Learn more about 1918
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|Years:||1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921|
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|Establishments - Disestablishments|
- January 25 - The Ukrainian People's Republic declared independence from Bolshevik Russia
- January 27 — Breakout of the Finnish Civil War
- February 16 — Lithuania declares its independence from the Russian Empire.
- February 24 — Estonia declares its independence from the Russian Empire. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia also declare their independence from the Russian Empire but as the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic.
- March 1 — German submarine U 19 sinks HMS Calgarian off Rathlin Island, Northern Ireland.
- March 3 — World War I: Germany, Austria and Bolshevist Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ending Russia's involvement in the war.
- March 5 — The Soviet Russia moves its national capital from Petrograd to Moscow
- March 6 — Finnish Air Force founded. The blue swastika is adopted as its symbol as a tribute to the Swedish explorer and aviator Eric von Rosen who donated the first plane. Von Rosen had painted the Buddhist symbol on the plane as his personal lucky insignia.
- March 7 — World War I: Finland forms an alliance with Germany.
- March 12 – Moscow becomes the capital of Soviet Russia
- March 19 — The U.S. Congress establishes time zones and approves daylight saving time (DST went into effect on March 31).
- March 21 — World War I: Second Battle of the Somme begins
- March 23 — The giant German cannon, the so called Paris Gun begins to shell Paris from 114 km (75 miles) away
- March 23 — In London at the Wood Green Empire, Chung Ling Soo (William E Robinson, US-born magician) dies during his trick where he was supposed to "catch" two separate bullets – one of them perforates his lung. He dies the following morning in hospital.
- March 23 — The Social Revolutionary Party declares Belarus independent; Bolshevik armies soon crush them
- March 25 — for the first time Belarus declares independence.
- April 1 — The Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service are merged to form the Royal Air Force.
- May 1 — German troops enter Don province — they take Rostov May 6
- May 2 — General Motors acquires the Chevrolet Motor Company of Delaware.
- May 15 — The Post Office Department (later renamed the USPS) begins the first regular airmail service in the world (between New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, DC).
- May 16 — The Sedition Act of 1918 is approved by US Congress.
- May 26 — The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic is abolished. Georgia declares its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
- May 28 — Armenia and Azerbaijan declare their independence as the Democratic Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic respectively.
- June 1 — World War I: Battle for Belleau Wood begins.
- July 3— The Siberian Expedition is launched to extract the Czechoslovak Legion from the Russian civil war.
- July 4 — Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Mehmed V (Resad) (1909-1918) to Mehmed VI (Vahdettin) (1918-1922)
- July 9 — Great train wreck of 1918: In Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express killing 101.
- July 13 — The National Czechoslovak Committee was established.
- July 15 — World War I: Second Battle of the Marne — The battle begins near the River Marne with a German attack.
- July 17 — By order of the Bolshevik Party and carried out by Cheka, Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, his immediate family, and retainers were murdered at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg, Russia.
- August — "Spanish Flu" Influenza becomes pandemic; over twenty-five million people die in the following six months (almost two times as many as died during the war).
- August 1 — British anti-Bolshevik forces occupy Archangel, Russia. August 10 commander is told to help White Russians
- August 1 — Emma Susan Daugherty Banister becomes the first female sheriff in the United States following the death of her husband, John Riley Banister.
- August 8 — World War I: Battle of Amiens — Canadian troops, backed by Australians, begin a string of almost continuous victories with a push through the German front lines. German General Erich Ludendorff will later call this the "black day of the German army."
- August 30 — Strike of 20,000 London policemen with demands of increased pay and union recognition.
- August 30 — Fanya Kaplan tries to shoot Lenin. Petrograd head of Cheka is assassinated the same day.
- September 11 — The Boston Red Sox defeat the Chicago Cubs for the 1918 World Series championship, their last World Series win until 2004.
- September 28 — Don Voisko adopts a constitution including declaration of independence. Collapse of Imperial Germany makes it void
- October 3 — Kaiser makes Max von Baden German chancellor.
- October 8 — World War I — In the Argonne Forest in France, US Corporal Alvin C. York almost single-handedly kills 25 German soldiers and captures 132.
- October 18 — The city of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico was nearly destroyed by an earthquake and a tsunami.
- October 18 — Washington Declaration proclaimed the independent Czechoslovak Republic.
- October 25 — The Princess Sophia sinks on Vanderbilt Reef near Juneau, Alaska, 353 people die in the greatest maritime disaster in the Pacific Northwest.
