List of monarchs of Scotland

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Image:Wappen Schottland.png
The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603


The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. According to tradition, the first King of Scots was Cináed I of Scotland, who founded the state in 843, although this is disputed on a number of different grounds. Some modern historiography would tend to see his grandson Constantine II of Scotland as the creator of the Kingdom of Alba which became known in English as Scotland. The title fell out of use in 1707 when the Kingdom of Scotland merged with the Kingdom of England to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. Thus Queen Anne became the last Queen of Scotland and the first Queen of Great Britain. The two kingdoms had shared a monarch since 1603, and Charles II was the last Scottish monarch to actually be crowned in Scotland, at Scone in 1651.

[edit] Style

By the twelfth century Scotland's monarchs were using both the style rex Scottorum, king of the Scots and rex Scotiae, king of Scotland, in Latin documents. This continued until the 17th century; the last three monarchs before the Act of Union only used the style King or Queen of Scotland. In the high middle ages, the vernacular style seems to have continued to be rí Alban or Ard rí Alban, King of Scotland or High King of Scotland.

[edit] Houses

Although genealogists divide the monarchs of Scotland into "Houses", based on continental European ideas of dynasties, it appears that the kings and queens of Scotland, insofar as they thought about their ultimate origins, traced their descent from Fergus Mór, the legendary founder of Dál Riata said to have flourished in the late 5th century, and from his grandson Gabrán mac Domangairt and brother Loarn mac Eirc. James VI is recorded as saying that he was a "Monarch sprunge of Ferguse race". After the Restoration of 1660, when Jacob de Wet was commissioned to produce portraits of Scotland's past and present rulers for Holyrood Palace, the series began with Fergus Mór.

[edit] List of monarchs of Scotland

[edit] House of Alpin (Ailpean)

  • Kenneth I (Modern Gaelic: Coinneach I mac Alpin; Old Gaelic: Cináed mac Ailpín) (c.843–858)
  • Donald I (Domhnall I; Domnall mac Ailpín) (858–862)
  • Constantine I (Causantín mac Cináeda) (862–877)
  • Áed (Aodh; Áed mac Cináeda) (877–878)

[edit] House of Strathclyde

  • Eochaid (Eochaidh; Eochu) (878–889)

[edit] House of Alpin?

  • Giric (Giric; Giric mac Dúngail) (878–889)

[edit] House of Alpin (Restored)

  • Donald II (Domhnall II; Domnall mac Causantín) (889–890)
  • Constantine II (Causantín mac Áeda) (900–943)
  • Malcolm I (Calum I; Máel Coluim mac Domnaill) (943–954)
  • Indulf (Indulbh; Idulb mac Causantín) (954–962)
  • Dub (Dubh; Dub mac Maíl Choluim) (962–967)
  • Culen (Cuilean; Cuilén mac Iduilb) (967–971)
  • Kenneth II (Coinneach II; Cináed mac Maíl Choluim) (971–?)
  • Amlaíb (Amlaíbh; Amlaíb mac Iduilb) (after 973–977)
  • Kenneth II (Coinneach II; Cináed mac Maíl Choluim) (977–995)
  • Constantine III (Constantín III; Causantín mac Cuilén) (995–997)
  • Kenneth III (Coinneach III; Cináed mac Duib) (997–1005)
  • Malcolm II (Calum II; Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) (1005–1034)

[edit] House of Dunkeld

  • Duncan I (Donnchadh I; Donnchad mac Crínáin) (1034–1040)

[edit] House of Moray

  • MacBeth (MacBeatha; Mac Bethad mac Findláich) (1040–1057)
  • Lulach (Lulach mac Gillai Comgain) (1057–1058)

[edit] House of Dunkeld

Image:Alexander III and Ollamh Rígh.JPG
Coronation of King Alexander III on Moot Hill, Scone. Scottish kings, by ancient tradition, were always supposed to be crowned at Scone.
  • Malcolm III (Calum III; Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) (1058–1093)
  • Donald III (Domhnall III; Domnall mac Donnchada) (1093–1094)
  • Duncan II (Donnchadh II; Donnchad mac Maíl Choluim) (1094)
  • Donald III (Domhnall III; Domnall mac Donnchada) (1094–1097)
  • Edgar (Eagar/Eadgar; Etgair mac Maíl Choluim) (1097–1107)
  • Alexander I (Alasdair I; Alaxandair mac Maíl Choluim) (1107–1124)
  • Saint David I (Daibhidh I; Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim) (1124–1153)
  • Malcolm IV (Calum IV; Máel Coluim mac Enric) (1153–1165)
  • William I (Uilleam I; Uilliam mac Enric) (1165–1214)
  • Alexander II (Alasdair II) (1214–1249)
  • Alexander III (Alasdair III) (1249–1286)

[edit] First Interregnum

Margaret, Maid of Norway, granddaughter of Alexander III, is sometimes considered to have been heiress or Queen from 1286 until her death in 1290, although she never set foot in Scotland and was never crowned at Scone.

[edit] House of Balliol (Bailiol)

  • John (Iain) (1292–1296)

[edit] Second Interregnum

[edit] House of Bruce (Bruis)

[edit] House of Balliol

[edit] House of Stewart

Image:Armoiries Ecosse.png
Arms of Scotland: Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory counterflory gules

[edit] House of Stuart-Lennox

From 1707, the titles King of Scots and Queen of Scots are incorrect. Hence, this list runs up to 1707; for monarchs after that date, see List of British monarchs.

[edit] References

  • An ancient, but useful work of reference for this article up to the year 1383 is John of Fordun's Chronicle of The Scottish Nation edited by W.F. Skene (Edinburgh, 1872)
  • Plantagenet Somerset Fry. The Kings and Queens of England and Scotland. Grove Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8021-1386-9

[edit] See also

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