Learn more about 1930s
|Centuries:||19th century - 20th century - 21st century|
|Decades:||1900s 1910s 1920s - 1930s - 1940s 1950s 1960s|
|Years:||1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939|
 Events and trends
The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. The decade started off well, with the stock market rising again early in 1930. However, late in 1930 stocks and the economy went down once again and this time it didn't get better. People began to feel the effects of the Depression in 1931 and it got progressively worse until it reached the low point in 1933. The gloomy conditions that arose led to a religious revival and the rise of conservatism that rejected the liberalism of the 1920s, which began to be viewed as a decade of "sin." After 1933, the economy began a gradual recovery which wouldn't reach the level of prosperity of 1930 until the second World War. In Australia, this decade was known as the Dirty Thirties. In both Central Europe and Eastern Europe, Fascism, Nazism, and Stalinism dominated as the solution adopting war-oriented economic policies such as Stalin's Five Year Plans, all of them described as totalitarian regimes. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred.
In Western Europe, Australia and the United States, more progressive reforms occurred as opposed to the extreme measures sought elsewhere. Roosevelt's New Deal attempted to use government spending to combat large-scale unemployment and severely negative growth. Ultimately, it would be the beginning of World War II in 1939 that would end the depression.
- Ub Iwerks produces the first Color Sound Cartoon in 1930, a Flip the Frog cartoon entitled: "Fiddlesticks."
- Warner Brothers releases the first All-Talking All-Color wide-screen movie, Song of the Flame, in 1930. In 1930 alone, Warner Brother releases ten All-Color All-Talking feature movies in Technicolor and scores of shorts and features with color sequences.
- Air mail service across the Atlantic began
- RADAR invented
- First BBC television broadcast.
- In 1931, RCA Victor introduces the first long-playing phonograph record.
- Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann
- Pluto (which is now a dwarf planet), is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh
- British biochemoheliologist Arthur Tansley coins term "ecosystem"
- New and safer method for blood transfusions.
 War, peace and politics
- Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism
- Rise to power of Adolf Hitler and Nazism in Germany.
- In the Soviet Union, agricultural collectivization and rapid industralization take place, and the Great Purge occurs, in which much of the Soviet political and military establishment is eliminated
- Almost all of Continental Europe moves to Authoritarianism or Totalitarianism
- Éamon de Valera introduces a new constitution for the Irish Free State, effectively ending its status as a British Dominion.
- Starts or continue the Estado Novo in Brazil and Portugal.
- Advent of the modern welfare state in New Zealand and Sweden.
- The Empire of Japan invades China as a precursor to Japanese invasions in Southeast Asia
- The Spanish Civil War
- Start of World War II in Asia and Europe
- Worldwide Great Depression
 Literature and Art
- W. H. Auden publishes Poems
- Zora Neale Hurston publishes Their Eyes Were Watching God
- To Kill a Mockingbird Written by Harper Lee and is set in this time frame.
 Popular Culture
- Radio becomes dominant mass media in industrial nations
- "Golden Age" of radio begins in U.S.
- First intercontinental commercial airline flights
- Height of the Art Deco movement in Europe and the US
- The Wizard of Oz
- "Swing" music starts becoming popular (from 1935 onward). It gradually replaces the sweet form of Jazz that had been popular for the first half of the decade.
- Flip the Frog becomes the first cartoon character to star in a color (Technicolor) cartoon in sound.
- Oswald the Rabbit appears in a color cartoon sequence within the lavish all-Technicolor musical revue feature The King of Jazz (1930). Bing Crosby also makes his first appearance in color in this film.
- Betty Boop and Bosko (the last star of the Looney Tunes series) debut in 1930.
- Scrappy, Merrie Melodies and the original Tom & Jerry debut in 1931.
- Popeye the Sailor and Willie Whopper debut in 1933.
- The Phantom debuts in 1936, influencing many generations of new superhero characters.
- Superman debuts in 1938.
- Russ Columbo, one of the most popular singers of the decade, accidentally dies in 1934.
- Triumph of the Will
- In 1932 the Cipher Bureau broke the German Enigma cipher and overcame the ever-growing structural and operating complexities of the evolving Enigma with plugboard, the main German cipher device during World War II.
- U.S. presidential candidate Huey Long assassinated (1935).
- Board of Temperance Strategy established in U.S. to fight repeal of prohibition
- Prohibition strengthens criminal groups in the U.S.; gangsters, such as Al Capone, extend their influence
- Southern Great Plains devastated by decades-long Dust Bowl
- German dirigible Hindenburg is destroyed by fire, killing 36 (1937).
- The New London School in New London, Texas is destroyed by an explosion, killing in excess of 300 students and teachers (1937).