- October 28 — Czecho-Slovakia declares its independence on Austria-Hungary.
- October 28 — New Polish government in Western Galicia (Central Europe)
- October 30 — Martin Declaration was published demanding embodying Slovakia into the forming Czecho-Slovak state.
- October 30 - Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen declares independence from the Ottoman Empire.
- November 1 — Malbone Street Wreck: the worst rapid transit accident in world history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, New York City, with at least 93 dead.
- November 1 — Ruthenia in eastern Czechoslovakia declares brief independence
- November 3 — World War I: Austria-Hungary enters an armistice with the Allies.
- November 3 — Poland declares its independence from Russia.
- November 4 — World War I: Austria-Hungary surrenders to Italy.
- November 4 — Mutiny in the German fleet at Kiel begin the German Revolution.
- November 6 — A new Polish government is proclaimed in Lublin.
- November 8 — German army withdraws its support of the Kaiser
- November 9 — Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates and chooses to live in exile in the Netherlands.
- November 9 — Provisional National Council Minister-President Kurt Eisner declares Bavaria to be a republic.
- November 11 — World War I ends: Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car outside of Compiègne in France.
- November 11 — Poland regains independence after 123 years of partitions. Józef Piłsudski is appointed Commander-in-Chief.
- November 11 — Emperor Charles I of Austria abdicates.
- November 12 — Austria becomes a republic.
- November 14 — Czechoslovakia becomes a republic.
- November 14 — Józef Piłsudski is appointed head of state of Poland
- November 16 — Hungary declares independence from Austria
- November 16 — Hungarian People's Republic declared
- November 18 — Latvia declares its independence from Russia.
- November 22 — Spartacist League founds German Communist Party
- November 22 — Belgian royal family returns to Brussels after the war
- November 26 — the Podgorica Assembly voted for "union of the people", declaring a joining into the Kingdom of Serbia
- November 28 – Soviet Russia invades Estonia.
- December 1 — Iceland becomes a self-governing kingdom, yet remains united with Denmark.
- December 1 — New voting laws in Sweden: votes no longer dependent on taxable assets; one person, one vote.
- December 1 — Proclamation of Union of Alba Iulia. Following the March 27 incorporation of Bessarabia and Bucovina, Transylvania unites with Romania.
- December 1 — The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is proclaimed.
- December 4 — US President Woodrow Wilson sails for the Paris Peace Conference, becoming the first US president to travel to Europe while in office.
- December 20 — Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk returned to the Czechoslovak Republic.
- December 27 — Beginning of Great Poland Uprising, the Poles in Greater Poland (or Grand Duchy of Poznań} rise against the Germans.
- December 28 — Constance Markiewicz becomes the first woman elected to the British House of Commons.
 Unknown dates
- Finnish Civil War between the Reds and the Whites, January — April.
- Habsburg Empire ceases to exist.
- Grand Duchy of Baden ceases to exist.
- British occupy Palestine
- Katla erupts in Iceland, 12. October — 4. Nóvember.
- Native American Church is founded.
- Ernest Ansermet founds the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande.
- John Riley Banister becomes sheriff of Coleman County, Texas.
- Clifton Hillegass, American author born (d. 2001)
- Association Against the Prohibition Amendment founded to promote repeal of prohibition in U.S.
- United Business Media founded in London (as United Newspapers Ltd.)
