Learn more about October 19
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October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 73 days remaining in the year on this date.
- 202 BC - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal.
- 439 - The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa.
- 1216 - King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.
- 1453 - The French recapture of Bordeaux brings the Hundred Years' War to a close, with the English retaining only Calais on French soil.
- 1466 - The Thirteen Years' War ends with the Second Treaty of Toruń. Gdansk Pomerania and Prussia as a whole are incorporated into Poland; the Teutonic Knights are allowed to rule its eastern part as Polish vassals.
- 1469 - Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile, a marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country, Spain.
- 1512 - Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia).
- 1781 - At Yorktown, Virginia, British commander Lord Cornwallis surrendered to a Franco-American force led by George Washington and the comte de Rochambeau, paving the way for the end of the American Revolutionary War.
- 1789 - Chief Justice John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
- 1812 - Napoleon I of France retreats from Moscow.
- 1813 - The Battle of Leipzig concludes, giving Napoleon Bonaparte one of his worst defeats.
- 1822 - In Parnaíba; Simplício Dias da Silva, João Cândido de Deus e Silva and Domingos Dias declare the independent state of Piauí.
- 1864 - Battle of Cedar Creek - Union Army under Philip Sheridan destroys Confederate Army under Jubal Early.
- 1864 - Confederate raiders launch an attack on Saint Albans, Vermont from Canada.
- 1873 - Yale, Princeton, Columbia, and Rutgers universities draft the first code of American football rules.
- 1912 - Italy takes possession of Tripoli, Libya from the Ottoman Empire.
- 1914 - The First Battle of Ypres begins.
- 1917 - Love Field in Dallas, Texas is opened.
- 1921 - Portuguese Prime Minister António Granjo and other politicians are murdered in a Lisbon coup.
- 1933 - Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.
- 1935 - The League of Nations places economic sanctions on fascist Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia.
- 1943 - Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
- 1944 - United States forces land in the Philippines.
- 1950 - The military of the People's Republic of China takes control of the town of Chamdo in eastern Tibet.
- 1952 - John Bamford, aged 15, rescues victims of a house fire and becomes the youngest person to have been awarded the George Cross.
- 1953 - Arthur Godfrey fires Julius LaRosa live on American national TV.
- 1954 - First ascent of Cho Oyu
- 1960 - The United States government decides to place an embargo on Communist Cuba.
- 1969 - The first Prime Minister of Tunisia in twelve years, Bahi Ladgham, is appointed by President Habib Bourguiba.
- 1973 - President Richard Nixon rejects an Appeals Court demand to turn over the Watergate tapes.
- 1974 - Niue becomes independent from New Zealand
- 1976 - Battle of Aishiya in Lebanon.
- 1976 - Chimpanzee placed in list of endangered species.
- 1982 - John De Lorean is arrested for trafficking in cocaine (later acquitted).
- 1983 - Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada, is overthrown and executed in a military coup d'état led by Bernard Coard.
- 1985 - The first Blockbuster Video store opens in Dallas, Texas.
- 1986 - Samora Machel, President of Mozambique and a prominent leader of FRELIMO, and 33 others died when their Tupolev 134 plane crashed into the Lebombo Mountains.
- 1987 - In retaliation for Iranian attacks on ships in the Persian Gulf, the U.S. Navy disables three of Iran's offshore oil platforms.
- 1987 - (Black Monday) Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 22%.
- 1989 - Guildford Four convictions are quashed by the Court of Appeal - they had spent 15 years in prison through a miscarriage of justice.
- 1991 - 7.0 Richter Scale earthquake in Northern Italy - 2000 dead
- 1994 - New Zealand's Goodnight Kiwi says good night for the last time.
- 1994 - a suicide bomber exploded on the Line 5 bus killing himself and 25 civilians in Tel Aviv.
- 1998 - The Earth Liberation Front sets fire to the Vail Mountain ski resort in Vail, Colorado, causing $12 million in damage.
- 2001 - SIEV-X, an Indonesian fishing boat en-route to Christmas Island, carrying over 400 asylum seekers, sank in international waters with the loss of 353 people.
- 2003 - Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II.
- 2003 - David Blaine finally ended his 44-day endurance stunt of being sealed inside a transparent case suspended 30 feet in the air over Potters Fields Park, located in London.