 World leaders
- Prime Minister James Scullin (Australia)
- Prime Minister Joseph Lyons (Australia)
- Prime Minister Sir Earle Page (Australia)
- President Getúlio Vargas (Brazil)
- Prime Minister Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett (Canada)
- Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King (Canada)
- President Chiang Kai-shek (China)
- President Lin Sen (China)
- King Fuad I (Egypt, Sudan, Nubia, Kordofan & Darfur)
- Taoiseach Eamon de Valera (Éire)
- Emperor Haile Selassie I (Ethiopia)
- President Paul von Hindenburg (Germany)
- Führer Adolf Hitler (Germany)
- Shah Reza Shah (Iran)
- King Faisal I (Iraq)
- King Ghazi (Iraq)
- King Faisal II (Iraq)
- President W.T. Cosgrave (Irish Free State)
- President Eamon de Valera (Irish Free State)
- King Victor Emmanuel III (Italy)
- Prime Minister Benito Mussolini (Italy)
- Emperor Hirohito (Japan)
- Emir Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (Kuwait)
- Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar (Portugal)
- Sultan Mohammed V (Morocco)
- Prime Minister Michael Joseph Savage (New Zealand)
- Prime Minister James Barry Munnik Hertzog (South Africa)
- General Secretary Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)
- President Alcalá Zamora (Spain)
- Prime Minister Manuel Azaña (Spain)
- Prime Minister Alejandro Lerroux (Spain)
- President Hashim al-Atassi (Syria)
- President Bahij al-Khatib (Syria)
- Bey (Crown Prince) Ahmad II (Tunisia)
- President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (Turkey)
- King George V (United Kingdom)
- King Edward VIII (United Kingdom)
- King George VI (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (United Kingdom)
- President Herbert Hoover (United States)
- President Franklin D. Roosevelt (United States)
- Holy Father Pope Pius XI (Vatican)
- Abe Lyman
- Al Jolson
- Anson Weeks
- Arthur Jarrett
- Arthur Tracy
- Bebe Daniels
- Belle Baker
- Ben Bernie
- Barbara Stanwyck
- Bela Lugosi
- Ben Lyon
- Bing Crosby
- Boris Karloff
- Carole Lombard
- Clara Bow
- Dick Powell
- Duke Ellington
- Edmund Lowe
- Edward Everett Horton
- Edward G. Robinson
- Eddie Cantor
- Fay Wray
- Frank Fay
- Fred Astaire
- Fred Rich
- George Arliss
- George Raft
- Ginger Rogers
- Glenda Farrell
- George Burns and Gracie Allen
- Gus Arnheim
- Harold Lloyd
- Harry Reser
- Jack Buchanan
- Jack Denny
- James Cagney
- Jean Harlow
- Jeanette MacDonald
- Joan Blondell
- Joe E. Brown
- John Boles
- Kate Smith
- Katharine Hepburn
- Lee Tracy
- Leo Reisman
- Leon Erroll
- Louis Armstrong
- The Marx Brothers
- Maurice Chevalier
- Morton Downey
- Nick Lucas
- Noah Beery
- Paul Whiteman
- Ramon Novarro
- Ricardo Cortez
- Richard Barthelmess
- Ronald Colman
- Rudy Vallee
- Russ Columbo
- Ruth Etting
- Ted Black
- Thelma Todd
- Sam Lanin
- Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy
- Carl Stuart Hamblen
- Judy Garland
- Warner Baxter
- Warren Williams
- Wayne King
- Whitey's Lindy Hoppers
- Will Osborne
- Will Rogers
- William Haines
- William Powell
- Winnie Lightner
- Vincent Lopez
 Sports figures
 British Commonwealth
- Cliff Bastin (English footballer)
- Donald Bradman (Australian cricketer)
- Bill "Dixie" Dean (English footballer)
- Jack Dyer (Australian rules football player)
- Walter Hammond (English cricketer)
- Eddie Hapgood (English footballer)
- George Headley (West Indies cricketer)
- Alex James (Scottish footballer)
- Douglas Jardine (English cricketer)
- Harold Larwood (English cricketer)
- Jack Lovelock (New Zealand runner)
- Fred Perry (English tennis player)
- Jessica Black
 United States
- James J. Braddock (boxing)
- Mickey Cochrane (baseball)
- Dizzy Dean (baseball)
- Joe DiMaggio (baseball)
- Jimmie Foxx (baseball)
- Lou Gehrig (baseball)
- Charlie Gehringer (baseball)
- Hank Greenberg (baseball)
- Gabby Hartnett (baseball)
- Carl Hubbell (baseball)
- Joe Louis (boxing)
- Jesse Owens (track and field)
- Babe Ruth (baseball)
- Seabiscuit (Horse racing)
 External links
- The Dirty Thirties — Images of the Great Depression in Canada
- The 1930s in film — An assortment of movies set in the 1930sast:Años 1930
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