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 Events and trends
- 539 BC - Babylon is conquered by Cyrus, defeating Nabonidus; noted in such documents as that of Africanus, Ptolemy, Eusebius, and Diodorus.
- c. 538 BC - Return of some Jews from Babylonian exile who build the Second Temple about seventy years after the destruction of the First Temple, from 520–516 BC; This account is noted in the Old Testament of the Bible at 2 Chronicles 36:20-23 and Ezra 1:1-5. The year 538 BCE also begins the reign of the Medo-Persian King Cyrus the Great, according to Biblical writer of 2 Chronicles 36:22.
- 537 BC - Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to Jerusalem, bringing to a close the Babylonian captivity; They had been exiled 70 years before hand, according to the prophecy of the Biblical Prophet Jeremiah (Jeremiah 25: 8-12)
- 536 BC - According to tradition, the Biblical prophet Daniel receives an angelic visitor. see Daniel 10:4;
- 534 BC - Lucius Tarquinius Superbus becomes seventh king of Rome, after murdering the sixth king Servius Tullius.
- 534 BC - Competitions for tragedy are instituted at the City Dionysia festival in Athens;
- 530 BC - Cyrus II died.
- c. 530 BC - Temple of Apollo at Delphi is built.
- c. 530 BC - 525 BC - Siphnian Treasury, Delphi, is built.
 Significant people
- 539 BC/538 BC - Death of Nabonidus, the last King of Babylon.
- 535 BC - Birth of Heraclitus of Ephesus, Greek philosopher (approximate date)
- 530 BC - Death of Cyrus I of Persia (approximate date).