- 2004 - Myanmar prime minister Khin Nyunt is ousted and placed under house arrest by the Thai government on charges of corruption.
- 2004 - Alain Robert dons a Spider-Man costume and climbs a building.
- 2005 - Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.
- 2005 - Hurricane Wilma becomes the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record with a minimum pressure of 882 mb.
- 2005 - The last Major League Baseball game is played at Busch Memorial Stadium.
- 2006 - The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the 12,000 mark for the first time.
- 1276 - Prince Hisaaki, Japanese shogun (d. 1328)
- 1433 - Marsilio Ficino, Italian philosopher (d. 1499)
- 1562 - Archbishop George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1633)
- 1582 - Dmitry Ivanovich, Tsarevich (d. 1591)
- 1605 - Thomas Browne, English writer (d. 1682)
- 1610 - James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, English statesman and soldier (d. 1688)
- 1658 - Adolf Friedrich II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1704)
- 1680 - John Abernethy, Irish Protestant minister (d. 1740)
- 1688 - William Cheselden, English surgeon and anatomist (d. 1752)
- 1718 - Victor-François, 2nd duc de Broglie, Marshal of France (d. 1804)
- 1720 - John Woolman, American Quaker preacher and abolitionist (d. 1772)
- 1721 - Joseph de Guignes, French orientalist (d. 1800)
- 1784 - John McLoughlin, Canadian fur trader (d. 1857)
- 1810 - Cassius Marcellus Clay, American abolitionist (d. 1903)
- 1851 - Empress Myeongseong, Empress of Korea (d.1895)
- 1858 - George Albert Boulenger, Belgian naturalist (d. 1937)
- 1862 - Auguste Lumière, French inventor (d. 1954)
- 1873 - Jaap Eden, Dutch skater and cyclist (d. 1925)
- 1876 - Mordecai Brown, Baseball player (d. 1945)
- 1885 - Charles Merrill, American investment banker (d. 1956)
- 1895 - Lewis Mumford, American historian (d. 1990)
- 1896 - Bob O'Farrell, baseball player (d. 1988)
- 1897 - Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Pakistani scientist and scholar (d. 1994)
- 1899 - Miguel Ángel Asturias, Guatemalan writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1974)
- 1900 - Bill Ponsford, Australian cricketer (d. 1991)
- 1900 - Roy Worters, Canadian ice hockey goaltender (d. 1957)
- 1901 - Arleigh Burke, Naval commander (d. 1996)
- 1907 - Roger Wolfe Kahn, American bandleader (d. 1962)
- 1908 - Geirr Tveitt, Norwegian composer (d. 1981)
- 1909 - Cozy Cole, American jazz drummer (d. 1981)
- 1910 - Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Indian-born physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1995)
- 1910 - Paul Robert, French lexicographer and publisher (d. 1980)
- 1913 - Vinicius de Moraes, Brazilian poet and songwriter (d. 1980)
- 1916 - Jean Dausset, French immunologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- 1916 - Emil Gilels, Ukrainian pianist (d. 1985)
- 1922 - Jack Anderson, American journalist (d. 2005)
- 1926 - Joel Feinberg, American moral philosopher (d. 2004)
- 1926 - Arne Bendiksen, Norwegian singer and songwriter
- 1931 - John le Carré, English novelist
- 1932 - Robert Reed, American actor (d. 1992)
- 1937 - Peter Max, American artist
- 1937 - Marilyn Bell, Canadian long distance swimmer
- 1940 - Michael Gambon, Irish actor
- 1941 - Simon Ward, British actor
- 1942 - Andrew Vachss, American author and attorney
- 1944 - Peter Tosh, Jamaican musician, political activist (d. 1987)
- 1944 - George McCrae, American soul singer
- 1945 - Divine, American actor (d. 1988)
- 1945 - Patricia Ireland, President of the NOW
- 1945 - John Lithgow, American actor
- 1945 - Jeannie C. Riley American country and gospel singer
- 1946 - Philip Pullman, English writer
- 1947 - Giorgio Cavazzano, comics artist and illustrator
- 1948 - Pat Simmons, American musician (The Doobie Brothers)
