# 3rd century BC

### Learn more about 3rd century BC

Centuries:
| 4th century BC - - 2nd century BC
3rd century BC |

Decades:
| 290s BC 280s 270s 260s 250s 240s 230s 220s 210s 200s BC |

(2nd millennium BC - **1st millennium BC** - 1st millennium)

The 3rd century BC started on January 1, 300 BC and ended on December 31, 201 BC.

## Contents |

## [edit] Events

- Teotihuacán, Mexico begun
- The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean
- Rome conquers Spain
- Gaulish migration to Macedon, Thrace and Galatia
- 282-226: Colossus of Rhodes
- 281 BC Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire.
- 279 BC Singidunum and Taurunum, today's Belgrade and Zemun, founded by Scordisci Celts
- 275 BC: end of history of Babylon
- 273 BC to 252 BC Ashoka the Great ruled the Mauryan Empire
- 261 BC Antiochus II Theos, 2nd son, at the death of his father becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire.
- 214 BC Qin Shi Huang Qin Dynasty ordered construction of the Great Wall of China.
- Indian traders regularly visited Arabia
- Scythians occupy Sogdiana, in modern-day Uzbekistan.
- Han dynasty was founded (202 BC - 8 AD).
- The Pharos of Alexandria is built.
- Appearance of the Hopewell culture in Ohio, USA

## [edit] Significant persons

- Appius Claudius Caecus, Aqua Appia, Via Appia, invented letter G
- Mencius, Chinese philosopher and sage (371 - 289 BC).
- Euclid, geometer (c. 365 - 275 BC).
- Ashoka, Mauryan ruler of India 273 BC - 232 BC.
- Arcesilaus, founder of new Academy
- Archimedes of Syracuse, mathematician, physicist, and engineer (c. 287 - 212 BC).
- Manetho, wrote
*History of Egypt* - The Ptolemaic dynasty rules Egypt
- Ptolemy I Soter (305 BC-282 BC) and his wives Eurydice and
- Ptolemy II Philadelphos (284 BC-246 BC) and his wives Arsinoe I and Arsinoe II Philadelphos.
- Ptolemy III Euergetes I (246 BC-222 BC) and his wife Berenice II.
- Ptolemy IV Philopater (222 BC-204 BC) and his wife Arsinoe III.
- Ptolemy V Epiphanes (204 BC-180 BC) and his wife Cleopatra I.

- Eratosthenes (c. 276 - 194 BC), Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer.
- Apollonius of Perga, mathematician (c. 262 - 190 BC).
- Qin Shi Huang, Chinese Emperor (259 - 210 BC, reigned 246 - 210 BC).
- Hannibal, military leader of Carthage (247 - 182 BC).
- the "second" Brennus, Gaulish chieftain, invades Macedonia in 279 BC
- Xun Zi, founder of Legalism (philosophy)
- Zeno of Citium, founder of Stoicism

## [edit] Inventions, discoveries, introductions

- Eratosthenes accurately calculates diameter of the Earth
- Weiqi well-established in China, and may date back to the 2nd millennium BC
- Stone of Canopus (for Ptolemy III), No. 1, in Rosetta Stone Series of 3 stones. Implements Leap year in Egypt. Leap year not formally recognized until Caesar in 55 B.C.
- 293 BC: first Roman Sundial [Pliny (79ce): Natural History 7.213]
- Water screw invented by Archimedes
- Invention of the musical instrument hydraulis, the precursory to the Pipe organ by Ktesibios, a Greek engineer working in Alexandria.

## [edit] Decades and years

Millennium | Century | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

4th BC:
| 40th BC | 39th BC | 38th BC | 37th BC | 36th BC | 35th BC | 34th BC | 33rd BC | 32nd BC | 31st BC |

3rd BC:
| 30th BC | 29th BC | 28th BC | 27th BC | 26th BC | 25th BC | 24th BC | 23rd BC | 22nd BC | 21st BC |

2nd BC:
| 20th BC | 19th BC | 18th BC | 17th BC | 16th BC | 15th BC | 14th BC | 13th BC | 12th BC | 11th BC |

1st BC:
| 10th BC | 9th BC | 8th BC | 7th BC | 6th BC | 5th BC | 4th BC | 3rd BC
| 2nd BC | 1st BC |

1st:
| 1st | 2nd | 3rd | 4th | 5th | 6th | 7th | 8th | 9th | 10th |

2nd:
| 11th | 12th | 13th | 14th | 15th | 16th | 17th | 18th | 19th | 20th |

3rd:
| 21st | 22nd | 23rd | 24th | 25th | 26th | 27th | 28th | 29th | 30th |

4th:
| 31st | 32nd | 33rd | 34th | 35th | 36th | 37th | 38th | 39th | 40th |

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