of Sparta.
- August, 480 BC - Battle of Artemisium - The Persian fleet fights an inconclusive battle with the Greek allied fleet.
- August 11, 480 BC - The Battle of Thermopylae, a victory by Persians over the Greeks.
- September 23, 480 BC - Battle of Salamis between Greece and Persia, leading to a Greek victory.
- 480 BC - Battle of Himera - The Carthaginians under Hamilcar are defeated by the Greeks of Sicily, led by Gelon of Syracuse.
- 480 BC - Roman troops march against the Veientines.
 470s BC
 460s BC
- 468 BC - Sophocles, Greek playwright, defeats Aeschylus for the Athenian Prize.
- 468 BC - Antium captured by Roman forces.
- 468 BC - King Zhending of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China.
- 466 BC - Delian League defeats Persia at the Battle of Eurymedon.
- 466 BC - The Greek colony of Taras, in Magna Graecia, is defeated by Iapyges, a native population of ancient Apulia; Tarentine monarchy falls, with the installation of a democracy and the expulsion of the Pythagoreans.
- 465 BC - King Xerxes I of the Persian Empire is murdered by Artabanus the Hyrcanian. He is succeeded by Artaxerxes I, possibly with Artabanus acting as Regent.
- 465 BC - Thasos revolts from the Delian League.
- 464 BC - An earthquake in ancient Sparta, Greece leads to a Helot uprising and strained relations with Athens, one of the factors that lead to the Peloponnesian War.
- 464 BC - Regent King Artabanus of Persia is killed by his charge Artaxerxes I.
- 464 BC - Third Messenian war.
- 462 BC - The revolt of Thasos against the Delian League comes to an end with their surrender.
- 461 BC - Athenian politicianCimon is ostracized.
- 460 BC - Egypt revolts against Persia, starting a six year war. An Athenian force sent to attack Cyprus is diverted to support this revolt.
- 460 BC - Cincinnatus becomes consul of the Roman Republic.
 450s BC
- 459 BC - Pleistoanax succeeds his father Pleistarchus as king of Sparta.
- 459 BC - Destruction of the Sicilian town of Morgantina by Douketios, leader of the Sikels, according to Diodoros Siculus.
- 459 BC - Ezra leads the second body of Jews from Babylon to Jerusalem.
- 458 BC - Greek playwright Aeschylus completes the Oresteia, a trilogy that tells the story of a family blood feud. The plays will have a great influence on future writers.
- 458 BC - Cincinnatus is named dictator of the Roman Republic in order to defend it against Aequi. Sixteen days later, after defeating the invaders at the Battle of Mons Algidus, he resigns and returns to his farm.
- 457 BC - Athenian statesman Pericles' greatest reform, allowing common people to serve in any state office, inaugurates Golden Age of Ancient Athens.
- 457 BC - Battle of Tanagra–The Spartans defeat the Athenians, near Thebes.
- 457 BC - Battle of Oenophyta–The Athenians defeat the Thebans and take control of Boeotia.
- 457 BC - Decree of Artaxerxes I to re-establish the city government of Jerusalem. See Ezra 7, Daniel 9 and Nehemiah 1 in Old Testament.
- 455 BC - A thirty years' truce concluded between Athens and Lacedaemon.
- 455 BC - Euripides presents his first known tragedy, Peliades, in the Athenian festival of Dionysia.
- 454 BC - Athens loses a fleet and possibly as many as 50 000 men in a failed attempt to aid an Egyptian revolt against Persia.
- 454 BC - The treasury of the Delian League is moved from Delos to Athens.
- 454 BC - Hostilities between Segesta and Selinunte, two Greek cities on Sicily.
- 453 BC - Taiyuan, a city in China, gets flooded.
- 451 BC - Athens makes peace with Sparta and wages a war against Persia.
- 451 BC - The decemviri come to power in the Roman Republic. They enact the twelve tables, the foundation of Roman Law.
- 450 BC - Battle of Salamis: Athenians under Cimon defeat the Persian fleet.
- 450 BC - Perdiccas II succeeds Alexander I as king of Macedonia (approximate date).
 440s BC
 430s BC
- 439 BC - Cincinnatus again became dictator of the Roman Republic, during which he defeated the Volsci.
- 439 BC - According to legend, Gaius Servilius Ahala saves Rome from Spurius Maelius.
- 438 BC - Ictinus and Callicrates finish construction of the Parthenon, located on Athens' Acropolis.
- 435 BC - The Statue of Zeus at Olympia by Phidias, one of the seven wonders of the world, is completed.
- 434 BC - Conflict occurs between the Greek island of Kerkyra and its mother-city Corinth.
- 434 BC - Anaxagoras tries to square the circle with straightedge and compass.
- 433 BC - Battle of Sybota between Corcyra and Corinth.
- 433 BC (or later) - Burial of Marquis Yi of Zeng in China.
- 432 BC - Athens adopts a 19-year cycle of synchronizing solar and lunar calendars.
- 432 BC - Athens defeats Corinth in the battle of Potidaea.
- 432 BC - The Greek colony of Heraclea is founded by Tarentum and Thurii.
- 431 BC - The Peloponnesian War begins between Sparta and Athens and their allies.
- 431 BC - Defeat of the Aequians by the Romans under the dictator A. Postumius Tubertus.
- 431 BC - The Greek physician and philosopher Empedocles articulates the notion that the human body has four humors: blood, bile, black bile, and phlegm, a belief which dominates medical thinking for centuries.
- 430 BC - Athens suffers a major pestilence, believed to be caused by epidemic typhus.
- c. 430 BC - First performance of Sophocles's Oedipus the King.
 420s BC
 Significant persons
- 498 BC - Amyntas I, king of Macedonia, died.