- 1956 - Carlo Urbani, Italian physician (d. 1993)
- 1957 - Ray Richmond, entertainment/media columnist
- 1960 - Jonathan FeBland English musician, writer and artist
- 1962 - Tracy Chevalier, American author
- 1962 - Evander Holyfield, American boxer
- 1964 - Jorge Luis Gonzales, Cuban-born American boxer
- 1965 - Ty Pennington, American television carpenter
- 1966 - Jon Favreau, American actor, writer and director
- 1969 - Trey Parker, American cartoonist, comedian, writer, and actor
- 1970 - Chris Kattan, American comedian and actor
- 1972 - Pras, American musician
- 1972 - Keith Foulke, American baseball pitcher
- 1976 - Michael Young, baseball player
- 1976 - Desmond Harrington, American actor
- 1978 - Enrique Bernoldi, Brazilian Formula One driver
- 1980 - Benjamin Salisbury, American actor
- 1981 - Heikki Kovalainen, Finnish Formula One driver
- 1990 - Janet Leon, Swedish singer (Play)
- 727 - Saint Frideswide
- 1187 - Pope Urban III
- 1216 - King John
- 1432 - John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, English politician (b. 1392)
- 1587 - Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1541)
- 1608 - Martin Delrio, Flemish theologian and occultist (b. 1551)
- 1636 - Marcin Kazanowski, Polish politician
- 1682 - Thomas Browne, English writer (b. 1605)
- 1723 - Godfrey Kneller, German-born painter (b. 1646)
- 1745 - Jonathan Swift, Irish author (b. 1667)
- 1790 - Lyman Hall, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1724)
- 1813 - Józef Antoni Poniatowski, Polish prince and Marshal of France (friendly fire) (b. 1763)
- 1851 - Marie Thérèse Charlotte (b. 1778)
- 1889 - King Louis of Portugal (b. 1838)
- 1897 - George Pullman, American inventor and industrialist (b. 1831)
- 1901 - Carl Frederik Tietgen, Danish financier and industrialist (b. 1829)
- 1918 - Harold Lockwood, American actor (b. 1887)
- 1936 - Lu Xun, Chinese writer (b. 1881)
- 1937 - Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, New Zealand physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (b. 1871)
- 1943 - Camille Claudel, French sculptor (b. 1864)
- 1950 - Edna St. Vincent Millay, American poet (b. 1892)
- 1956 - Isham Jones, American musician (b. 1894)
- 1960 - George Wallace, Australian vaudevillian and film comedian (b. 1895)
- 1973 - Walt Kelly, American cartoonist (b. 1913)
- 1983 - Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada (b. 1944)
- 1985 - Alfred Rouleau, French Canadian businessman (b. 1915)
- 1986 - Dele Giwa, Nigerian Journalist.
- 1986 - Samora Machel, President of Mozambique (b. 1933)
- 1987 - Jacqueline Du Pré, English cellist (b. 1945)
- 1987 - Hermann Lang, German race car driver (b. 1909)
- 1988 - Son House, American musician (b. 1902)
- 1992 - Arthur Wint, Jamaican runner (b. 1920)
- 1994 - Martha Raye, American comedian and actress (b. 1916)
- 1995 - Don Cherry, American jazz trumpet player (b. 1936)
- 1997 - Glen Buxton, American guitarist (b. 1947)
- 1999 - Nathalie Sarraute, Russian-born French writer (b. 1900)
- 1999 - James C. Murray, American politician (b. 1917)
- 2003 - Faith Fancher, American television journalist and activist (b. 1950)
- 2003 - Alija Izetbegovic, President of Bosnia-Herzegovina (b. 1925)
- 2003 - Margaret Murie, American conservationist (b. 1902)
- 2003 - Michael Hegstrand, American professional wrestler (b. 1957)
- 2004 - Kenneth E. Iverson, Canadian computer scientist (b. 1920)
- 2005 - Dallas Cook, American musician (Suburban Legends) (b. 1982)
 Holidays and observances
 External links
October 18 - October 20 - September 19 - November 19 - more historical anniversaries
es:19 de octubre
eo:19-a de oktobro
fur:19 di Otubar
ga:19 Deireadh Fómhair
gl:19 de outubro
io:19 di oktobro
ia:19 de octobre
nap:19 'e ottovre
pt:19 de Outubro
scn:19 di uttùviru
vi:19 tháng 10
wa:19 d' octôbe