 Ongoing events
- Ethnic cleansing in Turkey:
- January 1 - Patrick Anthony Porteous, Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross (d. 2000)
- January 10 - Arthur Chung, President of Guyana
- January 15 - Gamal Abdal Nasser, President of Egypt (d. 1970)
- January 16 - Nel Benschop, Dutch poet (d. 2005)
- January 16 - Stirling Silliphant, American writer and producer (d. 1996)
- January 19 - John H. Johnson, American publisher (d. 2005)
- January 20 - Esquivel, Mexican musician (d. 2002)
- January 21 - Richard D. Winters, U.S. Army officer
- January 23 - Gertrude B. Elion, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1999)
- January 25 - Ernie Harwell, American baseball sportscaster
- January 26 - Nicolae Ceauşescu, Romanian dictator (d. 1989)
- January 26 - Philip José Farmer, American writer
- January 27 - Skitch Henderson, English-born musician and bandleader (d. 2005)
- January 29 - John Forsythe, American actor
- February 1 - Muriel Spark, Scottish author (d. 2006)
- February 2 - Hella Haasse, Dutch writer
- February 3 - Helen Stephens, American runner (d. 1994)
- February 6 - Lothar-Günther Buchheim, German author
- February 7 - Markey Robinson, Irish painter (d. 1999)
- February 8 - Fred Blassie, American professional wrestler (d. 2003)
- February 12 - Julian Schwinger, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1994)
- February 16 - Patty Andrews, American singer (The Andrews Sisters)
- February 17 - William Bronk, American poet (d. 1999)
- February 22 - Robert Pershing Wadlow, American record-holder as the tallest man (d. 1940)
- February 25 - Barney Ewell, American athlete (d. 1996)
- February 25 - Bobby Riggs, American tennis player (d. 1995)
- February 26 - Theodore Sturgeon, American writer (d. 1985)
- March 1 - Roger Delgado, British actor (d. 1973)
- March 1 - João Goulart, President of Brazil (d. 1976)
- March 3 - Arthur Kornberg, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- March 3 - Fritz Thiedemann, German equestrian (d. 2000)
- March 5 - James Tobin, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2002)
- March 9 - George Lincoln Rockwell, American Nazi leader (d. 1967)
- March 9 - Mickey Spillane, American writer (d. 2006)
- March 11 - Jack Coe, American evangelist (d. 1956)
- March 12 - Elaine de Kooning, American artist (d. 1989)
- March 16 - Frederick Reines, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
- March 17 - Mercedes McCambridge, American actress (d. 2004)
- March 18 - Al Benton, baseball player (d. 1968)
- March 18 - Bob Broeg, American sports writer (d. 2005)
- March 22 - Cheddi Jagan, President of Guyana (d. 1997)
- March 25 - Howard Cosell, American attorney, lecturer, and sports journalist (d. 1995)
- March 29 - Pearl Bailey, American singer and actress (d. 1990)
- April 9 - Jørn Utzon, Danish architect
- April 16 - Spike Milligan, Irish comedian (died 2002)
- April 17 - William Holden, American actor (d. 1981)
- April 20 - Kai Siegbahn, Swedish physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
- April 22 - Mickey Vernon, baseball player
- April 26 - Fanny Blankers-Koen, Dutch athlete (d. 2004)
- May 1 - Jack Paar, American television show host (d. 2004)
- May 3 - Benjamin C. Thompson, American architect (d. 2002)
- May 9 - Mike Wallace, American journalist
- May 9 - Orville L. Freeman, American politician (d. 2003)
- May 11 - Richard Feynman, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1988)
- May 12 - Julius Rosenberg, American-born Soviet spy (d. 1953)
- May 15 - Eddy Arnold, American singer
- May 16 - Wilf Mannion, English footballer (d. 2000)
- May 17 - Birgit Nilsson, Swedish soprano (d. 2005)
- May 19 - Abraham Pais, Dutch-born American physicist (d. 2000)
- May 20 - Edward B. Lewis, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
- June 6 - Edwin G. Krebs, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- June 18 - Jerome Karle, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
- June 18 - Franco Modigliani, Italian-born economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003)
- July 4 - Ann Landers, American advice columnist (d. 2002)
- July 4 - Abigail Van Buren, American advice columnist and twin sister to Ann Landers
- July 4 - Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, King of Tonga (d. 2006)
- July 5 - George Rochberg, American composer (d. 2005)
- July 9 - Jarl Wahlström, Salvation Army general (d. 1999)
- July 13 - Alberto Ascari, Italian race car driver (d. 1955)
- July 14 - Ingmar Bergman Swedish film director
- July 15 - Bertram N. Brockhouse, Canadian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003)
- July 17 - Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio, President of Guatemala (d. 2003)
- July 18 - Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
- July 24 - Ruggiero Ricci, Italian-born violinist
- July 25 - Jane Frank, American artist (d. 1986)
- July 27 - Leonard Rose, American cellist (d. 1984)
- July 29 - Edwin O'Connor, American novelist and Pulitzer Prize for Fiction winner (d. 1968)