- Pythagoras of Samos, Greek mathematician. See Pythagorean theorem. (582 - 496 BC).
- 491 BC - Hippocrates, Tyrant of Gela died.
- Gautama Buddha, founding figure of Buddhism (ca. 563 - 483 BC).
- Confucius, founding figure of Confucianism (551 - August 27, 479 BC).
- Mahavira of Vaishali, founder of Jainism (possibly 549 BCE-477 BCE).
- Aeschylus of Athens, playwright (525 - 456 BC).
- Darius I, King of Persia (reigned 521 - 485 BC).
- Panini, Hindu Indian grammarian, (520 BC - 460 BC).
- Sophocles of Athens, playwright (496 - 406 BC).
- 496 BC - Sun Tzu, military philosopher and author of The Art of War, died (most likely a colloquial date).
- Pericles of Athens, politician (ca. 495 - 429 BC).
- Zeno of Elea, Greek philosopher (495 BC - c. 430 BC).
- Phidias, Greek sculptor(490 BC - c. 430 BC) (estimated date).
- Empedocles, Greek philosopher, (490 BC - c. 430 BC) (estimated date).
- 489 BC - Eudoxus of Cnidus, early mathematician and adherent of Pythagoras Dion, student of Plato and tyrant of Syracuse, was born.
- 488 BC - Miltiades, Athenian general, died.
- Herodotus of Halicarnassus, historian (ca. 485 BC).
- Euripides of Athens, playwright (ca. 480 - 406 BC).
- 479 BC - Mardonius - Persian commander at Plataea, died.
- 479 BC - Ephialtes - betrayer of Greece at the Battle of Thermopylae, died.
- 476 BC - King Jing of Zhou / Ji Gai, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China, died.
- 475 BC - Heraclitus of Ephesus, Greek philosopher, died.
- Socrates of Athens, philosopher (470 - 399 BC).
- 470 BC - Mozi, Chinese philosopher, was born (+ 391 BC) (approximate date).
- 469 BC - Aspasia of Miletus, mistress of Pericles of Athens, was born (+ 406 B.C.) (approximate date).
- 469 BC - King Yuan of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China.
- 469 BC - Leotychides, king of Sparta, died.
- 469 BC - Simonides of Ceos, Greek lyric poet, died.
- 468 BC - Aristides, Athenian statesman, died.
- 465 Xerxes I, king of Persia, murdered.
- 464 BC - Artabanus of Persia, Regent King for Artaxerxes I, died.
- 461 BC - Ephialtes, leader of the radical democrats, assassinated.
- Thucydides, Greek historian, (460 BC - 395 BC).
- Hippocrates of Cos, Greek physician, (460 BC - 377 BC).
- Democritus of Abdera, Greek philosopher, (460 BC - 370 BC).
- 459 BC - Pleistarchus, King of Sparta, died.
- 451 BC - Verginia, legendary victim of the decemviri, died.
- 450 BC - Alcibiades, Athenian general and politician, was born (approximate year).
- 450 BC - Cimon, major political figure in Athens and the son of Miltiades, died (approximate year).
- 450 BC - Alexander I, king of Macedonia, died (approximate date).
- 449 BC - Appius Claudius, former decemvir, did a suicide.
- 449 BC - Spurius Oppius, former decemvir, did a suicide.
- Aristophanes of Athens, playwright (ca. 446 - 385 BC).
- 446 BC - Marcus Furius Camillus, Roman soldier and statesman, was born (traditional date).
- 443 BC - Pindar, Greek poet, died.
- 442 BC - King Zhending of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China, died.
- 437 BC - Volumnius, Etruscan ruler died in Veii.
- 436 BC - Isocrates, Athenian orator, was born.
- 436 BC - Artaxerxes II, king of Persia, was born (approximate date).
- 435 BC - Philoxenus of Cythera, Greek dithyrambic poet, was born (+ 380 BC).
- Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse (c. 432 BC - 367 BC).
- 430 BC - Empedocles, Greek philosopher, died (estimated date).
- 430 BC - Phidias, Greek sculptor, died (estimated date).
- 430 BC - Zeno of Elea, Greek philosopher, died (estimated date).
- Darius II, king of Persia (reigned 423-404 BC)
- Ezra and Nehemiah active in Judea.
- Tollund Man, Human sacrifice victim on the Jutland Peninsula in Denmark, possibly the earliest known evidence for worship of Odin.
 Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- Cast iron is first used in Wu.
- The Greeks invent the Anchor with flukes.
- The Greeks start to use shear-leg cranes for construction and loading of ships.
- The Greeks invent linear perspective.
- The Greeks develop an indirect lost wax process for casting bronze.
 Decades and years
af:5de eeu v.C.
bg:5 век пр.н.е.
ca:Segle V aC
cs:5. století př. n. l.
da:5. århundrede f.Kr.
de:5. Jahrhundert v. Chr.
el:5ος αιώνας π.Χ.
es:Siglo V adC
eo:5-a jarcento a.K.
eu:K. a. V. mendea
fr:Ve siècle av. J.-C.
hr:5. stoljeće p.n.e.
io:5ma yar-cento aK
it:V secolo a.C.
he:המאה ה-5 לפנה"ס
ka:ძვ. წ. V საუკუნე
lb:5. Joerhonnert v. Chr.
hu:I. e. 5. század
nl:5e eeuw v. Chr.
no:5. århundre f.Kr.
pl:V wiek p.n.e.
pt:Século V a.C.
ru:V век до н. э.
scn:Sèculu V a.C.
sk:5. storočie pred Kr.
sl:5. stoletje pr. n. št.
sr:5. век пне.
tl:Ika-5 siglo BC
tt:MA 5. yöz
uk:5 століття до Р.Х.
5th century BC