- July 31 - Paul D. Boyer, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
- August 3 - Sidney Gottlieb, American Central Intelligence Agency official (d. 1999)
- August 5 - Betty Oliphant, co-founder of National Ballet of Canada (d. 2004)
- August 8 - Brian Stonehouse, English painter and World War II spy (d. 1998)
- August 13 - Frederick Sanger, English biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate
- August 25 - Leonard Bernstein, American composer and conductor (d. 1990)
- August 30 - Ted Williams, American baseball player (d. 2002)
- September 4 - Paul Harvey, American radio broadcaster
- September 8 - Derek Harold Richard Barton, British chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
- September 22 - Henryk Szeryng, Polish-born violinist (d. 1988)
- September 27 - Martin Ryle, English radio astronomer, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics (d. 1984)
- October 4 - Kenichi Fukui, Japanese chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
- October 8 - Jens Christian Skou, Danish chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
- October 17 - Rita Hayworth, American actress (d. 1987)
- October 19 - Louis Althusser, French philosopher (d. 1990)
- October 27 – Mihkel Mathiesen, Estonian statesman (d. 2003)
- October 27 - Teresa Wright, American actress (d. 2005)
- October 31 - Ian Stevenson, American parapsychologist
- November 3 - Russell B. Long, U.S. Senator from Louisiana (d. 2003)
- November 4 - Art Carney, American actor (d. 2003)
- November 9 - Spiro Agnew, American Vice President (d. 1996)
- November 10 - Ernst Otto Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
- November 13 - Jack Elam, American actor (d. 2003)
- November 29 - Madeleine L'Engle, American author
- December 8 - Gérard Souzay, French baritone (d. 2004)
- December 9 - Jerome Beatty, Jr., author of children's literature (d. 2002)
- December 11 - Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Russian writer, Nobel Prize laureate
- December 12 - Joe Williams, American jazz singer (d. 1999)
- December 15 - Jeff Chandler, American actor (d. 1961)
- December 21 - Donald Regan, Chief of Staff and U.S. Treasury Secretary (d. 2003)
- December 21 - Kurt Waldheim, President of Austria and Secretary-General of the United Nations
- December 23 - José Greco, Italian-born flamenco dancer (d. 2001)
- December 23 - Helmut Schmidt Chancellor of Germany
- December 25 - Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1981)
- January 6 - Georg Cantor, German mathematician (b. 1845)
- January 9 - Émile Reynaud, French science teacher and maker of the first animated films (b. 1844)
- January 28 - John McCrae, Canadian soldier and poet (b. 1872)
- February 6 - Gustav Klimt, Austrian painter (b. 1862)
- February 10 - Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Italian pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1833)
- March 10 - Jim McCormick, Baseball player (b. 1856)
- March 13 - César Cui, Lithuanian composer (b. 1835)
- March 25 - Claude Debussy, French composer (b. 1862)
- March 27 - Henry Adams, American historian (b. 1838)
- April 20 - Karl Ferdinand Braun, German phyicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1850)
- April 21 - Manfred von Richthofen, "Red Baron", German World War I pilot (b, 1892)
- April 28 - Gavrilo Princip, Assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (b. 1894)
- May 14 - James Gordon Bennett, Jr., American newspaper publisher (b. 1841)
- May 19 - Raoul Lufbery, American World War I pilot (b. 1885)
- June 10 - Arrigo Boito, Italian poet and composer (b. 1842)
- July 3 - Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1844)
- July 17 (N.S.) - Family of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia (b. 1868)
- July 22 - Indra Lal Roy, Indian World War I pilot (killed in combat) (b. 1898)
- August 1 - John Riley Banister, American law officer, cowboy, and Texas Ranger (b. 1854)
- August 18 - Henry Norwest, Canadian World War I sniper (b. 1884)
- September 7 - Hector Sanchez, early wrestler in the Lucha Libre style (b. 1884)
- September 12 - George Reid, fourth Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1845)
- September 28 - Georg Simmel, German sociologist and philosopher (b. 1858)
- October 5 - Roland Garros, French pilot (shot down) (b. 1888)
- October 15 - Shirdi Sai Baba, Indian guru and fakir (b. circa 1838)
- October 22 - Myrtle Gonzalez, American stage and screen actress (b. 1891)
- November 4 - Wilfred Owen, English poet (killed in action) (b. 1893)
- November 9 - Guillaume Apollinaire, French poet (b. 1880)
- November 19 - Joseph Fielding Smith, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (b. 1838)
- December 11 - Ivan Cankar, Slovenian writer (b. 1876)
- December 28 - Olavo Bilac, Brazilian poet (b. 1865)
 Nobel prizes
- Physics - Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck
- Chemistry - Fritz Haber
- Medicine - not awarded
- Literature - not awarded
- Peace - not awarded
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